Mc Call Presentation Lancaster.07

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McCall Presentation ICAME 2009: Deutschmann, Ädel, Garretson and Walker

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Mc Call Presentation Lancaster.07

  1. 1. Introducing Mini-McCALL: A pilot version of the M id-Sweden C orpus of C omputer- A ssisted L anguage L earning Mats Deutschmann, Gregory Garretson, Annelie Ädel, Terry Walker Mid Sweden University
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Part 1: A corpus of online student learning </li></ul><ul><li>Part 2: Building the corpus </li></ul><ul><li>Part 3: Studies underway on the corpus </li></ul><ul><li>Part 4: Conclusion and outlook </li></ul>
  3. 3. Part 1 A corpus of online student learning
  4. 4. Background: Collaborative e-learning <ul><li>CMC: Communication with computers  Communication with others via computers (Kern & Warschauer 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning; Salmon 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Used at Mid-Sweden University since 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Management System = WebCT </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>peer-reviewing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>group discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>group problem-solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>group productions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-reflection </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The call for Mini-McCALL <ul><li>CMC research growing </li></ul><ul><li>But… relatively little linguistic research </li></ul><ul><li>Language is the ‘oil of the collaborative machinery’ </li></ul><ul><li>Investigation needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the role played by language in online education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the efficiency of online communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>language and learning processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With a few exceptions (see for example the LETEC corpus - Chanier, Thierry and Lamy) , there are hardly any CMC corpora based on learner data. </li></ul>
  6. 6. A typical assignment model in the course Individual solutions deposited in discussion group room forums ( student exercises ) Individual reflection ( student memos ) For example: Decide on article use (definite/indefinite/ zero article) and motivate. The/a/zero_ Italian food is healthy. General discussion boards E-mail correspondence Discussion Exercise Reflection Students reflect over how discussions changed their original answers, the group process etc Participant 4 Participant 3 Participant 2 Participant 1
  7. 7. Negotiating meaning in McCALL <ul><li>Message HT04N.D.118 </li></ul><ul><li>Time: Thursday, September 16, 2004 20:03 </li></ul><ul><li>Author: Tina Kock </li></ul><ul><li>Subject: Re: Discussion 2 - Jonna Östeberg </li></ul><ul><li>Hello Jonna! I have an opinion about 1d : &quot;I'll have done it by tonight.&quot; You wrote that will + base form is used here, but &quot;have done&quot; is not the base form of the verb. That's why I think the tense is Future Perfect. The sentence is about an activity that will be completed before a specific time. Am I right? /Tina </li></ul><ul><li>Message HT04N.D.147 </li></ul><ul><li>Time: Saturday, September 18, 2004 10:30 </li></ul><ul><li>Author: Melinda Jensen </li></ul><ul><li>Subject: Re: Discussion 2 - Jonna Östeberg </li></ul><ul><li>OK.... I think you're right! ( I wonder why I thought it was will + base form?), now when you have explained it to me everything seems so clear.... :-) bye Melinda </li></ul>
  8. 8. Part 2 Building the corpus
  9. 9. Overview of Mini-McCALL <ul><li>1-million-word CMC corpus </li></ul><ul><li>From online undergraduate English course </li></ul><ul><li>Written (students-students/teachers) </li></ul><ul><li>4 types of text </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata: sociolinguistic, pedagogical, and textual information </li></ul>
  10. 10. Who’s in the corpus <ul><li>235 students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First-term undergraduates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age ranges from 18 to 57 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>87% L1 Swedish speakers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>79% female, 21% male </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly proficient L2 speakers of English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 male, 1 female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 teacher does the bulk of the teaching </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Age of the students
  12. 12. Composition of the corpus by role and sex Note: duplicate e-mails excluded from counts
  13. 13. What’s in the corpus <ul><li>1,008,000 words of student and teacher writing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plus 470,000 words of repeated e-mails (marked as such) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>8 sections of a full-time 5-week course (Grammar A) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 per term from autumn 2004 to spring 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 types of text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion forum messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student exercises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student memos (reflections) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We have marked up: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>repeated e-mails with attribute: <email duplicate=“yes”> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assignment text with tags: <exer></exer> </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Composition of the corpus by text type Note: duplicate e-mails excluded from counts
  15. 15. 3 kinds of metadata <ul><li>Participant information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group membership, sex, age, language background, activity level, role, final grade (student), teaching experience (teacher) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pedagogical information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Course descriptions, task descriptions, course evaluations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Textual information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of text, date of creation, sequencing information </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Anonymisation of the data <ul><li>Consent from all participants, provided real names withheld </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes first names as well as last names (unlike BNC) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Didn’t want to use placeholders like <NAME> or <F21> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corpus is particularly useful for studies of discourse, group collaboration, ultimate student achievement, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to distinguish and track individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1c. Jonna and Josephine found that &quot;life&quot; is uncountable and that it therefore shouldn't have an article, whilst I and Regina answered that it was a general statement and that it didn't required an article because of that. I agree with the uncountable-statement. Josephine also took up that the word &quot;surprises&quot; is an abstract noun and therefore shouldn't have an article. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Anonymisation of the data <ul><li>Solution: systematic anonymisation of first and last names using Swedish census data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sven Enqvist  J örgen Stenström </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hedda Friberg  Tindra Skoog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student IDs are also anonymized. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. (Dis-)advantages of anonymisation process <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anonymization is almost totally transparent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text remains highly legible and just as easy to process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals still trackable with both name and ID. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender stays the same. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes a lot of work (computational and manual). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to forget it’s anonymized. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Character of names may change (e.g., apparent nationality) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nigel Jones  G öran Lindgren </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But N.B.: Metadata on individuals is available. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The corpus is rife with misspellings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicknames and initials are tricky. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. 3 versions of Mini-McCALL <ul><li>XML version </li></ul><ul><ul><li>best for processing on your own computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HTML version </li></ul><ul><ul><li>best for reading the files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CQPWeb online searchable version </li></ul><ul><ul><li>best for online searching </li></ul></ul>See handout for the URLs!
  20. 20. Part 3 Studies underway on the corpus
  21. 21. Research based on Mini-McCALL <ul><li>Initial exploration of three lines of research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation of language to new technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CMC address phrases in discussion boards (Walker & Anglemark, WIP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural comparison of Italian and Swedish CMC discourse (Deutschmann & Helm, WIP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicative strategies in a collaborative learning environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapport-building in discussion boards (Ädel, WIP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ But” and hedging in written peer-review dialogue (Popaditch, WIP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedagogical aspects of teacher-student communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effect of teacher input—formal versus informal style—on student activity (Deutschmann & Lundmark 2008) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. CMC address phrases in discussion boards <ul><li>Walker & Anglemark, WIP </li></ul><ul><li>A CMC address phrase is defined as a salutation (e.g. Dear Birgitta ) or a vocative (e.g. I agree with you Natanael ) </li></ul><ul><li>The study focuses on the use of CMC address phrases in discussion board messages - compared with that of e-mail and chatroom data from Walker and Anglemark’s Corpus of CMC </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use of CMC address phrases in discussion boards will resemble e-mail (as both types of communication are asynchronous) but also resemble chatroom communication (as both have messages which may be read by the whole group) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use of CMC address phrases in discussion boards will be affected by participant’s role and native language, and teacher input </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. CMC address phrases <ul><li>Results so far: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discussion boards and e-mail favour the same structure of CMC address phrase i.e. first names (e.g. Dear Birgitta ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discussion boards and e-mail favour the same function of CMC address phrase i.e. greetings (e.g. Hello fellow students ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discussion boards and chatrooms favour the same position of CMC address phrase i.e. final position (e.g. Have a nice weekend everybody ! ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a group of students who are native speakers of English, and the teacher, are responsible for there being a larger number of CMC address phrases in one class compared with the other </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Rapport-building in discussion boards <ul><li>Ädel, WIP </li></ul><ul><li>Most research into classroom discourse is based on teacher talk or teacher-student talk, but Mini-McCALL offers an opportunity to examine student-student communication . </li></ul><ul><li>Research question: What linguistic strategies for social interaction are used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in a collaborative learning environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>which is written and asynchronous (discussion boards)? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Model for ‘social interaction’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partly based on Tannen (1990:77) and Spencer-Oatey (2000:3), the present study defines rapport-building as communicative acts promoting social concord . </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Rapport-building <ul><li>Qualitative aim of study: to create a taxonomy of rapport-building linguistic units based on naturally-occurring data. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This taxonomy will be used in quantitative comparisons of rapport-building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>across different populations and across different genres </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Starting point: frequency word list with a cut-off point of 100 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced almost 700 types for analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concordancing used as an aid in finding which of the most frequent expressions function as rapport-building </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The expressions which these high-frequency words are part of were categorised and then fed into the taxonomy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See handout for the preliminary taxonomy </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Preliminary taxonomy of rapport Type of unit Function Example Message-structuring units Greeting Hi there Closing Have a good week-end; Hugs Yasmin!!! Intertextual units Referring to in-group discourse So yes, just just like someone else mentioned ...; I still think it should be &quot;She smells&quot; like Klara writes . Face-saving units Apologising Here are my answers. A little late â?? sorry for that!. Mitigating criticism I just have some small comments to your answers, hopfully it might be useful:) Bonding units Aligning with in-group I also found myself unsure on 2L. In the end, I settled for…; It seems like our group is a little bit small but I think we will manage anyway. Agreeing Looks like I agree with you on most answers. Commiserating … and just like you I would appreciate a key for the old exam. Complimenting Very good indeed! I have no comments to add really. =) Soliciting feedback am i the only one who found this really hard??; This is the way I try to think of it...Does it make sense? Offering encouragement Great Job!!!!!!; GL with everything !; We can only do our best and try. Thanking Thank you! Responding to thanks no problem, glad to be at your service :)
  27. 27. Part 4 Conclusion and outlook
  28. 28. The more, the merrier <ul><li>Mini-McCALL will be one of the first of many corpora of online learning to come. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needed: more corpus resources that enable empirical and systematic studies of both linguistic and pedagogical aspects of online learning environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To promote such research, Mini-McCALL will be made freely available to the research community. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See handout for contact information. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mini-McCALL is the 1st stage of the proposed Mid-Sweden Corpus of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (McCALL) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Future plans: the real McCALL <ul><li>A comprehensive four-year snapshot of the various types of communication that take place in an online learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>ALL the online English courses from four years, including courses in language, cultural studies, literature, and linguistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 100 courses involving 16 teachers and over 900 students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will also include spoken data, from both teachers and students, at various levels, and of various genres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large amount of material: more than 10 million words </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. References <ul><li>Hot-off-the-press paper with more information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deutschmann, M., A. Ädel, G. Garretson & T. Walker. 2009. Introducing Mini-McCALL: A pilot version of the Mid-Sweden Corpus of Computer-Assisted Language Learning. ICAME Journal 33:21-44. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Further references on handout </li></ul><ul><li>http://cqpweb.lancs.ac.uk/mccall/ </li></ul>
  31. 31. Thanks very much!
  32. 32. Extra slides
  33. 33. Discussion forum messages <ul><li>Message HT04N.D.118 </li></ul><ul><li>Time: Thursday, September 16, 2004 20:03 </li></ul><ul><li>Author: Tina Kock </li></ul><ul><li>Subject: Re: Discussion 2 - Jonna Östeberg </li></ul><ul><li>Hello Jonna! I have an opinion about 1d: &quot;I'll have done it by tonight.&quot; You wrote that will + base form is used here, but &quot;have done&quot; is not the base form of the verb. That's why I think the tense is Future Perfect. The sentence is about an activity that will be completed before a specific time. Am I right? /Tina </li></ul><ul><li>Message HT04N.D.147 </li></ul><ul><li>Time: Saturday, September 18, 2004 10:30 </li></ul><ul><li>Author: Melinda Jensen </li></ul><ul><li>Subject: Re: Discussion 2 - Jonna Östeberg </li></ul><ul><li>OK.... I think you're right! (I wonder why I thought it was will + base form?), now when you have explained it to me everything seems so clear.... :-) bye Melinda </li></ul>
  34. 34. E-mail messages (1) <ul><li>Message HT04N.E.3 </li></ul><ul><li>Time: Tuesday, September 7, 2004 19:06 </li></ul><ul><li>Author: Lilja Sjögren </li></ul><ul><li>Recipient: George Sederstedt </li></ul><ul><li>Subject: Assignments! </li></ul><ul><li>Hello George! </li></ul><ul><li>I have been in and out of the discussion room a couple of times and it seems that noone is there to </li></ul><ul><li>discuss the assignment that is due on friday. I need some tips how to start the discussion. I have </li></ul><ul><li>never done this before. And what do I do if noone is discussing before friday? </li></ul><ul><li>Lilja Sjögren </li></ul>
  35. 35. E-mail messages (2) <ul><li>Message HT04N.E.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Time: Wednesday, September 8, 2004 11:50 </li></ul><ul><li>Author: George Sederstedt </li></ul><ul><li>Recipient: Lilja Sjögren </li></ul><ul><li>Subject: Re: Assignments! </li></ul><ul><li>Dear Lilja, </li></ul><ul><li>For the discussion assignments you actually make your comments in the discussion </li></ul><ul><li>forum, which is not a simultanous chat. You simply mail your contribution and wait for someone </li></ul><ul><li>to respond. The mails can be read by all. In the chat you can talk more </li></ul><ul><li>informally. Get back to me if this is still unclear. </li></ul><ul><li>George </li></ul>
  36. 36. Attachments <ul><li>Document ID: VT06S.D.16.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Attached to message: VT06S.D.16 </li></ul><ul><li>Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2006 15:17 </li></ul><ul><li>Author: Lina Holmström </li></ul><ul><li>Subject: Determiners and pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion 1: Determiners and Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>1. Discuss the use or absence of the article in the following sentences: </li></ul><ul><li>a. I met an interesting chap at a party last night. </li></ul><ul><li>Comment: The speaker uses indefinite articles to &quot;an interesting chap&quot; and &quot;a party last night&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>This can mean that the referents (chap and party) are not known to the hearer. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Why are you still in bed? You should be at school. </li></ul><ul><li>Comment: We can say &quot;the bed&quot; when we mean a particular piece of furniture. Otherwise it is </li></ul><ul><li>not combined with the definite article &quot;the&quot;. We say at school when the hearer goes there as a </li></ul><ul><li>pupil. </li></ul><ul><li>c . Life is full of surprises. </li></ul><ul><li>Comment: Life (U) in this case required a zero article because here (c) it is a generic reference. </li></ul><ul><li>All (c) is widely generic. </li></ul>

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