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Animal Assisted Coaching


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Animal assisted coaching: a new area of Animal assisted interventions. At the 1st International Congress of Coaching Psychology Conference UK. British Psychological Society, Special Group in Coaching Psychology, 14th & 15th December 2010, City University, London, UK

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Animal Assisted Coaching

  1. 1. ANIMAL ASSISTED COACHING: A NEW AREA OF ANIMAL ASSISTED INTERVENTIONS! Author Dr Dasha Daša Grajfoner CPsychol MSCP Accred ! Institution Edinburgh Napier University! !Abstract! Animal Assisted Coaching in Context! Recommendations!What is Animal Assisted Coaching?   Future Work!   !Animal  Assisted  Coaching  (AAC)  is  a  part  of  Animal  Assisted  Interven8ons  (AAI).  AAI  are  goal-­‐oriented   Changes  and   In   this   presenta8on   we   have   taken   the   first   steps   towards   integra8ng   two  ac8vi8es   incorpora8ng   human-­‐animal   interac8ons   to   improve   human   physical   or   psychological   transi8ons  health  and  wellbeing  (Odendaal,  2000;  Haubenhofer  &  Kirchengast,  2006).     rela8vely   new   research   areas:   coaching   psychology   and   animal   assisted     interven8ons.  !The  psychological  impact  of  animals  upon  humans  has  frequently  been  reported  within  educa8onal   We  believe  that  AAC  could  become  a  leading  area  within  animal  assisted  interven8ons.  The  results  (Olson,   2010)   and   therapeu8c   contexts   (Fine,   2006;   Honori,   Katcher   &   Aubrey,   2006)   (Yorke   et   al.,   from  studies  on  AAI  show  an  overall  increased  awareness  of  self  and  others.  It  also  strengthens  social  2008).     skills,  mo8va8on,  well-­‐being,  performance  and  contributes  to  more  posi8ve  outlooks.  These  enhance     Leadership   Team  building   the  quality  of  life  in  the  non-­‐clinical  popula8on  and  are  the  founda8ons  of  the  theory  and  applica8on  We   argue   that   the   benefits   of   those   interven8ons   oRen   correspond   with   the   goals   of   coaching   of  coaching  psychology.    psychology:   enhancing   life   experience   and   increasing   wellbeing     (Palmer   &   Whybrow,   2007).   AAI    increase  happiness,  s8mulate  conversa8on,  facilitate  posi8ve  social  interac8on  and  decrease  levels  of   In  order  to  advance  the  benefits  of  AAC  in  the  future  it  will  be  necessary  to  address:  stress   (Duvall-­‐Antonacopoulos   &   Pychyl,   2008),   depression   (Hoffmann   et   al.,   2009)   and   suicidal   Social  and   1)  the  defini8on  of  theore8cal  frameworks    behaviour   (Fine,   2006).   Therefore,   the   presence   of   animals   in   therapeu8c   processes   oRen   has   Empathy   2)  methodological  issues  including  reliability  and  validity   interac8ve  skills  posi8ve  results  on  physical  and  psychological  wellbeing.   3)  pre  and  post  interven8on  measurements     4)  the  classifica8on  and  standardisa8on  of  tools  and  techniques  Some  prac88oners  have  included  animals  in  the  coaching  process,  however,  there  is  an  absence  of   One  of  the  immediate  ac8ons,  therefore,  is  a  comprehensive  literature  review  to  systema8se  exis8ng  the  consistent  use  of  theore8cal  frameworks  and  research  methods,  resul8ng  in  a  lack  of  reliable  and   work.  valid  data.  The  systema8c  use  of  animals  in  applied  coaching  psychology  remains  to  be  explored.       The   main   goal   of   coaching   psychology   is   to   increase   poten8al   and   enhance   wellbeing.   The   results   Mo8va8on   AA   Self  esteem   from  AAI  show  that  animals,  with  their  emo8onal  value  and  interac8ve  capaci8es,  can  represent  an   effec8ve  tool  in  achieving  that  goal.       !Introduction! Coaching   Short  and  long   References! Anxiety   term  memory   AA   BANKS,  M.  R.  &  BANKS,  W.  A.  (2002)  The  Effects  of  Animal-­‐Assisted  Therapy  on  Loneliness  in  an  Elderly  Popula8on  in  Long-­‐Term  Care   AA  Animal Assisted Interventions! Facili8es.  The  Journals  of  Gerontology  Series  A:  Biological  Sciences  and  Medical  Sciences,  57,  M428-­‐M432.      ! BREITENBACH,  E.,  STUMPF,  E.,  FERSEN,  L.  V.  &  EBERT,  H.  (2009)  Dolphin-­‐Assisted  Therapy:  Changes  in  Interac8on  and  Communica8on  Animal  assisted  interven8ons  is  a  generic  concept  which  includes  animal  assisted   between  Children  with  Severe  Disabili8es  and  Their  Caregivers.  Anthrozoos:  A  Mul<disciplinary  Journal  of  The  Interac<ons  of  People   Learning   Therapy   and  Animals,  22,  277-­‐289.  therapy  (AAT),  animal  assisted  learning  or  educa8on  (AAL)  and  the  new  area  of       AAI   DUVALL  ANTONACOPOULOS,  N.  M.  &  PYCHYL,  T.  A.  (2008)  An  Examina8on  of  the  Rela8ons  between  Social  Support,  animal   assisted   coaching   (AAC),   introduced   in   this   poster.   Other   defini8ons   are   Anthropomorphism  and  Stress  among  Dog  Owners.  Anthrozoos:  A  Mul<disciplinary  Journal  of  The  Interac<ons  of  People  and  Animals,  also   used   to   describe   AAI,   for   example   horse   assisted   personal   development.   For   Knowledge  of   Substance  abuse   21,  139-­‐152.      the   purpose   of   defining   AAC,   we   will   first   make   a   dis8nc8on   between   AAI   and   concepts   and  addic8ons   ELLINGSEN,  K.,  ZANELLA,  A.  J.,  BJERK,  E.  &  INDREB,  A.  (2010)  The  Rela8onship  between  Empathy,  Percep8on  of  Pain  and  Ahtudes   toward  Pets  among  Norwegian  Dog  Owners.  Anthrozoos:  A  Mul<disciplinary  Journal  of  The  Interac<ons  of  People  &  Animals,  23,  AAA,  and  then  provide  a  more  detailed  diversifica8on  of  AAI.     231-­‐243.         ESTEVES,  S.  W.  &  STOKES,  T.  (2008)  Social  Effects  of  a  Dogs  Presence  on  Children  with  Disabili8es.  Anthrozoos:  A  Mul<disciplinary  AAA  are  not  necessarily  goal  oriented  and  the  progress  of  impact  of  animals  on   Journal  of  The  Interac<ons  of  People  and  Animals,  21,  5-­‐15.      humans  is  not  monitored.  One  example  of  AAA  is  taking  animals  to  visit  people  in   FINE,  A.  (2006)  Handbook  on  Animal  Assisted  Therapy:  Theore<cal  founda<ons  and  guidelines  for  prac<ce,  San  Diego,  Academic  Press,  nursing  homes  and  hospitals  (Kramer  et  al.,  2009).  These  interac8ons  are  defined   Elsevier.      as   meet   and   greet,   with   no   necessary   follow   up   or   con8nuous   work.   They   can   HAUBENHOFER,  D.  K.  &  KIRCHENGAST,  S.  (2006)  Austrian  and  American  approaches  to  animal-­‐based  health  care  services.  Anthrozoos:   AA  have  a  mo8va8onal  and  recrea8onal  value  and  can  greatly  increase  the  quality  of   Increase   A  Mul<disciplinary  Journal  of  The  Interac<ons  of  People  and  Animals,  19,  365-­‐373.   Depression       vocabulary   AA  people’s   lives   (Pichot   and   Coulter,   2007).   Other   non-­‐structured   ac8vi8es   with   HOFFMANN,  A.  O.  M.,  LEE,  A.  H.,  WERTENAUER,  F.,  RICKEN,  R.,  JANSEN,  J.  J.,  GALLINAT,  J.  &  LANG,  U.  E.  (2009)  Dog-­‐assisted   interven8on  significantly  reduces  anxiety  in  hospitalized  pa8ents  with  major  depression.  European  Journal  of  Integra<ve  Medicine,  1,  poten8al   benefits   are   taking   an   animal   for   a   walk,   playing,   grooming,   feeding,   Physical   145-­‐148.      stroking.  All  of  which  can  also  have  an  educa8onal  value.       Ac8vi8es   HONORI  KATCHER,  A.  &  AUBREY,  H.  F.  (2006)  The  Future  of  Educa8on  and  Research  on  the  Animal-­‐Human  Bond  and  Animal-­‐Assisted     Therapy:  Part  B:  Animal-­‐Assisted  Therapy  and  the  Study  of  Human-­‐Animal  Rela8onships:  Discipline  or  Bondage?  Context  or  Transi8onal   Object?  Handbook  on  Animal-­‐Assisted  Therapy  (Second  Edi<on).  Burlington,  Academic  Press.   Therapy  AAI   on   the   other   hand   are   clearly   defined,   goal   oriented   ac8vi8es.   They   are       KLONTZ,  B.  T.,  BIVENSB,  A.,  LEINARTC,  D.  &  KLONTZD,  T.  (2007)  Th  e  Effec8veness  of  Equine-­‐Assisted  Experien8al  Therapy:  Results  of  an  structured  and  facilitated  by  trained  professionals.  The  use  of  animals  in  mental   Open  Clinical  Trial.  Society  &  Animals,  15,  257-­‐267.  health  contexts  or  AAT  was  introduced  at  the  end  of  the  18th  century  (Klotz  et       KOVÁCS,  Z.,  BULUCZ,  J.,  KIS,  R.  &  SIMON,  L.  (2006)  An  exploratory  study  of  the  effect  of  animal-­‐assisted  therapy  on  nonverbal  al.,   2007).   Since   then   animals   have   been   used   to   assist   with   a   diverse   range   of   communica8on  in  three  schizophrenic  pa8ents.  Anthrozoos:  A  Mul<disciplinary  Journal  of  The  Interac<ons  of  People  &  Animals,  19,   353-­‐364.  mental  health  issues,  including  ea8ng  disorders,  substance  abuse  and  addic8ons   Visits  in  nursing       Increasing  (Wesley   et   al.,   2009),   depression   (Hoffmann   et   al.,   2009),   anen8on   deficit   homes  and   KRAMER,  S.  C.,  FRIEDMANN,  E.  &  BERNSTEIN,  P.  L.  (2009)  Comparison  of  the  Effect  of  Human  Interac8on,  Animal-­‐Assisted  Therapy,  and   mo8va8on   AIBO-­‐Assisted  Therapy  on  Long-­‐Term  Care  Residents  with  Demen8a.  Anthrozoos:  A  Mul<disciplinary  Journal  of  The  Interac<ons  of  disorder,   anxiety,   PTSD   (Leqowitz   et   al.,   2005),   au8sm,   low   self-­‐esteem   and   hospitals   People  and  Animals,  22,  43-­‐57.      schizophrenia   (Kovács   et   al.,   2006;   Villalta-­‐Gil   et   al.,   2009).   ARer   the   therapy   LEFKOWITZ,  C.,  PROUT,  M.,  BLEIBERG,  J.,  PAHARIA,  I.  &  DEBIAK,  D.  (2005)  Animal-­‐Assisted  Prolonged  Exposure:  A  Treatment  for  most   clients   report   feeling   more   self   suppor8ve,   living   fully   in   the   present   and   Survivors  of  Sexual  Assault  Suffering  Posnrauma8c  Stress  Disorder.  Society  &  Animals,  13,  275-­‐295.      being  less  focused  on  fears,  regrets  and  guilt  (Klontz  et  al.,  2007).   MAURER,  M.,  DELFOUR,  F.,  WOLFF,  M.  &  ADRIEN,  J.-­‐L.  (2010)  Dogs,  Cats  and  Horses:  Their  Different  Representa8ons  in  the  Minds  of     Improving  motor   Typical  and  Clinical  Popula8ons  of  Children.  Anthrozoos:  A  Mul<disciplinary  Journal  of  The  Interac<ons  of  People  &  Animals,  23,   Walking   383-­‐395.  AAL   has   addressed   issues   related   to   learning   difficul8es   and   increasing   the   skills       ODENDAAL,  J.  S.  J.  (2000)  Animal-­‐assisted  therapy  -­‐-­‐  magic  or  medicine?  Journal  of  Psychosoma<c  Research,  49,  275-­‐280.  effec8veness   of   learning   (Pira   et   al.,   2010).   It   aims   to   increase   vocabulary,   long       OLSON,  M.  R.  (2010)  Animals  in  Schools:  Processes  and  Strategies  in  Human-­‐Animal  Educa8on.  Anthrozoos:  A  Mul<disciplinary  Journal  and  short  term  memory,  knowledge  of  concepts,  such  as  colours  or  shapes,  and   of  The  Interac<ons  of  People  and  Animals,  23,  304-­‐306.  skills  related  to  non-­‐verbal  communica8on.  It  can  also  be  used  to  address  an8-­‐     PALMER,  S.  &  WHYBROW,  A.  (2007).  Handbook  of  Coaching  Psychology:  A  Guide  for      Prac<<oners.  Routledge.  social   behaviour   through   the   learning   of   empathy   and   social   skills   (Ellingsen   et       PICHOT,  T.  &  COULTER,  M.  (2007)  Animal-­‐Assisted  brief  Therapy:  A  Solu<on-­‐Focused  Approach,  Binghampton,  NY,  The  Haworth  Press.  al.,  2010).         PIRA,  T.,  STEFANINI,  C.,  MEERS,  L.,  NORMANDO,  S.,  SAMUELS,  W.  E.  &  FRANK,  O.  (2010)  A  conceptual  study  about  `animal-­‐assisted   interven8ons  in  Antwerp  (Belgium).  Journal  of  Veterinary  Behavior:  Clinical  Applica<ons  and  Research,  5,  49-­‐50.  Recently   animal   assisted   interven8ons   have   started   being   included   in   personal       THOMPSON,  K.  L.  &  GULLONE,  E.  (2008)  Prosocial  and  An8social  Behaviors  in  Adolescents:  An  Inves8ga8on  into  Associa8ons  with  and   organisa8onal   contexts   for   enhancing   interac8onal   and   social   skills,   Anachment  and  Empathy.  Anthrozoos:  A  Mul<disciplinary  Journal  of  The  Interac<ons  of  People  and  Animals,  21,  123-­‐137.  produc8vity,   goal   achievements,   life   experience,   psychological   well-­‐being   and       VILLALTA-­‐GIL,  V.,  ROCA,  M.,  GONZALES,  N.,  DOMENEC,  E.,  CUCA,  ESCANILLA,  A.,  ASSENIO,  M.  R.,  ESTEBAN,  M.  E.,  OCHOA,  S.  &  HARO,  J.  happiness.   The   methodologies   and   approaches   are   not   systema8c   and   there   is   M.  (2009)  Dog-­‐Assisted  Therapy  in  the  Treatment  of  Chronic  Schizophrenia  Inpa8ents.  Anthrozoos:  A  Mul<disciplinary  Journal  of  The   Interac<ons  of  People  and  Animals,  22,  149-­‐159.  virtually  no  data  measuring  the  effec8veness  of  the  interven8ons.  We  define  this       Copyright Dr D Grajfoner CPsychol MSCP Accred - 1st International Congress of Coaching Psychology Conference – BPS Special Group in Coaching Psychology - 14th & 15th December 2010 – City University London – United Kingdomunexplored  area  as  Animal  assisted  coaching.   WESLEY,  M.  C.,  MINATREA,  N.  B.  &  WATSON,  J.  C.  (2009)  Animal-­‐Assisted  Therapy  in  the  Treatment  of  Substance  Dependence.   Anthrozoos:  A  Mul<disciplinary  Journal  of  The  Interac<ons  of  People  and  Animals,  22,  137-­‐148.       YORKE,  J.,  ADAMS,  C.  &  COADY,  N.  (2008)  Therapeu8c  Value  of  EquineHuman  Bonding  in  Recovery  from  Trauma.  Anthrozoos:  A   Mul<disciplinary  Journal  of  The  Interac<ons  of  People  and  Animals,  21,  17-­‐30.