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Mini MBA: Islamic Marketing

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Mini MBA: Islamic Marketing

  1. 1. Mohamed Kirat, PhD Professor, Department of Mass Communication College of Arts and Sciences University of Qatar, PO. Box: 2713 Doha, Qatar Tel: 974-44034873- Fax: 974-44034861 Email:
  2. 2. Introduction Public relations in Islamic culture dates back to as far as fourteen centuries. It has been extensively used during the prophet Muhammad era to disseminate the new message, the new religion, thus a new way of thinking, behaving, and living peacefully with others.(Aldemiri,1988). Then, public relations was perceived and conceived within the confines of the teachings of Islam, democracy (Echourra) and the respect of man and other people and nations, no matter what their color, race and religion are.
  3. 3. Historical Roots of Public Relations Prophet Muhammad was no exception; he used communication and public relations to crystallize public opinion, persuade people and convince them to embrace a new religion with new principles, new rules, new way of life based on the respect of human beings, equality, justice, peace and harmony.
  4. 4. Modern Public Relations: Concepts and Definitions Sharpe argues that public relations is a process that harmonizes long term relationships among individuals and organizations in society. This process according to him is based on five principles: Honest communication for credibility. Openness and consistency of actions for confidence. Fairness of actions for reciprocity and goodwill. Continuous two-way communication to prevent alienation and to build relationships. Environmental research and evaluation to determine the actions or adjustments needed for social harmony. (Seitel, 1998:7)
  5. 5. The early days of public relations in Islam Public relations in Islam revolves around the individual and the community. It seeks to build up individuals and communities – Umma - within the principles and teachings of Islam. Communication and public relations are practices intended to achieve the interests of all.
  6. 6. Philosophy of Public Relations in Islam  The philosophy of public relations in Islam is based on the following:  Public relations in Islam is the task and responsibility of every Muslim in the Umma: It has a holistic and macro approach with the intention to build the Islamic Umma on the principles and the teachings of Islam.
  7. 7. Philosophy of Public Relations in Islam  Public relations in Islam is based on ethics, credibility and the welfare of all and not only the rich and the wealthy, and those who have the means and the power. The principle here is, once you have healthy and decent relations between members of the Umma and its organizations you will reach a society based on the teachings and the principle of Islam.
  8. 8. Philosophy of Public Relations in Islam Public relations in Islam starts from the family: This is a micro approach to the philosophy and practice of public relations in Islam where the family is the corner stone of society. The family in Islam should enjoy harmony, respect, solidarity –Takaful- and love . The conduct and the behavior of the family from inside and with the outside world should be dictated by the teachings and principles of Islam.
  9. 9. Philosophy of Public Relations in Islam Public relations in Islam is best conceived of as an integral part of an intricate web of human relations prevailing in the community, and therefore, are governed by Islamic principles and values.
  10. 10. Philosophy of Public Relations in Islam Public relations in Islam is conceived of as a vehicle of creating a healthy environment and atmosphere for both the individual and the organization to set up and establish the Islamic Umma which should be characterized by harmony, mutual understanding, mutual respect, and mutual interest governed by the Islamic principles and values. The final objective is to reinforce social solidarity and a strong community in terms of faith and welfare.
  11. 11. Prophet Muhammad: The Great Communicator The following verses show the communication and public relations aspect of the dissemination and propagation of Islam. They show the universal characteristic of Islam. The prophet is asked to reveal the book to the population of Umm Alqora and the rest of the world, and to give tidings and admonition.
  12. 12. Islam: A Universal Religion Islam has a global, holistic and universal perspective. Muhammad’s mission consisted of conveying the book which is an explanation, a guide, a mercy and a gospel for all mankind. Islam is a way of life valid for all times, all nations and all peoples in the world. Islam is not restricted to particular people or a particular nation, it is intended to all mankind.
  13. 13. The Communication Aspect of Islam Islam is a religion of communication. Disseminating and spreading Islam is an act of communication. The Quran, Hadith and Sunnah have to be conveyed, explained and interpreted to the believers. The Prophet had to convey the Quran, to explain it and in some instances, he had to elaborate on issues that needed explanations and illustrations.
  14. 14. Quran and Hadith The Quran was in itself a channel of communication because the whole new way of approaching things and interpreting them revolves around it. Hadith was another means of communication. Through it, the prophet Muhammad explained Islam and went into details where they are not found in the book.
  15. 15. Prophet Muhammed and PR Thus, prophet Muhammad used extensively and effectively public relations and communication to convey the message, explain it and illustrate it through his sayings, speeches, explanations, interpretations, as well as, through his daily conduct, deeds and acts. He had to elaborate and explain so many issues and answer so many questions. His daily behavior was a real example of a true, honest and dedicated believer and messenger. In addition, his actions reflected and illustrated his sayings.
  16. 16. Hadith Any student of the Quran will see that the Holy Book generally deals with the broad principles or essentials of religion, going into details in very rare cases. The details were generously supplied by the Prophet himself, either by showing in his practice how an injunction shall be carried out, or by giving an explanation in words. The Sunnah or Hadith of the Holy Prophet was not, as is generally supposed, a thing of which the need may have been felt only after his death, for it was very much needed in his lifetime.
  17. 17. Hadith The two most important religious institutions of Islam are prayer and zakat; yet when the injunction relating to prayer and zakat were delivered, and they were repeatedly revealed in both Mecca and Madina, no details were supplied. Keep up prayers (aqimoo as- salaah the Qur'anic injunction and it was the Prophet himself who by his own actions gave details of the prayer and said: (Salloo kamaa ra'aytamoonee usaallee) "Pray as you see me praying." (Indispensability of Hadith,
  18. 18. Principles of Communication and PR in Islam There are five approaches to the Islamic call that reflect a tremendous communication and public relations work: First: sincerity and truthfulness with Allah, and to seek his favor. Allah says: ‘And withal, they were not enjoined aught but that they should worship God, sincere in their faith to Him alone.’ [Al Bayyinah:5].The holy Prophet (PBUH) foretold tat the first with whom the fire of hell will be lit are three; among them a scholar who acquired knowledge so that people would say he is learned. And it was indeed said of him.
  19. 19. Principles of Communication and PR in Islam Second: To practice what one preaches. Actually it is a scandal and disgrace that a person’s actions contradict his words. Allah derides such people in His Quran: ‘Do you bid other people to be pious, the while you forget your own selves – and yet you recite the divine writ? Will you not, then, use your reason?’ [Al Baqarah:44].
  20. 20. Principles of Communication and PR in Islam Third: gentleness in presenting the message. Allah advised Moses and Aaron to adopt this measure with Pharaoh, the greatest tyrant of his time: ‘But speak unto him in a mild manner, so that he might bethink himself or [at least] be filled with apprehension.’ [Taha:44].
  21. 21. Principles of Communication and PR in Islam And to Muhammad, he also cautioned: ‘And it was by God’s grace that thou [O Prophet] didst deal gently with thy followers; for if thou hadst been harsh and hard of heart, they would indeed have broken away from thee’ [Al Imran:159]. Hence it was on this basis the Prophet (PBUH) declared: ‘Make matters easy and do not make them difficult. Give glad tidings and do not drive people away.’
  22. 22. Principles of Communication and PR in Islam Fourth: A gradual approach to propagation. Do as Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) did in his mission by beginning with the most important matters; then follow them up in order of priority. This was clearly demonstrated in the advice he gave to Mu`adh before he sent him to Yemen. "You will come upon a People of the Book (Jews and Christians), the first thing you should invite them to is to bear witness that there is no God save Allah and that I am the Messenger of Allah. If they respond positively to this, then inform them that Allah had ordained for them five prayers each day and night.’
  23. 23. Principles of Communication and PR in Islam Fifth: address every people with what is suited for them and their needs. There is a special approach to the people of the cities and another approach to the villagers. Similarly, there is a special approach to the Bedouin. The intellectual has his position and the ignorant has his position. So too, there is a style for the argumentative and an entirely different one for the submissive. ‘And whoever is granted wisdom has indeed been granted wealth abundant.’
  24. 24. Conclusion Prophet Muhammad was a great communicator. He used public relations extensively to disseminate and spread the new religion. His task consisted of convincing people to change their attitudes by forming opinions and then transform such opinions into actions. This means the early followers of Muhammad had to quit their old habits and way of life and adopt new values, morals and ethics.
  25. 25. ISLAMIC LEADERSHIP IN THE MODERN ORGANIZATION Eleftheria EGEL Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis FRANCE
  26. 26. Contents • Introduction • MIP • LIP • Comparison with other approaches to Leadership • Contribution 26
  27. 27. Introduction (Why Islamic leadership is important) • Muslim population growth • Globalization • Change of geopolitical power game • Growing interest in non- American Management models 27
  28. 28. MIP • Definition: it is the discipline that deals with the management of organizations, from the perspective of the knowledge acquired from the revealed and other Islamic sources of wisdom, and results in applications compatible with Islamic beliefs and practices (Kazmi, 2005 p.264) • Chronological development: • The 1980s: a significant movement in the Islamization of knowledge project around the world. • 1980-2000: the subjects of ethics and values, organizational behavior, and human resource management dominate the scene. 28
  29. 29. LIP • Definition: it is a social process in which the leader seeks to achieve certain organizational goals by garnering the support from relevant stakeholders – primarily followers – while fully complying to Islamic teachings and principles.” (Toor, 2008 p.26) • Tawhid (Absolute Monotheism)and the Islamic Worldview • Adalah(Justice), Khilafah (Stewardship), Ubudiyyah (Servanthood) • Iman (Faith) & Adl (Balance) • Al-’Asma al-Husna (The 99 Attributes) 29
  30. 30. 30 Islamic Leadership 30
  31. 31. PROPERTIES OF TAWHID IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMANITY IMPLIED VALUES DENOUEMENT Unity of divine message (One God, one message, one humanity) Unity of humanity by nature and origin Socioeconomic Justice (Adalah) Human Equality Free Will (Ikhtiyar) Vicegerency (khilafah) Universal Brotherhood Unity of aims (Final goal of humanity is God) Unity of Purpose Submission to God(Ibadah) Faith (Iman) Harmonious Society (Realization of the objectives of the Islamic law (maqasid-al shariah) Unity of being (non-duality) Unity of all forms of present life Ethical Character(Khuluq) Comprehensive Life (Din) Balance (‘Adl) A Single Whole Tawhid & THE ISLAMIC WORLDVIEW (Taken from Egel & Fry, 2013)
  32. 32. Comparison with other approaches to leadership • Comparison with Judaism and Christianity • Comparison with the secular Workplace Spirituality field and Spiritual Leadership 32
  33. 33. CONTRIBUTION • A Vehicle for Prejudice Reduction • Facilitation of leadership in a multi-cultural organizational environment 33
  34. 34. Social Marketing
  35. 35. Philip Kotler on Digital Marketing
  36. 36. Table 1-4 1-
  37. 37. Table 1-4 1-
  38. 38. Types of Websites 1. Static websites provide basic information 1. Dynamic websites allow greater fan interaction and facilitate e-commerce 1. Transactional websites facilitate e-commerce 1. Personalized websites respond to individualized fan interaction 1-
  39. 39. Trend 1 Content / Engagement strategy • We all know that “Content is King” was the mantra through the 1990s and then “Context was Queen” • Today we realise that exceptional content is the key to acquiring customers through search engine optimisation and social media as part of inbound marketing • It’s also essential to keep customers engaged with a brand via different touchpoints like the website, “social hubs”, email marketing and apps • It’s not just text content, video content, podcasts, apps all to match all preferences • Develop and refine your content strategy to compete effectively in your category 1-
  40. 40. Content Strategy: The B.E.S.T. formula • Content Strategy: The B.E.S.T. formula • Formula for creating a content marketing roadmap. B.E.S.T stands for: • Behavioural. Everything you communicate with customers has a purpose. What do you want them to do? • Essential. Deliver information that your best prospects need if they are to succeed at work or in life • Strategic. Your content marketing efforts must be an integral part of your overall business strategy • Targeted. You must target your content precisely so that it’s truly relevant to your buyers 1-
  41. 41. The B.E.S.T. formula
  42. 42. Click, Baby, Click!
  43. 43. Fortune Teller
  44. 44. Reinventing Storytelling in the digital
  45. 45. Shantanu Narayen, CEO, Adobe watch?v=KMIbfhbGAm M
  46. 46. What is the ROI for social media? According to DDB agency, an effective social media campaign is relevant, original and has impact The social media marketing campaign has to be relevant to the target audience The social media marketing campaign is original in the sense that it is fresh, unexpected and unusual To be effective, the social media marketing campaign must have impact, which means it makes an impression on the online users.
  47. 47. Forrester: ‘Social Technographics’ a Prerequisite for Social Strategy The creators are those who have recently posted to a blog, updated a web page or uploaded a video that they themselves may have created Critics take part by submitting a comment on blogs or the like Collectors save URLs on a social-bookmarking service, use RSS feeds, or create metadata that they share with a community Joiners use a social-networking site. Spectators read blog, view video and listen to podcast. They consist the audience for user-generated social content
  48. 48. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 * Forrester: ‘Social Technographics’ a Prerequisite for Social Strategy
  49. 49. The Culture of Listening: For many experts, social media is centered on the culture of listening Listening is not easy and individuals as well as companies do not tend naturally to listen From a communication theoretical perspective, listing is the very first act of communication. This means that significant corporate cultural shifts and behaviors are likely to happen if companies want to understand what is happing out there in the web of social media
  50. 50. The Culture of Listening: • Richard Bin hammer, senior Manager at Dell, highlighted two key principles underlying Dell decisions and actions in social media • The first one is listening, learning and engaging in conversations with customers where they are • The second principle is telling the story from Dell’s perspective without intermediaries • Dell Hell/Dale Tales • Dell is serious about connecting, conversing and
  51. 51. The Culture of Listening: • As early as 1995, Dell was saving money (large savings) by using online methods of customer support • Dell substituted the web and email for costly telephone contact • In 2004, Dell held 28.2% of U.S. computer market share • To reduce costs, Dell began outsourcing customer service to a firm in India. • Market share increased, but complaints and consumer dissatisfaction rose
  52. 52. The Culture of Listening: • In 2006, Dell digital media manager realized the need to listen to the conversation, taking place in the blogosphere and thus initiated blogs in several languages to improve interactive communication • Michael Dell initiated the first blog Direct2dell to be part of the ongoing conversation and have a voice in the connected world and to establish a platform that enables customers to network and converse with Dell
  53. 53. Create a Blog
  54. 54. 6Is of the Internet 8Cs of Social Media Marketing
  55. 55. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 Innovation Islam Initiative The Next Phase I n n o v a t i o n & E n t r e p e n e u r s h i p 31/10/2016 © Ronald Doherty 2014 – 58
  56. 56. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 Speaker Introduction & Bio Context for Islamic Innovation Innovation Essentials Specific Actions that you can take Agenda 59
  57. 57. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 Ronald Doherty & Ireland 31/10/2016 © Ronald Doherty 2014 – 60
  58. 58. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 “There is one thing stronger than all the armies in the world, and that is an idea whose time has come” Victor Hugo Renowned French writer (1802-1885) 31/10/2016 © Ronald Doherty 2014 – 61
  59. 59. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 “Applying Islamic Values to Innovation will deliver a more sustainable and just future for all Mankind” Dr-Bakr Ahmad Alserhan Chairman IIMA Islamic Innovation An idea whose time has come - Again! 31/10/2016 © Ronald Doherty 2014 – 62
  60. 60. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 Ideas are good – - Results even better! “Innovation & Entrepreneurship are an essential to a vibrant Muslim economy”Dr-Bakr Ahmad Alserhan Chairman IIMA 31/10/2016 © Ronald Doherty 2014 – 63
  61. 61. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 Islamic Marketing can deliver concrete improvements in peoples Lives – If we focus our efforts 31/10/2016© Ronald Doherty 2014 – ronald.doherty@iimassociation.com64
  62. 62. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 31/10/2016© Ronald Doherty 2014 – ronald.doherty@iimassociation.com65Suhail Nakhouda writing in Islamica Magazine in relation to the Amman Message (2009) ? "There is no water, no pavements; the economy is bad, and many young people are out of work. Peoples' lives, as well as the images they see, stay the same."
  63. 63. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 31/10/2016© Ronald Doherty 2014 – ronald.doherty@iimassociation.com66 Youth Unemployme nt Illnes s Break down in famil y Crime Civil Unres t
  64. 64. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 31/10/2016© Ronald Doherty 2014 – ronald.doherty@iimassociation.com67 Youth Employment Healt h Stron g famil y Peace Civil Societ y
  65. 65. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 Islamic Finance No Riba Islamic Marketing Moderation Morality Modesty Islamic Innovation Tayyib Sustainable Supports values Islamic Values – Islamic Economy 31/10/2016 © Ronald Doherty 2014 – 68
  66. 66. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 31/10/2016 © Ronald Doherty 2014 – 69 Innovation Entrepreneurs hip Financ e Marketin g
  67. 67. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 Innovation & Entrepreneurship Innovation is something that is new to your business or new to the world Innovation can be in any area- products, services or operations Counters downward price pressure associated with commoditization and increases competitiveness 31/10/2016 © Ronald Doherty 2014 – 70
  68. 68. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 Innovation & Entrepreneurship Is heavily associated with failure – the balance is key Should increase quality of life and products Innovation is solving a problem – Entrepreneurship is making it a business 31/10/2016 © Ronald Doherty 2014 – 71
  69. 69. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 Leadership is Essential “Leadership, …starts in the heart and mind of a single person. Its seeds are sown through a journey of self-discovery….it grows and develops through years of introspection, self questioning, experimentation and a rigorous effort………” Internal Requirements 31/10/2016 © Ronald Doherty 2014 – 72
  70. 70. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 External Islamic Eco System Integrate d support is essential Can not flourish in a vacuum External Requirements 31/10/2016 © Ronald Doherty 2014 – 73
  71. 71. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 Innovation process – must be a Funnel with the widest catchment possible- not a Tunnel Innovation & Entrepreneurship need complimentary Skills + Enablers Finance Product Knowledge Business Knowledge Regulatory Support Mentoring Education Networking A global network can connect like minded individuals in centres of innovation from Silicon Valley to Istanbul to Abu Dhabi 31/10/2016 © Ronald Doherty 2014 – 74
  72. 72. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 Guided by the values of Islam Work across boundaries where shared values unite in promoting our cause moderate consumption + ethics + sustainability + reduced waste + fair profit + social justice 31/10/2016 © Ronald Doherty 2014 – 75
  73. 73. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 Guided by the values of Islam Create the ecosystem necessary for innovation to flourish through action Educate + Mentor + Network globally + Sustained business focus 31/10/2016 © Ronald Doherty 2014 – 76
  74. 74. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 Islamic World Academy of Science “Islamic countries are failing to cooperate on key development issues and to invest enough in research to drive their development ……If previously agreed collaborations among OIC countries had been implemented, Zou'bi said, "we would have definitely been better off in the domain of water and food security, as 31/10/2016 © Ronald Doherty 2014 – 77
  75. 75. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 Islamic World Academy of Science “"We recommended more attention on science, technology and innovation because they are the only means of advancement in the modern world," Nagih El Rawi, Iraqi Academy of Sciences Link to article 31/10/2016 © Ronald Doherty 2014 – 78
  76. 76. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 Innovation *Is doing something New *Many different types of innovation exist *Internal and external supports are required *I3 Promotes innovation that supports the Islamic way of life through the Design for Values methodology *Vision – Leadership – Action are all required to effect change – Which will you provide? 31/10/2016 © Ronald Doherty 2014 – 79
  77. 77. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 Entrepreneurship *Is being able and willing to create and run a new venture in order to make a profit ** *Many different types of entrepreneurship exist – both for profit and not-for-profit 31/10/2016 © Ronald Doherty 2014 – 80
  78. 78. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 Entrepreneurship *I3 Promotes entrepreneurship that obtains a fair profit and is guided by Islamic values to promote the wider good of humanity This is essential in order to provide employment for the growing Muslim population worldwide 31/10/2016 © Ronald Doherty 2014 – 81
  79. 79. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 • Financing• Partners & Enablers • Customers• External Environmen t Type Market Impact Business Model Scalability Innovati on Ecosyste m 31/10/2016 © Ronald Doherty 2014 – 82 Entrepreneurs hip
  80. 80. International Islamic Marketing Association (IIMA) Innovation Islam Initiative -I 3 ‫شكرا‬‫جزيال‬ doherty/10/796/ab4 31/10/2016 © Ronald Doherty 2014 – 83
  81. 81. Islamic Branding: Eyeing commercial gains versus opportunities to introduce Islamic ethics!
  82. 82.  Lutfullah saqib Assistant Professor Riphah International University, Islamabad- Pakistan  Saira Afzal Ms Islamic Business and Finance Riphah Center of Islamic BusinessRiphah International University, Islamabad-Pakistan  .Mueen Aizaz Zafar Dean, Faculty of Management Sciences
  83. 83. According to the recent research, Halāl food market is 16% of the total global market and in the coming years the potential is expected to increase two folds in size. A huge potential, therefore, lies in the target market of Muslim consumers. In order to penetrate the Halāl markets, firms are heavily employing brand Islamization strategies, however, most firms are doing so to exploit commercial gains, without proper preparation.
  84. 84. In this paper an effort has been made to introduce and highlight some of the ethical aspects of Islamic moral system in branding practices. The purpose of this paper is to analyze specific commercial activities carried out in the name of brand Islamization.
  85. 85. A school of thought labels branding and marketing activities as prohibited in Islam. There are arguments against this belief through which suggest that Islam allows Muslims to do business, and other daily activities, in harmony with the ethical code of conduct. So the concentration is on lack of morality in branding
  86. 86. The arguments of these opponents are valid to a great extent as majority of marketing activities are based on immoral issues. In Pakistan, majority of the people are typical Muslims and they are very conscious about basic religious values . The people see these immoral marketing practices through electronic and print media.
  87. 87. Islam is a complete code of life and hence ut covers each and every aspect of life. Marketing , branding etc are also various aspect of human life and there is a proper guidance for all these activities too
  88. 88.  Disclosure In most of the cases of Islamic branding today some traits are missing that are the core of a Sharī’ah compliant business activity e.g. there is a lack of honest communication and most brands are using exaggeration and deception while representing their brands. Some of the Islamic teachings pertaining to these matters are clearly addressed in Qur’an:“Truly, God guides not him who is a liar” Al Qur’an 39:3 The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) expressly condemned all manipulative promotional behaviors stating that, “One who cheats us is not one of us” (al-Nawawi 2:770).
  89. 89.  Pricing Brands often charge very high prices for their creditworthiness and most of the times the prices remain unjustified. In contrast, Islam also does not approve getting something easily, without working or striving hard for it . Ibn-e- Taymiah (1982) denounces all pricing practices where consumers are being charged very high prices without offering a justified quality or quantity. All instances of charging high prices come under the head of injustice in Sharī’ah. As the holy Prophet (SAW) said (Al- Nawawi, 2:270): “Do not raise prices in competition.”
  90. 90. It may be clarified here, that the debate is not on charging high prices for brand values with relation to precious commodities. Islam accepts that the wealthy people can spend their money on expensive things. The advertising and branding of luxury goods and services by that logic is acceptable in wealthy communities: “... He has raised you in ranks, some above others; that He may try you in the gifts that He has given you.”
  91. 91.  Conversion of wants into needs With the passage of time self generated economy is being exploited by the marketers and is commercialized over time (Bovee, Thill, Dovel & Wood, 1995). Wants and desires are being converted into needs. This approach is not approved by the moral system of Islam.
  92. 92.  Profit maximization vs. value maximization Islam does not approve the concept of profit maximization without taking care of the exploitation of the others rights. Islam approves a centralized approach of value maximization in which a firm undertakes to maximize the value while incorporating the philosophies of integrity and impartiality in its strategies that result in the welfare of the whole society. Islam advocates the welfare of the society rather that the affluence of a few people (Baig & Tarin, 2010
  93. 93.  Symbol of Status In Islam symbol of status is Taqwa and not any thing else
  94. 94. Halal Business and Markets: An Introduction Dr Ahmad Jamal Cardiff University, UK
  95. 95. Presentation Plan Understanding Halal Core concepts of belief in Islam Islamic Law - Shariah Concepts of Halal and Haram Halal Business and Markets Conclusion Question and Answer
  96. 96. Core principles of belief in Islam  ‘Tawhid’ - The unity and oneness of Allah - the Creator of the universe  ‘Nabuwwa’ – The prophethood of all Prophets, and the finality of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)  ‘Qiyama’ - The ultimate return of everything to The Creator for the final judgement Source: Islamic Banking and Finance Centre, UK
  97. 97. Commitment and Contract Essential Commitment for submitting to Islam:  Commitment to oneness of Allah  Commitment to the finality of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) – as the last Prophet of Allah  Commitment to the Day of Judgement Source: Islamic Banking and Finance Centre, UK
  98. 98. Why ideology matters?  This acceptance and agreement represents a contract between the individual and its Creator.  It symbolises the primordial covenant between Allah and its Creation.  The individual agrees to serve and worship no one but Allah.  The individual agrees to observe the rules of Islamic law in all their affairs (private and public) Source: Islamic Banking and Finance Centre, UK
  99. 99. The Islamic Law - Sharia’a Literally meaning "the Way or the Path" also commonly known as Islamic Law It is a Divine Guidance as given by the Holy Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad PBUH Embodies all aspect of the Islamic faith including beliefs, and practices in the social and economic aspect of everyday living Source: Islamic Banking and Finance Centre, UK
  100. 100. Concept of Halal vs. Haram Halal – lawful, permissible, legal, sacrificed with the name of Allah Haram – prohibited, forbidden, unlawful and punishable from the Islamic perspective Halal & Haram are universal terms and applied to all areas of our personal, social, business, economical, financial, political aspects of our lives Source: Islamic Banking and Finance Centre, UK
  101. 101. Key Prohibitions in Islam RIBA (Interest)  GHARAR (Uncertainty)  MAISIR (Chance/Speculation)  ETHICS (justice, fair dealings, honesty, gentleness, no harm to others and to environment; no cheating, no misleading) Source: Islamic Banking and Finance Centre, UK
  102. 102. Halal Business Shariah guides every aspect of business Personal Greed vs. Communal welfare Supply Chain Employees Customers
  103. 103. Halal Markets Globally, an important emerging market sector; estimated 2.1 Trillion USD per annum 49 Muslim majority countries around the world (1.6 billion consumers; 23% of world population; 62% live in South and Southeast Asia; Islam second largest religion after Christianity) Globalization brings additional challenges – growing concern among Muslims about the nature of the products they consume!
  104. 104. Halal Markets Countries with noticeable Muslim population (e.g., India, China, Europe, and USA) - Muslims in UK - about 2.8 million - Muslims across European Union – estimated 20 million) British-Muslims: - 33.8 % aged under 15 (national average 20%) - 18.2 % aged 16-24 (national average 10.9%) - More than 50% born in the UK - Religious identity impacts consumption experiences Non – Muslims consuming halal (e.g., based on ethical principles)
  105. 105. Halal Markets – Key Categories D 600 billion – slaughtered according to the specific parameters of Islamic law, good, wholesome, healthy, untainted during the stages of processing, packaging, storage, transportation, & cooking Not just meat and poultary but a range of products from ice cream to pizza to organic food A significant number of Muslim consumers (particularly in the West) – consciously read product labels; a lot of
  106. 106. Halal Markets – Key Categories  Halal – Islamic Finance, Investments and Insurance – growth of dedicated Islamic Banks to window based models  Halal Tourism - not only for Umrah and Hajj but also for leisure  Halal Cosmetics  Halal Pharmaceuticals  Halal Education and Training  Halal Information Portals and Sources (e.g., Iphone apps)  Halal Supply Chain, Certification and Government Bodies  Halal Trade Network
  107. 107. Conclusion Islamic ideology impacts a growing number of Muslims and Businesses Halal business and markets are emerging fast Demand at a global level Halal Markets are not linked with any fad or fashion statement – they are going to stay!
  108. 108. Towardsa Curriculumand Pedagogyin IslamicMarketing Paul Sergius Koku Florida Atlantic University
  109. 109. Purpose • I will, in this lecture, argue for the development of a curriculum that contains a broad spectrum of courses on Islamic marketing and propose their pedagogy. 112/1 6
  110. 110. Purpose – Cont. • So, why make this argument to you? • Because you are an essential stakeholder • We are important change agents Students Professors • What do we wish to change? 113/1 6
  111. 111. Change!!! • To change the traditional marketing curriculum • To expand the traditional marketing to include a curriculum on Islamic marketing. • A curriculum on Islamic marketing will supplement the traditional curriculum on marketing. • But why has it taken so long? 114/1 6
  112. 112. Change!!! Change can be slow because people are afraid of change. However, always remember that - 115/1 6
  113. 113. But What is a curriculum? • The word curriculum has several definitions, but I will focus on the two below: • 1. It is an aggregate of a course of study in a school. • 2. It is a planned interaction of pupils with instructional content. 116/1 6
  114. 114. What Do We Need? • Instructional content requires materials - Cases - Textbooks - Simulation exercises - Articles • But above all, we need pupils who wish to be taught. 117/1 6
  115. 115. What do we Teach and What must Students Learn? I believe we as university teachers (Professors) as opposed to teachers in vocational schools are in the business of teaching critical thinking. Therefore our students are in the business to learn how to think critically. The courses we teach are vehicles through which we teach, and students learn how to think critically. In Islamic marketing, the courses could include, but not limited to: 118/1 6
  116. 116. Possible Courses • Principles of Islamic Marketing • Islamic Business Ethics • Islamic Product Innovation and Management • Islamic Promotional Strategy • Islamic Brand Management • Islamic Consumers • Islamic Pricing Strategy • Islamic Services Marketing 119/1 6
  117. 117. Possible Courses – Cont. • Of course, the list of possible courses is endless • Similarly, the benefits could also be endless • Thinking critically is a necessary, but not a sufficient condition for success. 120/1 6
  118. 118. What About Pedagogy • Pedagogy is according to Webster’s Dictionary “Is the science and art of education, specifically, instructional theory.” • It is also “the art, science or profession of teaching.” • Implicit in these definitions is the concept of assessment. How do we test what we teach? 121/1 6
  119. 119. Assessment • The Debates on how to assess could take another lecture. • However, we could borrow from Bloom’s taxonomy (Bloom, 1956). • Bloom suggested the 6-levels of learning, teaching and therefore testing. • These steps are 122/1 6
  120. 120. 123/1 6
  121. 121. Bloom’s Taxonomy (revised)
  122. 122. Reflection • I believe a higher of learning should be assessed through reflective assignments • Islam is a way of life, therefore assessment in Islamic marketing course should amongst other things contain some elements of reflection • It is time for us to make a change. 125/1 6