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DeceptionDeception
LyingLying
Everybody liesEverybody lies
 ““Man was given a tongue with whichMan was given a tongue with which
to speak and words to hide histo speak and words to...
Number of college students who admittedNumber of college students who admitted
lying to a potential sex partnerlying to a ...
Type of Sexual LiesType of Sexual Lies
Most frequent lie both sexes?Most frequent lie both sexes?
Number of previous sex p...
Extramarital AffairsExtramarital Affairs
2/3 to ¾ of2/3 to ¾ of
American and British married personsAmerican and British m...
Obtaining JobsObtaining Jobs
Number who “varnish the truth”Number who “varnish the truth”
1/31/3
(Underwood, 1993)(Underwo...
Obtaining Jobs: Types of LiesObtaining Jobs: Types of Lies
 College degreesCollege degrees
 Stretching employment period...
AdvertisingAdvertising
““We’re conceived, born, and deceived.We’re conceived, born, and deceived.
By the time someone reac...
Political LiesPolitical Lies
 Lies to get electedLies to get elected
 Lies to gain support for policyLies to gain suppor...
Medical StudentsMedical Students
How many cheated on exams?How many cheated on exams?
10%10%
PatientsPatients
Number with allergic asthma who liedNumber with allergic asthma who lied
to doctors about smokingto docto...
PatientsPatients
Number of psychiatrically hospitalizedNumber of psychiatrically hospitalized
patients who lied about usin...
Dodgy ScientistsDodgy Scientists
 Isaac NewtonIsaac Newton fudged datafudged data
 Louis PasteurLouis Pasteur used anoth...
Question is not do they lieQuestion is not do they lie
ButBut
Why?Why?
How much?How much?
How well?How well?
Liars & Con MenLiars & Con Men
 LiarsLiars Specific lie(s)Specific lie(s)
 Con ManCon Man LiesLies
PersonaPersona
Relati...
Ferdinand DemaraFerdinand Demara
Posed asPosed as
 Physician in Royal Canadian NavyPhysician in Royal Canadian Navy
 Rem...
Ferdinand DemaraFerdinand Demara
Posed asPosed as
 TeacherTeacher
 Ph.D. in psychologyPh.D. in psychology
 College dean...
““I am a superior sort of liar. I don’tI am a superior sort of liar. I don’t
tell any truth at all, so then my storytell a...
Detecting DeceptionDetecting Deception
Detecting DeceptionDetecting Deception
General PrinciplesGeneral Principles
What Detects Lying?What Detects Lying?
Gaze Aversion?Gaze Aversion?
Fidgeting?Fidgeting?
FidgetingFidgeting
Viewed as a sign lyingViewed as a sign lying
Gaze AversionGaze Aversion
 SadnessSadness
 NervousnessNervousness
 EmbarrassmentEmbarrassment
 GuiltGuilt
 DisgustDi...
Role of DeceptionRole of Deception
 PracticalPractical
 Part of the HighPart of the High
 Part of the Double LifePart o...
Gaze AversionGaze Aversion
““Even the guilty liar probably won’t avert hisEven the guilty liar probably won’t avert his
ga...
““At times there was a great amount ofAt times there was a great amount of
shame for being deceitful. At times thereshame ...
““To begin with, how I felt about foolingTo begin with, how I felt about fooling
people is what’s really hard to describe....
PsychopathsPsychopaths
““There is agreement that neither guiltThere is agreement that neither guilt
about lying nor fear o...
Feelings of Psychopaths When LyingFeelings of Psychopaths When Lying
 ExcitementExcitement
 Relief at being believedReli...
20 Years of Research on Lying20 Years of Research on Lying
• People rarely get above 60%People rarely get above 60%
accura...
Who Can’t TellWho Can’t Tell
 CIACIA
 FBIFBI
 ATFATF
 PolicePolice
 DEADEA
 Forensic psychiatristsForensic psychiatr...
Who Can’t Tell?Who Can’t Tell?
 Customs inspectors vs. collegeCustoms inspectors vs. college
students)students)
(Kraut & ...
Who Can’t TellWho Can’t Tell
GroupGroup % Above Chance% Above Chance
 Secret ServiceSecret Service 29%29%
 Psychiatrists...
Who Can TellWho Can Tell
• Secret Service?Secret Service?
• Police selected as expertsPolice selected as experts
• Clinica...
Top Lie DetectorsTop Lie Detectors
Very fewVery few
85% accuracy85% accuracy
(Ekman, 2009)(Ekman, 2009)
Can People Learn to Detect Lying?Can People Learn to Detect Lying?
 Disguised smilingDisguised smiling
 Lack of head mov...
Role of Training & ExperienceRole of Training & Experience
True StatementsTrue Statements
All groups more accurate with mo...
Federal law enforcement officersFederal law enforcement officers
More Confident Than College StudentsMore Confident Than C...
AccuracyAccuracy
What Didn’t Make a DifferenceWhat Didn’t Make a Difference
AgeAge
SexSex
Years of Job ExperienceYears of ...
AccuracyAccuracy
PolygraphersPolygraphers & Secret Service& Secret Service
Worse as Got OlderWorse as Got Older
(Ekman, 19...
Which Signs of DeceptionWhich Signs of Deception
Work?Work?
 Signs the liar doesn’t know toSigns the liar doesn’t know to...
What Are You Detecting?What Are You Detecting?
 Deception?Deception?
 Emotional leakage?Emotional leakage?
““There is no sign of deceit itself.”There is no sign of deceit itself.”
(Ekman, 2009,p. 80)(Ekman, 2009,p. 80)
Emotions Involved in LyingEmotions Involved in Lying
 Fear of being caughtFear of being caught
 Guilt about lyingGuilt a...
FearFear
 Fear of not being believedFear of not being believed
 Fear of being caughtFear of being caught
Channels of CommunicationChannels of Communication
 FaceFace
 WordsWords
 Voice CharacteristicsVoice Characteristics
 ...
Facial ExpressionsFacial Expressions
 Automatic ExpressionsAutomatic Expressions
Automatic ExpressionsAutomatic Expressions
SadnessSadness
 Inner corner of eyebrow raises, notInner corner of eyebrow rai...
Automatic ExpressionsAutomatic Expressions
Worry, Apprehension, FearWorry, Apprehension, Fear
 Both eyebrows raise and pu...
Emotions and TheirEmotions and Their
Eyebrow/Eyelid FakeabilityEyebrow/Eyelid Fakeability
HardHard
Fear, worry, apprehensi...
Most Reliable Facial MusclesMost Reliable Facial Muscles
ForeheadForehead
AngerAnger
 Reliable: Narrowing of lipsReliable: Narrowing of lips
Facial ExpressionsFacial Expressions
 Micro-Expressions - 1/25”Micro-Expressions - 1/25”
Micro Expression Training ToolMicro Expression Training Tool
http://www.mettonline.com/products.aspxhttp://www.mettonline....
Facial ExpressionsFacial Expressions
 Squelched ExpressionsSquelched Expressions
Facial ExpressionsFacial Expressions
 AsymmetryAsymmetry
AsymmetryAsymmetry
Voluntary ExpressionsVoluntary Expressions
 Brow-lowering in anger stronger on leftBrow-lowering in an...
Facial ExpressionsFacial Expressions
 TimingTiming
TimingTiming
 SurpriseSurprise 1 second1 second
Duration of EmotionDuration of Emotion
5 seconds5 seconds
Likely PhonyLikely Phony
10 seconds10 seconds
Almost DefinitelyA...
Bad TimingBad Timing
Affect should be on faceAffect should be on face
Before or at start of wordsBefore or at start of wor...
Detecting DeceptionDetecting Deception
 More speech hesitationsMore speech hesitations
 More changes in pitchMore change...
Body LanguageBody Language
 EmblemsEmblems
 IllustratorsIllustrators
EmblemsEmblems
 Wave goodbyeWave goodbye
 Thumbs upThumbs up
 Thumbs downThumbs down
 Come hereCome here
 Hitchhiking...
Channels of CommunicationChannels of Communication
 FaceFace
 WordsWords
 Voice CharacteristicsVoice Characteristics
 ...
Detecting Deception: LanguageDetecting Deception: Language
Deception statements contain:Deception statements contain:
 Ne...
Voice CharacteristicsVoice Characteristics
UpsetUpset Pitch RisesPitch Rises
SadSad Pitch DropsPitch Drops
AngryAngry Loud...
Nurse StudyNurse Study
Least AccurateLeast Accurate
 FaceFace
 WordsWords
Nurse Study:Nurse Study:
Most AccurateMost Accurate
 BodyBody
 Correct 65% of timeCorrect 65% of time
CommunicationCommunication
Body LanguageBody Language 65%65%
Verbal contentVerbal content 7%7%
Voice qualityVoice quality ...
Nurse StudyNurse Study
96% accuracy96% accuracy
 Voice Characteristics: Rise in PitchVoice Characteristics: Rise in Pitch...
Detecting DeceptionDetecting Deception
False SmilesFalse Smiles
No involvement of eyes or eyebrowNo involvement of eyes or...
Science of SmilesScience of Smiles
False SmilesFalse Smiles
Fear SmilesFear Smiles
Contempt smilesContempt smiles
Dampened...
Facial Action Coding SystemFacial Action Coding System
(FACS)(FACS)
 44 Action Units44 Action Units
30 Contraction of Spe...
Comprehensive Coding SystemsComprehensive Coding Systems
for Emotional Recognitionfor Emotional Recognition
10 Hours of Co...
Computerized Analysis of FacialComputerized Analysis of Facial
ExpressionsExpressions
 96.7% Accurate96.7% Accurate
(Tian...
Pitt- CMU Au-Coded FacePitt- CMU Au-Coded Face
Expression DatabaseExpression Database
 N = 210N = 210
 69% Female; 31% M...
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TX Forensic Mental Health Conf. #3 Deception

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Texas Forensic Mental Health Conference
Presenter: Dr. Salter
Presentation: Deception
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TX Forensic Mental Health Conf. #3 Deception

  1. 1. DeceptionDeception
  2. 2. LyingLying
  3. 3. Everybody liesEverybody lies
  4. 4.  ““Man was given a tongue with whichMan was given a tongue with which to speak and words to hide histo speak and words to hide his thoughts.”thoughts.” (Hungarian Proverb)(Hungarian Proverb)
  5. 5. Number of college students who admittedNumber of college students who admitted lying to a potential sex partnerlying to a potential sex partner 92%92% (Knox et al., 1993)(Knox et al., 1993)
  6. 6. Type of Sexual LiesType of Sexual Lies Most frequent lie both sexes?Most frequent lie both sexes? Number of previous sex partnersNumber of previous sex partners  MenMen I love youI love you  WomenWomen Sexually gratifiedSexually gratified
  7. 7. Extramarital AffairsExtramarital Affairs 2/3 to ¾ of2/3 to ¾ of American and British married personsAmerican and British married persons
  8. 8. Obtaining JobsObtaining Jobs Number who “varnish the truth”Number who “varnish the truth” 1/31/3 (Underwood, 1993)(Underwood, 1993)
  9. 9. Obtaining Jobs: Types of LiesObtaining Jobs: Types of Lies  College degreesCollege degrees  Stretching employment periods to hideStretching employment periods to hide unemploymentunemployment  Men: Played on college football teamMen: Played on college football team  Women: President of sororityWomen: President of sorority
  10. 10. AdvertisingAdvertising ““We’re conceived, born, and deceived.We’re conceived, born, and deceived. By the time someone reaches the age ofBy the time someone reaches the age of 10, he’s pretty cynical.”10, he’s pretty cynical.” (Jerry Della Femina, advertising executive(Jerry Della Femina, advertising executive quoted in McLoughlin et al., 1987, p. 59)quoted in McLoughlin et al., 1987, p. 59)
  11. 11. Political LiesPolitical Lies  Lies to get electedLies to get elected  Lies to gain support for policyLies to gain support for policy  Lies to protect national securityLies to protect national security  Stupid liesStupid lies
  12. 12. Medical StudentsMedical Students How many cheated on exams?How many cheated on exams? 10%10%
  13. 13. PatientsPatients Number with allergic asthma who liedNumber with allergic asthma who lied to doctors about smokingto doctors about smoking 14%14% (Squire et al., 1991)(Squire et al., 1991)
  14. 14. PatientsPatients Number of psychiatrically hospitalizedNumber of psychiatrically hospitalized patients who lied about using drugs?patients who lied about using drugs? 60%60% (Blumberg et al., 1971)(Blumberg et al., 1971)
  15. 15. Dodgy ScientistsDodgy Scientists  Isaac NewtonIsaac Newton fudged datafudged data  Louis PasteurLouis Pasteur used another’s vaccineused another’s vaccine  Gregor MendelGregor Mendel fudged datafudged data  Charles DarwinCharles Darwin used others’ theoriesused others’ theories without creditwithout credit
  16. 16. Question is not do they lieQuestion is not do they lie ButBut Why?Why? How much?How much? How well?How well?
  17. 17. Liars & Con MenLiars & Con Men  LiarsLiars Specific lie(s)Specific lie(s)  Con ManCon Man LiesLies PersonaPersona RelationshipRelationship
  18. 18. Ferdinand DemaraFerdinand Demara Posed asPosed as  Physician in Royal Canadian NavyPhysician in Royal Canadian Navy  Removed a bullet within half an inchRemoved a bullet within half an inch of the heartof the heart  Removed a lungRemoved a lung
  19. 19. Ferdinand DemaraFerdinand Demara Posed asPosed as  TeacherTeacher  Ph.D. in psychologyPh.D. in psychology  College deanCollege dean  Assistant warden of a Texas prisonAssistant warden of a Texas prison  Joined and deserted from US army &Joined and deserted from US army & navynavy
  20. 20. ““I am a superior sort of liar. I don’tI am a superior sort of liar. I don’t tell any truth at all, so then my storytell any truth at all, so then my story has unity of parts, a structuralhas unity of parts, a structural integrity, and this sounds more likeintegrity, and this sounds more like the truth than the truth itself.”the truth than the truth itself.” (Con man Ferdinand Demara quoted in(Con man Ferdinand Demara quoted in Crichton, 1968, p. 92)Crichton, 1968, p. 92)
  21. 21. Detecting DeceptionDetecting Deception
  22. 22. Detecting DeceptionDetecting Deception General PrinciplesGeneral Principles
  23. 23. What Detects Lying?What Detects Lying? Gaze Aversion?Gaze Aversion? Fidgeting?Fidgeting?
  24. 24. FidgetingFidgeting Viewed as a sign lyingViewed as a sign lying
  25. 25. Gaze AversionGaze Aversion  SadnessSadness  NervousnessNervousness  EmbarrassmentEmbarrassment  GuiltGuilt  DisgustDisgust
  26. 26. Role of DeceptionRole of Deception  PracticalPractical  Part of the HighPart of the High  Part of the Double LifePart of the Double Life  Shame DrivenShame Driven
  27. 27. Gaze AversionGaze Aversion ““Even the guilty liar probably won’t avert hisEven the guilty liar probably won’t avert his gaze much, since liars know that everyonegaze much, since liars know that everyone expects to be able to detect deception inexpects to be able to detect deception in this way. . . Amazingly, people continue tothis way. . . Amazingly, people continue to be misled by liars skillful enough to notbe misled by liars skillful enough to not avert their gaze.”avert their gaze.” (Ekman, 1992, p. 141)(Ekman, 1992, p. 141)
  28. 28. ““At times there was a great amount ofAt times there was a great amount of shame for being deceitful. At times thereshame for being deceitful. At times there was a great amount of pride: well, I pulledwas a great amount of pride: well, I pulled this one off again. You’re a good one.this one off again. You’re a good one. You’re very capable of doing this. It worksYou’re very capable of doing this. It works for you. There were times when little oldfor you. There were times when little old ladies would pat me on the back and say,ladies would pat me on the back and say, ‘You’re one of the best young men that I‘You’re one of the best young men that I ever have known.’ I would think back andever have known.’ I would think back and think, ‘If you really knew me you wouldn’tthink, ‘If you really knew me you wouldn’t say that.’”say that.’”
  29. 29. ““To begin with, how I felt about foolingTo begin with, how I felt about fooling people is what’s really hard to describe. Ipeople is what’s really hard to describe. I felt ashamed. For lack of a better word tofelt ashamed. For lack of a better word to describe it. Because I knew these peopledescribe it. Because I knew these people were trusting me. . . When I would lie towere trusting me. . . When I would lie to them, to start with I felt a lot of shame.them, to start with I felt a lot of shame. But eventually, I had lied so much to, theBut eventually, I had lied so much to, the shame element was no longer there. Itshame element was no longer there. It was just a matter of keeping my tailwas just a matter of keeping my tail covered. Keeping everything covered up.”covered. Keeping everything covered up.”
  30. 30. PsychopathsPsychopaths ““There is agreement that neither guiltThere is agreement that neither guilt about lying nor fear of being caughtabout lying nor fear of being caught will cause a psychopath to makewill cause a psychopath to make mistakes when he lies.”mistakes when he lies.” (Ekman, 2009)(Ekman, 2009)
  31. 31. Feelings of Psychopaths When LyingFeelings of Psychopaths When Lying  ExcitementExcitement  Relief at being believedRelief at being believed  ContemptContempt  PridePride
  32. 32. 20 Years of Research on Lying20 Years of Research on Lying • People rarely get above 60%People rarely get above 60% accuracyaccuracy • Some groups worse than chanceSome groups worse than chance (Ekman, 1992)(Ekman, 1992)
  33. 33. Who Can’t TellWho Can’t Tell  CIACIA  FBIFBI  ATFATF  PolicePolice  DEADEA  Forensic psychiatristsForensic psychiatrists  Custom OfficialsCustom Officials  PolicePolice  JudgesJudges  LawyersLawyers (Ekman, 1991)(Ekman, 1991)
  34. 34. Who Can’t Tell?Who Can’t Tell?  Customs inspectors vs. collegeCustoms inspectors vs. college students)students) (Kraut & Poe, 1980)(Kraut & Poe, 1980)  Federal law enforcement officers vsFederal law enforcement officers vs studentsstudents (DePaulo & Pfeifer, 1986)(DePaulo & Pfeifer, 1986)  Police officers no better than chancePolice officers no better than chance (Kohnken, 1987)(Kohnken, 1987)
  35. 35. Who Can’t TellWho Can’t Tell GroupGroup % Above Chance% Above Chance  Secret ServiceSecret Service 29%29%  PsychiatristsPsychiatrists 12%12% (Ekman, 1991)(Ekman, 1991)
  36. 36. Who Can TellWho Can Tell • Secret Service?Secret Service? • Police selected as expertsPolice selected as experts • Clinical psychologists taking courseClinical psychologists taking course • Members of federal agencies takingMembers of federal agencies taking coursecourse Accurate in detecting lies, not truthAccurate in detecting lies, not truth
  37. 37. Top Lie DetectorsTop Lie Detectors Very fewVery few 85% accuracy85% accuracy (Ekman, 2009)(Ekman, 2009)
  38. 38. Can People Learn to Detect Lying?Can People Learn to Detect Lying?  Disguised smilingDisguised smiling  Lack of head movementLack of head movement  Increased rate of fidgetingIncreased rate of fidgeting  Increased pitchIncreased pitch  Reduced rate of speechReduced rate of speech  Pause fillers (“uh,” “er”)Pause fillers (“uh,” “er”)  Less congruent nonverbal behavior fromLess congruent nonverbal behavior from the various communication channelsthe various communication channels (Zuckerman & Driver, 1984)(Zuckerman & Driver, 1984)
  39. 39. Role of Training & ExperienceRole of Training & Experience True StatementsTrue Statements All groups more accurate with moreAll groups more accurate with more experience, particularly with trainingexperience, particularly with training and feedbackand feedback Feedback less of a difference thanFeedback less of a difference than expectedexpected
  40. 40. Federal law enforcement officersFederal law enforcement officers More Confident Than College StudentsMore Confident Than College Students No More AccurateNo More Accurate (DePaulo & Pfeifer, 1986)(DePaulo & Pfeifer, 1986)
  41. 41. AccuracyAccuracy What Didn’t Make a DifferenceWhat Didn’t Make a Difference AgeAge SexSex Years of Job ExperienceYears of Job Experience (Ekman, 1991)(Ekman, 1991)
  42. 42. AccuracyAccuracy PolygraphersPolygraphers & Secret Service& Secret Service Worse as Got OlderWorse as Got Older (Ekman, 1991)(Ekman, 1991)
  43. 43. Which Signs of DeceptionWhich Signs of Deception Work?Work?  Signs the liar doesn’t know toSigns the liar doesn’t know to fakefake  Signs the liar can’t fakeSigns the liar can’t fake
  44. 44. What Are You Detecting?What Are You Detecting?  Deception?Deception?  Emotional leakage?Emotional leakage?
  45. 45. ““There is no sign of deceit itself.”There is no sign of deceit itself.” (Ekman, 2009,p. 80)(Ekman, 2009,p. 80)
  46. 46. Emotions Involved in LyingEmotions Involved in Lying  Fear of being caughtFear of being caught  Guilt about lyingGuilt about lying  Guilt about behaviorGuilt about behavior  Duping delightDuping delight
  47. 47. FearFear  Fear of not being believedFear of not being believed  Fear of being caughtFear of being caught
  48. 48. Channels of CommunicationChannels of Communication  FaceFace  WordsWords  Voice CharacteristicsVoice Characteristics  Body LanguageBody Language
  49. 49. Facial ExpressionsFacial Expressions  Automatic ExpressionsAutomatic Expressions
  50. 50. Automatic ExpressionsAutomatic Expressions SadnessSadness  Inner corner of eyebrow raises, notInner corner of eyebrow raises, not full browfull brow  15% voluntarily15% voluntarily (Ekman, 1992)(Ekman, 1992)
  51. 51. Automatic ExpressionsAutomatic Expressions Worry, Apprehension, FearWorry, Apprehension, Fear  Both eyebrows raise and pullBoth eyebrows raise and pull togethertogether  10% voluntarily10% voluntarily (Ekman, 1992)(Ekman, 1992)
  52. 52. Emotions and TheirEmotions and Their Eyebrow/Eyelid FakeabilityEyebrow/Eyelid Fakeability HardHard Fear, worry, apprehension, terrorFear, worry, apprehension, terror Sadness, grief, distressSadness, grief, distress EasyEasy Anger, surpriseAnger, surprise
  53. 53. Most Reliable Facial MusclesMost Reliable Facial Muscles ForeheadForehead
  54. 54. AngerAnger  Reliable: Narrowing of lipsReliable: Narrowing of lips
  55. 55. Facial ExpressionsFacial Expressions  Micro-Expressions - 1/25”Micro-Expressions - 1/25”
  56. 56. Micro Expression Training ToolMicro Expression Training Tool http://www.mettonline.com/products.aspxhttp://www.mettonline.com/products.aspx
  57. 57. Facial ExpressionsFacial Expressions  Squelched ExpressionsSquelched Expressions
  58. 58. Facial ExpressionsFacial Expressions  AsymmetryAsymmetry
  59. 59. AsymmetryAsymmetry Voluntary ExpressionsVoluntary Expressions  Brow-lowering in anger stronger on leftBrow-lowering in anger stronger on left  Nose-wrinkling in disgust stronger onNose-wrinkling in disgust stronger on rightright  Stretching of lips back towards ears inStretching of lips back towards ears in fear are stronger on rightfear are stronger on right
  60. 60. Facial ExpressionsFacial Expressions  TimingTiming
  61. 61. TimingTiming  SurpriseSurprise 1 second1 second
  62. 62. Duration of EmotionDuration of Emotion 5 seconds5 seconds Likely PhonyLikely Phony 10 seconds10 seconds Almost DefinitelyAlmost Definitely
  63. 63. Bad TimingBad Timing Affect should be on faceAffect should be on face Before or at start of wordsBefore or at start of words
  64. 64. Detecting DeceptionDetecting Deception  More speech hesitationsMore speech hesitations  More changes in pitchMore changes in pitch  More pupil dilationMore pupil dilation (DePaulo et al., 1985; Zucker &(DePaulo et al., 1985; Zucker & Driver, 1984)Driver, 1984)
  65. 65. Body LanguageBody Language  EmblemsEmblems  IllustratorsIllustrators
  66. 66. EmblemsEmblems  Wave goodbyeWave goodbye  Thumbs upThumbs up  Thumbs downThumbs down  Come hereCome here  HitchhikingHitchhiking  PeacePeace  Crazy (circle ear)Crazy (circle ear)  PrayingPraying  SleepingSleeping  Middle fingerMiddle finger
  67. 67. Channels of CommunicationChannels of Communication  FaceFace  WordsWords  Voice CharacteristicsVoice Characteristics  Body LanguageBody Language
  68. 68. Detecting Deception: LanguageDetecting Deception: Language Deception statements contain:Deception statements contain:  Negative statementsNegative statements  Irrelevant informationIrrelevant information  Over-generalized statementsOver-generalized statements  Less personally relevant informationLess personally relevant information
  69. 69. Voice CharacteristicsVoice Characteristics UpsetUpset Pitch RisesPitch Rises SadSad Pitch DropsPitch Drops AngryAngry Louder/fasterLouder/faster
  70. 70. Nurse StudyNurse Study Least AccurateLeast Accurate  FaceFace  WordsWords
  71. 71. Nurse Study:Nurse Study: Most AccurateMost Accurate  BodyBody  Correct 65% of timeCorrect 65% of time
  72. 72. CommunicationCommunication Body LanguageBody Language 65%65% Verbal contentVerbal content 7%7% Voice qualityVoice quality 12%12% Mixture odors, chemicalMixture odors, chemical changes, etc.changes, etc. 16%16% (Walters, 1996)(Walters, 1996)
  73. 73. Nurse StudyNurse Study 96% accuracy96% accuracy  Voice Characteristics: Rise in PitchVoice Characteristics: Rise in Pitch  Face: Miserable SmilesFace: Miserable Smiles
  74. 74. Detecting DeceptionDetecting Deception False SmilesFalse Smiles No involvement of eyes or eyebrowNo involvement of eyes or eyebrow More asymmetricalMore asymmetrical Offset not smoothOffset not smooth
  75. 75. Science of SmilesScience of Smiles False SmilesFalse Smiles Fear SmilesFear Smiles Contempt smilesContempt smiles Dampened SmilesDampened Smiles Miserable smilesMiserable smiles Chaplin smileChaplin smile
  76. 76. Facial Action Coding SystemFacial Action Coding System (FACS)(FACS)  44 Action Units44 Action Units 30 Contraction of Specific Muscles30 Contraction of Specific Muscles E.g.., Frontalis, pars medialisE.g.., Frontalis, pars medialis Inner Corner of EyebrowInner Corner of Eyebrow RaisedRaised 13 Unspecified13 Unspecified E.g.., Jaw ThrustE.g.., Jaw Thrust  7000 Combinations Observed7000 Combinations Observed
  77. 77. Comprehensive Coding SystemsComprehensive Coding Systems for Emotional Recognitionfor Emotional Recognition 10 Hours of Coding Time Per10 Hours of Coding Time Per Minute of BehaviorMinute of Behavior (Ekman, 1992)(Ekman, 1992)
  78. 78. Computerized Analysis of FacialComputerized Analysis of Facial ExpressionsExpressions  96.7% Accurate96.7% Accurate (Tian et al.,2000)(Tian et al.,2000)
  79. 79. Pitt- CMU Au-Coded FacePitt- CMU Au-Coded Face Expression DatabaseExpression Database  N = 210N = 210  69% Female; 31% Male69% Female; 31% Male  81% Euro-Americans81% Euro-Americans  13% Afro-American13% Afro-American  6% Other6% Other  Age 18 to 50Age 18 to 50 (Kanade et al., 2000)(Kanade et al., 2000)

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