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Midwest Conference #2 adolescent sex offenders out

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Midwest Conference #2 adolescent sex offenders out

  1. 1. What Do We Know AboutWhat Do We Know About Adolescent Sex Offenders?Adolescent Sex Offenders? Anna C. SalterAnna C. Salter
  2. 2. AgendaAgenda Adolescents and crimeAdolescents and crime Normal and abnormal sexual behaviorNormal and abnormal sexual behavior Budding pedophiles or delinquents?Budding pedophiles or delinquents? Risk assessmentRisk assessment Adolescent psychopathsAdolescent psychopaths TreatmentTreatment What works?What works? Multisystemic family therapyMultisystemic family therapy
  3. 3. HandoutsHandouts www.annasalter.comwww.annasalter.com acsalter@tds.netacsalter@tds.net
  4. 4. Adult Sex OffendersAdult Sex Offenders & Age of Onset& Age of Onset 1/3 to 1/2 began offending1/3 to 1/2 began offending In adolescenceIn adolescence (Prentky et al., 2000)(Prentky et al., 2000)
  5. 5. Juvenile Sex Offenders:Juvenile Sex Offenders: Age of OnsetAge of Onset Begin Offending Under Age 12Begin Offending Under Age 12 46%46% (Burton, 2000)(Burton, 2000)
  6. 6. Scope of the ProblemScope of the Problem 19941994 Under age 13Under age 13 Arrested for feloniesArrested for felonies 110,000110,000 ((Berman, Kurtines, Silverman, & Serafini,Berman, Kurtines, Silverman, & Serafini, 1996)1996)
  7. 7. Rise and Fall of Juvenile CrimeRise and Fall of Juvenile Crime 1983 – 1992 Arrests1983 – 1992 Arrests  GirlsGirls +85%+85%  BoysBoys +50%+50%  Youth in juvenile facilitiesYouth in juvenile facilities +41%+41% ( Children’s Defense Fund, 1997)( Children’s Defense Fund, 1997)
  8. 8. Rise of Juvenile CrimeRise of Juvenile Crime 1980 – 1994 Arrests1980 – 1994 Arrests Violent crimesViolent crimes +64%+64% MurderMurder +99%+99% (Butts & Travis, 2002)(Butts & Travis, 2002)
  9. 9. Fall in Juvenile Violent CrimeFall in Juvenile Violent Crime Fell 6 years 1994 – 2000Fell 6 years 1994 – 2000 (Butts & Travis, 2002)(Butts & Travis, 2002)
  10. 10. Decline in Juvenile CrimeDecline in Juvenile Crime Violent CrimeViolent Crime Murder, rape, robbery aggravated assaultMurder, rape, robbery aggravated assault -34%-34%
  11. 11. Decline in Juvenile CrimeDecline in Juvenile Crime ArrestsArrests 1994 - 20001994 - 2000 MurderMurder -68%-68% RobberyRobbery -51%-51% BurglaryBurglary -33%-33% RapeRape -25%-25% (Butts & Travis, 2002)(Butts & Travis, 2002)
  12. 12. Decline in Violent CrimeDecline in Violent Crime 2000 Lowest in 20 years2000 Lowest in 20 years (Butts & Travis, 2002)(Butts & Travis, 2002)
  13. 13. Decline in Juvenile CrimeDecline in Juvenile Crime Largest of any age groupLargest of any age group
  14. 14. Increases in Juvenile CrimeIncreases in Juvenile Crime ArrestsArrests 1994 – 20001994 – 2000 DUIDUI +54%+54% Liquor Law ViolationsLiquor Law Violations +33%+33% Drug AbuseDrug Abuse +29%+29% (Butts & Travis, 2002)(Butts & Travis, 2002)
  15. 15. Decline in Crime 2008Decline in Crime 2008 Violent CrimeViolent Crime 1999-20081999-2008 Decreased 41%Decreased 41%
  16. 16. Decline in Crime 2008Decline in Crime 2008 Property CrimeProperty Crime 1999-20081999-2008 Decreased 32%Decreased 32%
  17. 17. Decline in Crime 2008Decline in Crime 2008 Decline in Rape & Sexual AssaultDecline in Rape & Sexual Assault 1999-20081999-2008 53%53%
  18. 18. Adolescents & Violent/Sexual CrimeAdolescents & Violent/Sexual Crime
  19. 19. Age of Onset of Serious ViolenceAge of Onset of Serious Violence 85% of those involved in serious violence by85% of those involved in serious violence by age 27 report that their 1age 27 report that their 1stst act occurredact occurred between 12 & 20between 12 & 20 Peak age of onset 16Peak age of onset 16 Almost no serious violence startsAlmost no serious violence starts < age 10 & > age 23< age 10 & > age 23 (Prentky 2002)(Prentky 2002)
  20. 20. Two Onset “Trajectories”Two Onset “Trajectories” Childhood Onset strong link between childhood factors and persistent violence into adulthood Juvenile Onset: most violence begins in adolescence, ends with the transition into adulthood (Prentky, 2002)
  21. 21. Chronic Juvenile OffendersChronic Juvenile Offenders % of Offenders% of Offenders % of Crime% of Crime 6.3%6.3% 52%52% 7.5%7.5% 61%61% (Wolfgang’s 1958)(Wolfgang’s 1958)
  22. 22. Juvenile CrimeJuvenile Crime OffendersOffenders CrimesCrimes 8%8% 70%70% (Beuhring, 2002; Howell, 1995;(Beuhring, 2002; Howell, 1995; Kelley et al., 1997)Kelley et al., 1997)
  23. 23. Onset of Sexual OffendingOnset of Sexual Offending Incarcerated adolescentsIncarcerated adolescents NN Onset < 12Onset < 12 4848 Onset> 12Onset> 12 130130 Offending < and > age 12Offending < and > age 12 6565 Seriousness & complexity of sexual actsSeriousness & complexity of sexual acts more severe for the continuous offendersmore severe for the continuous offenders (Burton, 2000)(Burton, 2000)
  24. 24. Boundaries ofBoundaries of Developmentally NormativeDevelopmentally Normative Sexual BehaviorSexual Behavior
  25. 25. Normal & Deviant AdolescentNormal & Deviant Adolescent Sexual BehaviorSexual Behavior (Adapted from Dr. Robert Prentky &(Adapted from Dr. Robert Prentky & Dr. William Friedrich)Dr. William Friedrich)
  26. 26. ““NormalNormal””  Sexually explicit conversations with peersSexually explicit conversations with peers  Obscenities and jokes within cultural normObscenities and jokes within cultural norm  Sexual innuendo, flirting and courtshipSexual innuendo, flirting and courtship  Interest in eroticaInterest in erotica  Solitary masturbationSolitary masturbation  Hugging, kissing, holding handsHugging, kissing, holding hands  Foreplay, (petting, making out, fondling)Foreplay, (petting, making out, fondling)  Mutual masturbationMutual masturbation  Sexual intercourse with consenting partnerSexual intercourse with consenting partner**
  27. 27. Deviant Behaviors: Level 1Deviant Behaviors: Level 1  High degree of sexual preoccupation and/or anxietyHigh degree of sexual preoccupation and/or anxiety  Frequent use of pornography or sex showsFrequent use of pornography or sex shows  Indiscriminate sexual contact with multiple partnersIndiscriminate sexual contact with multiple partners  Sexually aggressive remarks/obscenitiesSexually aggressive remarks/obscenities  Sexual graffiti (especially sexually aggressive images)Sexual graffiti (especially sexually aggressive images)  Embarrassment of others with sexual remarks orEmbarrassment of others with sexual remarks or innuendoinnuendo  Violation of others’ body spaceViolation of others’ body space  Pulling skirts up / pants downPulling skirts up / pants down  Peeping, exposing or frottage with known agematesPeeping, exposing or frottage with known agemates  Obscene gestures or “mooning”Obscene gestures or “mooning”
  28. 28. Deviant Level 1Deviant Level 1  Red flags - may signal an abnormally highRed flags - may signal an abnormally high degree of sexual preoccupation and/ordegree of sexual preoccupation and/or sexually aggressive impulsessexually aggressive impulses  Some form of intervention may beSome form of intervention may be desirabledesirable
  29. 29. Deviant Behaviors: Level 2Deviant Behaviors: Level 2  Compulsive masturbationCompulsive masturbation (especially public)(especially public)  Degradation/humiliation of self or othersDegradation/humiliation of self or others with sexual overtoneswith sexual overtones  Attempting to expose others’ genitalsAttempting to expose others’ genitals  Chronic preoccupation with sexually aggressiveChronic preoccupation with sexually aggressive pornographypornography  Sexually explicit conversation with young childrenSexually explicit conversation with young children  Sexualized touching without permissionSexualized touching without permission (grabbing, goosing)(grabbing, goosing)  Sexually explicit threatsSexually explicit threats (verbal or written)(verbal or written)  Obscene phone callsObscene phone calls (voyeurism, exhibitionism, frottage)(voyeurism, exhibitionism, frottage)
  30. 30. Deviant Level 2Deviant Level 2  Indicate a high degree of sexualIndicate a high degree of sexual preoccupation and/or deviant sexualpreoccupation and/or deviant sexual interests,interests,  Require interventionRequire intervention
  31. 31. Deviant Behaviors: Level 3Deviant Behaviors: Level 3  Genital touching without permissionGenital touching without permission (e.g.(e.g. fondling)fondling)  Sexual contact with significant age differenceSexual contact with significant age difference (sexual abuse of children)(sexual abuse of children)  Forced sexual contactForced sexual contact (any assault having sexual(any assault having sexual overtones)overtones)  Forced penetrationForced penetration (vaginal or anal)(vaginal or anal)  Sexual contact with animalsSexual contact with animals (bestiality)(bestiality)  Genital injury to othersGenital injury to others
  32. 32. Deviant Level 3Deviant Level 3  Victim-involved sexual assaultVictim-involved sexual assault  Require interventionRequire intervention
  33. 33. Adolescent Sex OffendersAdolescent Sex Offenders Deviant ArousalDeviant Arousal oror Criminal BehaviorCriminal Behavior
  34. 34. Specialists?Specialists? 50% Prior Arrests Same Crime50% Prior Arrests Same Crime RapistsRapists 14%14% Car ThievesCar Thieves 19%19% BurglarsBurglars 25%25% Violent OffendersViolent Offenders 34%34% RobbersRobbers 35%35% (Cohen, 1986)(Cohen, 1986)
  35. 35. Specialists?Specialists? 50% of prior crimes were sex offenses50% of prior crimes were sex offenses RapistsRapists 4%4% Child MolestersChild Molesters 41%41% (Lussier et al., 2005)(Lussier et al., 2005)
  36. 36. Hanson Meta-AnalysisHanson Meta-Analysis RecidivismRecidivism Follow-up = 4 - 5 YearsFollow-up = 4 - 5 Years  New Sex OffenseNew Sex Offense 13%13%  Any OffenseAny Offense 37%37% (Hanson & Bussiere, 1996)(Hanson & Bussiere, 1996)
  37. 37. Adolescent Sex Offenders:Adolescent Sex Offenders: Sexual vs. General RecidivismSexual vs. General Recidivism FU up to 6 yearsFU up to 6 years RecidivateRecidivate SexualSexual 7.5 to 147.5 to 14 General CriminalGeneral Criminal 40 to 6040 to 60 (Langstrom & Grann, 2000)(Langstrom & Grann, 2000)
  38. 38. Adolescent Sex OffendersAdolescent Sex Offenders  Committed a non-sex offenseCommitted a non-sex offense 86%86% (Jacobs et al., 1997)(Jacobs et al., 1997)
  39. 39. Deviant Arousal or AntisocialDeviant Arousal or Antisocial 4 variables correctly classified 77% reoffenders4 variables correctly classified 77% reoffenders Involvement with delinquent peersInvolvement with delinquent peers Crimes against personsCrimes against persons Attitudes towards sexual assaultAttitudes towards sexual assault Family normlessnessFamily normlessness (Ageton, 1983)(Ageton, 1983)
  40. 40. Deviant Arousal or AntisocialDeviant Arousal or Antisocial Involvement with delinquent peersInvolvement with delinquent peers Correctly classified 76% reoffendersCorrectly classified 76% reoffenders (Ageton, 1983)(Ageton, 1983)
  41. 41. Fluidity of SexualFluidity of Sexual PreferencePreference
  42. 42. Hunter & Becker, 1994Hunter & Becker, 1994 Hunter, Goodwin, & Becker, 1994Hunter, Goodwin, & Becker, 1994 Hypothesized that “the majority of juvenileHypothesized that “the majority of juvenile offenders, in contrast to most adultoffenders, in contrast to most adult offenders, may not have yet developed aoffenders, may not have yet developed a relatively fixed pattern of sexual arousalrelatively fixed pattern of sexual arousal and interest which gives direction toand interest which gives direction to consistent patterns of behaviour,” Hunterconsistent patterns of behaviour,” Hunter et al., 1994, p. 536.et al., 1994, p. 536.
  43. 43. The assumption of greaterThe assumption of greater developmental fluidity in JSOs isdevelopmental fluidity in JSOs is supported by:supported by:  (1) much higher number of juvenile, as(1) much higher number of juvenile, as opposed to adult, offenders with mixedopposed to adult, offenders with mixed gender victims;gender victims;  (2) relatively high percentage of juveniles(2) relatively high percentage of juveniles with multiple paraphilias;with multiple paraphilias;  (3) marked differences between juvenile(3) marked differences between juvenile and adult incest offendersand adult incest offenders (Hunter et al., 1994)(Hunter et al., 1994)
  44. 44. Differences in IncestDifferences in Incest  Adult incest offenders:Adult incest offenders: Less deviant arousal on the PPGLess deviant arousal on the PPG Have fewer victimsHave fewer victims Begin offending at a later age.Begin offending at a later age.  Juvenile sex offendersJuvenile sex offenders All less trueAll less true Considerable cross-over incest and non-incestConsiderable cross-over incest and non-incest (Hunter et al., 1994)(Hunter et al., 1994)
  45. 45. Risk AssessmentRisk Assessment
  46. 46. Risk Assessment:Risk Assessment: Impact of Working with OffendersImpact of Working with Offenders  N = 200 young offenders of all typesN = 200 young offenders of all types  Sentence = 2 yearsSentence = 2 years  Data:Data: PresentencePresentence Current offenseCurrent offense Previous convictionsPrevious convictions One meetingOne meeting (Williams, unpublished)(Williams, unpublished)
  47. 47. Risk Assessment:Risk Assessment: Impact of Working with OffendersImpact of Working with Offenders  Data:Data: Original informationOriginal information Experience of working with offendersExperience of working with offenders for previous yearsfor previous years (Williams, unpublished)(Williams, unpublished)
  48. 48. Risk Assessment:Risk Assessment: Impact of Working with OffendersImpact of Working with Offenders OutcomeOutcome  1st Evaluation1st Evaluation Moderate correlation with recidivismModerate correlation with recidivism  2nd Evaluation2nd Evaluation No outcome with recidivismNo outcome with recidivism (Williams, unpublished)(Williams, unpublished)
  49. 49. JSORRATJSORRAT Doug EppersonDoug Epperson
  50. 50. Item 1Item 1 Number of Adjudications for SexualNumber of Adjudications for Sexual Offenses, including the CurrentOffenses, including the Current  One………………………………………0One………………………………………0  Two………………………………………1Two………………………………………1  Three…………………………………….2Three…………………………………….2  Four or more…………………………….3Four or more…………………………….3
  51. 51. Item 1Item 1  Count the number of formal adjudicationsCount the number of formal adjudications for sexual offensesfor sexual offenses  Include attempted sex offenses andInclude attempted sex offenses and conspiracyconspiracy  Record the score and NOT the number ofRecord the score and NOT the number of adjudicationsadjudications
  52. 52.  Include all adjudications regardless of theInclude all adjudications regardless of the level of the sex offense (misdemeanor orlevel of the sex offense (misdemeanor or felony)felony)  The number of victims or number ofThe number of victims or number of discrete events does not count – simplydiscrete events does not count – simply count the number of adjudicationscount the number of adjudications
  53. 53. Number of AdjudicationsNumber of Adjudications & Recidivism& Recidivism No.No. NN Sex RecidivismSex Recidivism 11 452452 6.2%6.2% 22 118118 26.3%26.3% 33 3737 35.1%35.1% 4 +4 + 2929 41.441.4 (Epperson, 2005)(Epperson, 2005)
  54. 54. Item 2Item 2 Number of Different Victims in ChargedNumber of Different Victims in Charged Sex Offenses, Including CurrentSex Offenses, Including Current  One………………………………………..0One………………………………………..0  Two………………………………………..1Two………………………………………..1  Three or more ……………………………2Three or more ……………………………2
  55. 55. Item 2Item 2  Count the number of different victims inCount the number of different victims in charged sex offenses including currentcharged sex offenses including current  Record the score, NOT the number ofRecord the score, NOT the number of victimsvictims  For “hands-on” victims, count each distinctFor “hands-on” victims, count each distinct victim in charged offensesvictim in charged offenses
  56. 56. Item 2Item 2  For “hands-off” exposure offensesFor “hands-off” exposure offenses involving groups, count only one victim forinvolving groups, count only one victim for each offenseeach offense  The number of events, charges orThe number of events, charges or adjudications do not count – only theadjudications do not count – only the number of victims of charged sex offensesnumber of victims of charged sex offenses
  57. 57. Item 2Item 2  Do not count victims of self-reported orDo not count victims of self-reported or alleged offenses that were not chargedalleged offenses that were not charged
  58. 58. Number of VictimsNumber of Victims No.No. NN RecidivismRecidivism 11 442442 6.8%6.8% 22 116116 24.1%24.1% 3 +3 + 7878 33.3%33.3% (Epperson, 2005)(Epperson, 2005)
  59. 59. Item 3Item 3 Length of Charged Sex OffendingLength of Charged Sex Offending History, Including the Current ChargeHistory, Including the Current Charge  Zero time (only one charge).……………..0Zero time (only one charge).……………..0  0.01 to 5.99 months.………………………10.01 to 5.99 months.………………………1  6.00 to 11.99 months.……………………..26.00 to 11.99 months.……………………..2  12 months or longer.………………………312 months or longer.………………………3
  60. 60. Item 3Item 3  Length of time in months between theLength of time in months between the date of the first sexual offense CHARGEdate of the first sexual offense CHARGE and the date of the most recent sexualand the date of the most recent sexual offense CHARGEoffense CHARGE  8 months & 10 days = 8 months8 months & 10 days = 8 months  Count the number of full months betweenCount the number of full months between the two chargesthe two charges
  61. 61. Duration of Sex Offense HistoryDuration of Sex Offense History DurationDuration NN RecidivismRecidivism 0 months(1 charge)0 months(1 charge) 416416 5.3%5.3% Up to 6 monthsUp to 6 months 144144 17.4%17.4% 6 to 12 months6 to 12 months 2727 37%37% 12 +12 + 4949 55.1%55.1%
  62. 62. J-SORRAT ResultsJ-SORRAT Results Risk Level Score Juvenile Recidivists Percent Recidivism Low 0 – 2 3/305 1% Mod/Low 3 – 4 9/137 6.6% Moderate 5 – 7 26/107 24.3% Mod/High 8 – 11 28/65 43.1% High 12+ 18/22 81.1%
  63. 63. Results for Juvenile ReoffendingResults for Juvenile Reoffending Nearly ½ adolescent sex offendersNearly ½ adolescent sex offenders 1% reoffense rate1% reoffense rate 30%30% Significant riskSignificant risk
  64. 64. Results for Anytime OffendingResults for Anytime Offending Risk Level Score Anytime Recidivists Percent Recidivism Low 0 – 2 21/305 6.9 Moderate/Low 3 – 4 17/137 12.4 Moderate 5 – 7 33/107 30.8 Moderate/High 8 – 11 37/65 56.9 High 12+ 18/22 81.8
  65. 65. Utah Validation StudyUtah Validation Study Risk Level Score Range Recidivists/ Selected Recidivism Rate % 1 0 1/56 1.8 2 1-3 27/214 11.2 3 4-7 25/108 18.8 4 8+ 16/47 25.4
  66. 66. Iowa Validation SampleIowa Validation Sample Risk Level Score Recidivism 24 mos. 1 0-1 0 2 2-6 14.8 3 7+ 42.6
  67. 67. Juvenile Sex OffenderJuvenile Sex Offender Assessment ProtocolAssessment Protocol Robert Prentky, Ph.D.Robert Prentky, Ph.D. Sue Righthand, Ph.D.Sue Righthand, Ph.D.
  68. 68. J-SOAPJ-SOAP CriteriaCriteria BoysBoys 12 – 1812 – 18 Nonadjudicated & AdjudicatedNonadjudicated & Adjudicated (Prentky and Righthand, 2003)(Prentky and Righthand, 2003)
  69. 69. Overview Original J-SOAPOverview Original J-SOAP 23 items23 items 4 subscales4 subscales I. Sexual Drive/Sexual PreoccupationI. Sexual Drive/Sexual Preoccupation (5)(5) II. Impulsive, Antisocial BehaviorII. Impulsive, Antisocial Behavior III. Clinical/TreatmentIII. Clinical/Treatment IV. Community AdjustmentIV. Community Adjustment (Prentky and Righthand, 2003)(Prentky and Righthand, 2003)
  70. 70. Norming SampleNorming Sample  96 juvenile sexual offenders96 juvenile sexual offenders  Age 9 – 20Age 9 – 20  Low socio-economic statusLow socio-economic status  2/3 adjudicated; 1/3 adjudicated2/3 adjudicated; 1/3 adjudicated  Average age 14Average age 14 (Prentky and Righthand, 2003)(Prentky and Righthand, 2003)
  71. 71. Validation StudyValidation Study 12 month follow-up12 month follow-up 75 of 9675 of 96 11% recidivism total11% recidivism total 3 sexual offense3 sexual offense 4 nonsexual, victim-oriented4 nonsexual, victim-oriented 1 nonsexual, nonvictim offense1 nonsexual, nonvictim offense
  72. 72. Recidivism DataRecidivism Data Average ScoreAverage Score  ReoffendersReoffenders 3030  Non ReoffendersNon Reoffenders 2121
  73. 73. 9- Year Follow-up9- Year Follow-up N = 253N = 253 New sexual offenseNew sexual offense 4.3%4.3% New offenseNew offense 60%60% (Waite, Pinkerton, Wieckowski, McGarvey,(Waite, Pinkerton, Wieckowski, McGarvey, & Brown, 2002)& Brown, 2002)
  74. 74. High Versus Low ScorersHigh Versus Low Scorers Any NewAny New SexualSexual OffenseOffense OffenseOffense  High ScorersHigh Scorers 74,8%74,8% 9.8%9.8%  Low ScorersLow Scorers 52.6%52.6% 2.9%2.9% (Waite, Pinkerton, Wieckowski, McGarvey, &(Waite, Pinkerton, Wieckowski, McGarvey, & Brown, 2002)Brown, 2002)
  75. 75. ScoringScoring 00 Absence of factorAbsence of factor 1 Some info that suggests factor1 Some info that suggests factor 2 Clear Presence2 Clear Presence
  76. 76. Scale 1:SexualScale 1:Sexual Drive/Preoccupation ItemsDrive/Preoccupation Items Item 1: Prior legallyItem 1: Prior legally chargedcharged sex offensessex offenses  Total number of prior charged sexTotal number of prior charged sex offenses that involved physical contactoffenses that involved physical contact  Do not count indexDo not count index 0 = None0 = None 1 = 1 Offense1 = 1 Offense 2 = More than one2 = More than one
  77. 77. Scale 2: Impulsive/AntisocialScale 2: Impulsive/Antisocial Behavior ItemsBehavior Items Item 10. Pervasive AngerItem 10. Pervasive Anger  Verbal aggression, angry outbursts, threatening &Verbal aggression, angry outbursts, threatening & intimidating behavior, nonsexual physical assaultsintimidating behavior, nonsexual physical assaults  Must be multiple targets across multiple settingsMust be multiple targets across multiple settings  Destroying property only if angerDestroying property only if anger 0 = No evidence0 = No evidence 1 = Occasional outbursts or narrow range of1 = Occasional outbursts or narrow range of targetstargets 2 = Moderate/Strong Long-standing pattern with2 = Moderate/Strong Long-standing pattern with multiple targetsmultiple targets
  78. 78. Scale 3 Intervention ItemsScale 3 Intervention Items Item 19 Understands Risk Factors and AppliesItem 19 Understands Risk Factors and Applies Risk Management StrategiesRisk Management Strategies  0 = Good understanding. Knows triggers,0 = Good understanding. Knows triggers, thinking errors, and high risk situations.thinking errors, and high risk situations. Uses management strategiesUses management strategies  1 = Incomplete understanding or inconsistent1 = Incomplete understanding or inconsistent  2 = Poor understanding of risk factors and2 = Poor understanding of risk factors and strategies. Cannot identify triggers, thinkingstrategies. Cannot identify triggers, thinking errors. Offense justifying attitudes.errors. Offense justifying attitudes.
  79. 79. Scale 4 CommunityScale 4 Community Stability/Adjustment FactorStability/Adjustment Factor Item 24 Management of Sexual Urges and DesireItem 24 Management of Sexual Urges and Desire  0 = Well managed expression of sexual urges;0 = Well managed expression of sexual urges; all intimate relationships are age appropriateall intimate relationships are age appropriate and non-coerciveand non-coercive  1 = No more than 2 instances of inappropriate1 = No more than 2 instances of inappropriate behaviorbehavior  2 = Frequently gratifies urges in deviant ways on2 = Frequently gratifies urges in deviant ways on 3 or more occasions. E. g., chronic masturbation3 or more occasions. E. g., chronic masturbation or compulsive pornography. 2 for sexualor compulsive pornography. 2 for sexual promiscuity. Coercive behavior a 2 unless indexpromiscuity. Coercive behavior a 2 unless index
  80. 80. Scale 4 CommunityScale 4 Community Stability/Adjustment FactorStability/Adjustment Factor Item 26 Stability ofItem 26 Stability of CurrentCurrent Living SituationLiving Situation  Current household members engaging inCurrent household members engaging in substance abuse, frequent changes in sexsubstance abuse, frequent changes in sex partners, poor boundaries, use of pornography,partners, poor boundaries, use of pornography, family violence/child neglect, known criminalfamily violence/child neglect, known criminal history or frequently relocating homehistory or frequently relocating home  Frequent changes in juvenile’s living situationFrequent changes in juvenile’s living situation  High-risk living situation, such as a shelter orHigh-risk living situation, such as a shelter or high-risk location (near bar or playground)high-risk location (near bar or playground)  Score for stressfulness of living situationScore for stressfulness of living situation
  81. 81. Scale 4 CommunityScale 4 Community Stability/Adjustment FactorStability/Adjustment Factor Item 26 Stability ofItem 26 Stability of CurrentCurrent Living SituationLiving Situation 0 = Stable; no significant disruption0 = Stable; no significant disruption 1 = Moderate; Instability intermittent or1 = Moderate; Instability intermittent or anyany serious; sexual abuse a “2”serious; sexual abuse a “2” 2 = Severe; Instability frequent and2 = Severe; Instability frequent and chronic occurring at least one or twochronic occurring at least one or two times a weektimes a week
  82. 82. Adult PsychopathyAdult Psychopathy Best Predictor of ViolenceBest Predictor of Violence (Harris, Rice & Cormier, 1991)(Harris, Rice & Cormier, 1991)
  83. 83. Adolescent Psychopathy &Adolescent Psychopathy & ViolenceViolence Age RangeAge Range HighHigh LowLow Younger (13 - 15.5)Younger (13 - 15.5) 52%52% 12%12% Mid (15.5 - 18)Mid (15.5 - 18) 64%64% 54%54% Older (18 - 20.5)Older (18 - 20.5) 48%48% 33%33% (Forth, 1995)(Forth, 1995)
  84. 84. High Vs Low PsychopathyHigh Vs Low Psychopathy AdolescentsAdolescents 10 or More10 or More Violent ActsViolent Acts  High PsychopathyHigh Psychopathy 64%64%  Low PsychopathyLow Psychopathy 37%37% (Forth, 1995)(Forth, 1995)
  85. 85. Earlier OnsetEarlier Onset of Criminal Activityof Criminal Activity
  86. 86. Psychopathy & Age of OnsetPsychopathy & Age of Onset NonviolentNonviolent ViolentViolent  Low PCLLow PCL 1212 1515  High PCLHigh PCL 99 1212 (Forth, A. E., 1995)(Forth, A. E., 1995)
  87. 87. Psychopathy ChecklistPsychopathy Checklist Youth Version: PC:YVYouth Version: PC:YV No correlation with ageNo correlation with age (Forth & Burke, 1998)(Forth & Burke, 1998)
  88. 88. Psychopathic AdolescentsPsychopathic Adolescents  More criminal actsMore criminal acts  More types of criminal actsMore types of criminal acts  Earlier age of onset for violent & nonviolentEarlier age of onset for violent & nonviolent offensesoffenses  More likely to have threatened with a weaponMore likely to have threatened with a weapon  More likely to commit robbery & arsonMore likely to commit robbery & arson  More likely to commit a sexual offenseMore likely to commit a sexual offense (Forth & Burke, 1998)(Forth & Burke, 1998)
  89. 89. Psychopathic Adolescent SexPsychopathic Adolescent Sex OffendersOffenders  Threatened moreThreatened more  Used more severe violenceUsed more severe violence (Gretton et al., 1994)(Gretton et al., 1994)
  90. 90. Adolescent Psychopathy &Adolescent Psychopathy & RecidivismRecidivism N = 189N = 189 HighHigh LowLow NonviolentNonviolent 66%66% 27%27% ViolentViolent 31%31% 12%12% (Gretton et al., 1994)(Gretton et al., 1994)
  91. 91. Adolescent Psychopathy &Adolescent Psychopathy & RecidivismRecidivism N = 189N = 189 HighHigh LowLow Months toMonths to RecidivismRecidivism 1616 2727 (Gretton et al., 1994)(Gretton et al., 1994)
  92. 92. Psychopathy & Quality of ParentingPsychopathy & Quality of Parenting Ordinary PersonalitiesOrdinary Personalities Poor Parenting = More ConductPoor Parenting = More Conduct ProblemsProblems High Factor 1 PersonalitiesHigh Factor 1 Personalities Parenting Not RelatedParenting Not Related (Wooton et al., 1997)(Wooton et al., 1997)
  93. 93. Recidivism in Adolescent Sex OffendersRecidivism in Adolescent Sex Offenders • N = 220 admissions to Sex Offender Treatment Program, Youth Court Services, Burnaby, B.C., 1985-1993 • Age at Intake: 14.7 • Mean PCL:YV score = 21.7 • Five-year follow-up (Gretton et al., 1999)
  94. 94. Recidivism in Adolescent Sex Offenders:Recidivism in Adolescent Sex Offenders: Type of Crime (Gretton et al, 1999)Type of Crime (Gretton et al, 1999) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Low (n=80) Med (n=111) High (n=29) PCL:YV Group Percent Non-Violent Violent Sex Offence Type
  95. 95. Recidivism in Adolescent Sex Offenders:Recidivism in Adolescent Sex Offenders: Mean Time to First OffenceMean Time to First Offence (Gretton et al, 1999)(Gretton et al, 1999) 0 10 20 30 40 Low (n=80) Med (n=111) High (n=29) PCL:YV Group Months
  96. 96. Recidivism in Adolescent Sex OffendersRecidivism in Adolescent Sex Offenders Mean Number of OffencesMean Number of Offences (Gretton et al, 1999)(Gretton et al, 1999) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Low (n=80) Med (n=111) High (n=29) PCL:YV GROUP MeanNumberof Offences
  97. 97. Psychopathy & TreatmentPsychopathy & Treatment NonNon PsychopathsPsychopaths TreatedTreated 22%22% UntreatedUntreated 39%39% (Harris, Rice et al., 1994)(Harris, Rice et al., 1994)
  98. 98. Psychopathy & TreatmentPsychopathy & Treatment PsychopathsPsychopaths TreatedTreated 77%77% UntreatedUntreated 55%55% (Harris, Rice et al., 1994)(Harris, Rice et al., 1994)
  99. 99. 10-Year Follow-Up of Adolescent10-Year Follow-Up of Adolescent Court Referrals (Gretton, 1998)Court Referrals (Gretton, 1998)  157 male adolescents referred by the courts to Youth157 male adolescents referred by the courts to Youth Court Services Inpatient Unit in 1986 for psychiatric orCourt Services Inpatient Unit in 1986 for psychiatric or psychological evaluationpsychological evaluation  Age 12 to 18Age 12 to 18  Had confessed or had been convicted on one or moreHad confessed or had been convicted on one or more violations of the penal codeviolations of the penal code  Awaiting sentencingAwaiting sentencing  Mean PCL:YV score = 22.9 (SD = 7.0)Mean PCL:YV score = 22.9 (SD = 7.0)  Reliability: ICC for average of 2 ratings = .88Reliability: ICC for average of 2 ratings = .88
  100. 100. Recidivism Rates for SampleRecidivism Rates for Sample (Gretton, 1998)(Gretton, 1998) 96 15 68 97 0 20 40 60 80 100 Any Nonviolent Sexual Violent Percent
  101. 101. Age Related Changes in Violent Offending (Gretton, 1998) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Early Adolescence Late Adolescence Early Adulthood Age Period Mean NP (n=42) M (n=77) P (n=38) NP: Nonpsychopathic Group, M: Mixed Group, P: Psychopathic Group
  102. 102. Denial in AdolescentDenial in Adolescent Sex OffendersSex Offenders N = 204 malesN = 204 males Community-based treatmentCommunity-based treatment Tx ComplianceTx Compliance Denial (%)Denial (%) NoneNone SomeSome CompleteComplete NoNo 2727 4949 7171 YesYes 7373 5252 2929 (Hunter & Figuerdo,1999)(Hunter & Figuerdo,1999)
  103. 103. Polygraph and Adolescent SexPolygraph and Adolescent Sex OffendersOffenders NN CollateralCollateral IntakeIntake PolygraphPolygraph ChildChild 6060 1.521.52 1.871.87 2.852.85 OffensesOffenses 5151 27.1827.18 20.6520.65 76.5976.59 (Emerick & Dutton, 1993)(Emerick & Dutton, 1993)
  104. 104. Polygraph and Adolescent SexPolygraph and Adolescent Sex OffendersOffenders IntakeIntake PolygraphPolygraph PornographyPornography 27%27% 78%78% VoyeurismVoyeurism 2929 4949 RapeRape 1515 2929 FetishFetish 1212 2424 (Emerick & Dutton, 1997)(Emerick & Dutton, 1997)
  105. 105. Treatment Versus SanctionsTreatment Versus Sanctions
  106. 106. Impact of Treatment Vs. SanctionsImpact of Treatment Vs. Sanctions (Andrews, 1998)(Andrews, 1998) -0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 Treatment Sanctions
  107. 107. Impact of Treatment Vs. SanctionsImpact of Treatment Vs. Sanctions Young OffendersYoung Offenders -0.02 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 Criminal Sanctions Treatment Dowden & Andrews, 1999
  108. 108. Impact of Appropriate Vs.Impact of Appropriate Vs. Inappropriate TreatmentInappropriate Treatment (Andrews, 1998)(Andrews, 1998) -0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 Combined Tx Appropriate Inappropriate Sanctions
  109. 109. Type of Treatment & Young OffendersType of Treatment & Young Offenders 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 Non Behavioral Cognitive Behavioral Dowden & Andrews, 1999
  110. 110. Appropriate TreatmentAppropriate Treatment  Higher Risk More IntensiveHigher Risk More Intensive  Targets Criminogenic NeedsTargets Criminogenic Needs  Uses Cognitive-Behavioral TreatmentUses Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment  Implement Treatment As DesignedImplement Treatment As Designed (Andrews, 1998)(Andrews, 1998)
  111. 111. Criminogenic NeedsCriminogenic Needs CriminogenicCriminogenic Non CriminogenicNon Criminogenic Antisocial AttitudesAntisocial Attitudes Self-EsteemSelf-Esteem Antisocial FriendsAntisocial Friends AnxietyAnxiety Substance AbuseSubstance Abuse DepressionDepression ImpulsivityImpulsivity
  112. 112. Targeting Criminogenic NeedsTargeting Criminogenic Needs -0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 Targets 1 - 3 Noncriminogen ic Needs Targets 4 - 6 Criminogenic Needs Gendreau, French & Taylor, 2002
  113. 113. Self Esteem Vs. Criminogenic NeedsSelf Esteem Vs. Criminogenic Needs -0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 Self Esteem Criminogenic Needs
  114. 114. What WorksWhat Works  Higher Risk OffendersHigher Risk Offenders  At least 2 sessions per weekAt least 2 sessions per week  Smaller groupsSmaller groups  Implementation MonitoredImplementation Monitored  Staff Trained on Cognitive-Behavioral TxStaff Trained on Cognitive-Behavioral Tx  Higher Proportion of Treatment CompletersHigher Proportion of Treatment Completers
  115. 115. Programming That Doesn’t WorkProgramming That Doesn’t Work PsychodynamicPsychodynamic Non-directive/Client-centeredNon-directive/Client-centered Disease ModelDisease Model (Andrews, 1998)(Andrews, 1998)
  116. 116. Cost of RecidivismCost of Recidivism  To TaxpayersTo Taxpayers  To VictimsTo Victims
  117. 117. Computing Cost of RecidivismComputing Cost of Recidivism Police InvestigationPolice Investigation AdjudicationAdjudication CorrectionsCorrections Medical Care of VictimsMedical Care of Victims Mental Health Care of VictimsMental Health Care of Victims Property DamageProperty Damage Reduced Future EarningsReduced Future Earnings (Aos, 1999)(Aos, 1999)
  118. 118. Computing Victim Cost of RecidivismComputing Victim Cost of Recidivism Medical CareMedical Care Mental Health CareMental Health Care Property DamageProperty Damage Reduced Future EarningsReduced Future Earnings Pain and SufferingPain and Suffering Loss of LifeLoss of Life (Aos, 1999)(Aos, 1999)
  119. 119. Cost Effectiveness of CorrectionalCost Effectiveness of Correctional ProgrammingProgramming Every $1 Spent on Correctional ProgrammingEvery $1 Spent on Correctional Programming Taxpayers Save $5Taxpayers Save $5 Victims Save $7Victims Save $7 (Aos, 1999)(Aos, 1999)
  120. 120. ““We found the largest and most consistentWe found the largest and most consistent returns are for programs designed forreturns are for programs designed for juvenile offenders.”juvenile offenders.” (Aos et al., 1999, p. 6)(Aos et al., 1999, p. 6)
  121. 121. Cost Effectiveness of Programming forCost Effectiveness of Programming for JuvenilesJuveniles For Every $1 Spent on Juvenile ProgramsFor Every $1 Spent on Juvenile Programs Tax Payers Save Between $7.62 & $31.4Tax Payers Save Between $7.62 & $31.4 (Aos, 1999)(Aos, 1999)
  122. 122. Cost/Benefit of Adolescent NonCost/Benefit of Adolescent Non Offender ProgramsOffender Programs ProgramProgram TaxpayersTaxpayers Taxpayers &Taxpayers & AloneAlone VictimsVictims QuantumQuantum $.09$.09 $.13$.13 Big BrothersBig Brothers $1.30$1.30 $2.12$2.12 (Aos, 1999)(Aos, 1999)
  123. 123. Cost/Benefit of Adolescent NonCost/Benefit of Adolescent Non Offender ProgramsOffender Programs ProgramProgram Cost/Cost/ EffectEffect ParticipantParticipant SizeSize QuantumQuantum $18,292$18,292 -.42-.42 Big BrothersBig Brothers $1,009$1,009 -.05-.05 (Aos, 1999)(Aos, 1999)
  124. 124. Cost/Benefit of Adolescent SupervisionCost/Benefit of Adolescent Supervision ProgramsPrograms ProgramProgram TaxpayersTaxpayers Taxpayers &Taxpayers & AloneAlone VictimsVictims  DiversionDiversion $7.62$7.62 $13.61$13.61  IntensiveIntensive ProbationProbation .90.90 1.491.49  Boot CampBoot Camp .42.42 .26.26 (Aos, 1999)(Aos, 1999)
  125. 125. Cost/Benefit of Adolescent TreatmentCost/Benefit of Adolescent Treatment ProgramsPrograms ProgramProgram TaxpayersTaxpayers Taxpayers &Taxpayers & AloneAlone VictimsVictims ARPARP $19.57$19.57 $31.40$31.40 Multi-SystemicMulti-Systemic 8.388.38 13.4513.45 Functional FamFunctional Fam 6.856.85 10.9910.99 Multi Tx FosterMulti Tx Foster 14.0714.07 22.5822.58
  126. 126. Cost/Benefit of Adolescent TreatmentCost/Benefit of Adolescent Treatment ProgramsPrograms ProgramProgram Cost/Cost/ EffectEffect ParticipantParticipant SizeSize AggressionAggression ReplacementReplacement TrainingTraining $404$404 -.26-.26 Multi-SysMulti-Sys Family TxFamily Tx $4,540$4,540 -.68-.68 (Aos, 1999)(Aos, 1999)
  127. 127. What Does It Take to Break EvenWhat Does It Take to Break Even Depends on the CostDepends on the Cost Percent Reduction toPercent Reduction to Break EvenBreak Even AggressionAggression ReplacementReplacement TrainingTraining 1.4%1.4% Multi-SystemicMulti-Systemic Family TherapyFamily Therapy 10.2%10.2%
  128. 128. Sibling IncestSibling Incest
  129. 129. Differences in IncestDifferences in Incest  Adult incest offenders:Adult incest offenders: Less deviant arousal on the PPGLess deviant arousal on the PPG Have fewer victimsHave fewer victims Begin offending at a later age.Begin offending at a later age.  Juvenile sex offendersJuvenile sex offenders All less trueAll less true Considerable cross-over incest and non-Considerable cross-over incest and non- incestincest
  130. 130. Sibling vs Parental IncestSibling vs Parental Incest No DifferenceNo Difference Self-abusive behaviorsSelf-abusive behaviors Physical problemsPhysical problems Sexual problemsSexual problems Level of guiltLevel of guilt ShameShame (Cole, 1990)(Cole, 1990)
  131. 131. Adolescent Sex OffendersAdolescent Sex Offenders N = 170N = 170 MalesMales Mean Age = 15Mean Age = 15 (O’Brien, 1991)(O’Brien, 1991)
  132. 132. SampleSample Average ActsAverage Acts IncestIncest 1818 Extrafamilial MolesterExtrafamilial Molester 44 Nonchild offenderNonchild offender 7.47.4 MixedMixed 8.58.5 (O’Brien, 1991)(O’Brien, 1991)
  133. 133. Length of AbuseLength of Abuse > 1 Year> 1 Year  Incest GroupIncest Group 45%45%  Extrafamilial MolestersExtrafamilial Molesters 23%23%  Nonchild OffendersNonchild Offenders 24%24% (O’Brien, 1991)(O’Brien, 1991)
  134. 134. IntercourseIntercourse  IncestIncest 46%46%  Extrafamilial ChildExtrafamilial Child 28%28%  Nonchild OffendersNonchild Offenders 13%13% (O’Brien, 1991)(O’Brien, 1991)
  135. 135. Age of VictimsAge of Victims < 9 Years-Old< 9 Years-Old 76%76% (O’Brien, 1991)(O’Brien, 1991)
  136. 136. Other Criminal ActsOther Criminal Acts IncestIncest 11%11% ExtrafamilialExtrafamilial 18%18% NonchildNonchild 26%26% (O’Brien, 1991)(O’Brien, 1991)
  137. 137. Prior Sexual VictimizationPrior Sexual Victimization IncestIncest 42%42% ExtrafamilialExtrafamilial 40%40% NonchildNonchild 29%29% (O’Brien, 1991)(O’Brien, 1991)
  138. 138. 2 or More Victims2 or More Victims  IncestIncest 53%53%  ExtrafamilialExtrafamilial 42%42% (O’Brien, 1991)(O’Brien, 1991)
  139. 139. Adolescent Sex OffendersAdolescent Sex Offenders  30 to 50% of child molestations30 to 50% of child molestations  20% of rapes20% of rapes (Murphy & Page, 2000)(Murphy & Page, 2000)
  140. 140. Adult Sex Offenders with No JuvenileAdult Sex Offenders with No Juvenile ChargesCharges 33%33% Committed undetected sex offensesCommitted undetected sex offenses (Knight and Prentky, 1993)(Knight and Prentky, 1993)
  141. 141. Interaction of Genes andInteraction of Genes and EnvironmentEnvironment Males with low MAOA activity alleleMales with low MAOA activity allele (specific gene)(specific gene) ++ Childhood maltreatmentChildhood maltreatment Increased antisocial behaviorIncreased antisocial behavior (Beaver, 2008)(Beaver, 2008)
  142. 142. Genetic Contribution to ViolentGenetic Contribution to Violent BehaviorBehavior ½ Variance in antisocial behavior½ Variance in antisocial behavior Due to genetic factorsDue to genetic factors ( Beaver, 2008; Mason & Frick, 1994; Miles( Beaver, 2008; Mason & Frick, 1994; Miles & Carey, 1997; Rhee & Wald, 2002)& Carey, 1997; Rhee & Wald, 2002)
  143. 143. Genetics & EnvironmentGenetics & Environment InteractiveInteractive (Rowe, 2002; Rutter, 2006; Walsh, 2002)(Rowe, 2002; Rutter, 2006; Walsh, 2002)
  144. 144. Violence Delinquency ScaleViolence Delinquency Scale  How many times past 12 months hurt someoneHow many times past 12 months hurt someone badly enough to require medical attentionbadly enough to require medical attention  Used a weapon to get something fromUsed a weapon to get something from someonesomeone  Took part in a group fightTook part in a group fight (Beaver, 2008)(Beaver, 2008)
  145. 145. Violent AdolescentsViolent Adolescents 3 samples3 samples Pretrial AssessmentPretrial Assessment Institutional AssessmentInstitutional Assessment Assessment Before ReleaseAssessment Before Release (Lodewijks et al., 2010)(Lodewijks et al., 2010)
  146. 146. Protective FactorsProtective Factors Adolescent Violent OffendersAdolescent Violent Offenders  Prosocial involvementProsocial involvement  Strong social supportStrong social support  Strong attachments & bondsStrong attachments & bonds  Positive attitude towards interventionPositive attitude towards intervention and authorityand authority  Strong commitment to school & workStrong commitment to school & work  Resilient personalityResilient personality (Lodewijks et al., 2010)(Lodewijks et al., 2010)
  147. 147. Impact of Protective FactorsImpact of Protective Factors 00 1 or more1 or more Pretrial AssessmentPretrial Assessment High riskHigh risk 40%40% 6%6% Low riskLow risk 1212 66 (Lodewijks et al., 2010)(Lodewijks et al., 2010)
  148. 148. Impact of Protective FactorsImpact of Protective Factors Institutional AssessmentInstitutional Assessment High riskHigh risk 8686 5454 Low riskLow risk 4444 1313 Pre-ReleasePre-Release High riskHigh risk 7878 3333 Low riskLow risk 3838 33 (Lodewijks et al., 2010)(Lodewijks et al., 2010)
  149. 149. Protective FactorsProtective Factors Adolescent Violent OffendersAdolescent Violent Offenders  Prosocial involvementProsocial involvement  Strong social supportStrong social support  Strong attachments & bondsStrong attachments & bonds  Positive attitude towards interventionPositive attitude towards intervention and authorityand authority  Strong commitment to school & workStrong commitment to school & work  Resilient personalityResilient personality (Lodewijks et al., 2010)(Lodewijks et al., 2010)
  150. 150. Which Factors?Which Factors?  Strong social supportStrong social support  Strong attachments to prosocial adultsStrong attachments to prosocial adults

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