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4 deception new


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Dixon, IL Presentation

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4 deception new

  1. 1. Detecting Deception
  2. 2. Who Lies? <ul><li>Everybody lies </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>“ Man was given a tongue with which to speak and words to hide his thoughts.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Hungarian Proverb) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Number of college students who admitted lying to a potential sex partner </li></ul><ul><li>92% </li></ul><ul><li>(Knox et al., 1993) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Type of Sexual Lies <ul><li>Most frequent lie both sexes? </li></ul><ul><li>Number of previous sex partners </li></ul><ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><li> I love you </li></ul><ul><li> Women </li></ul><ul><li> Sexually gratified </li></ul>
  6. 6. Extramarital Affairs <ul><li>American and British married persons </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 to ¾ </li></ul>
  7. 7. Obtaining Jobs <ul><li>Number who “varnish the truth” </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 </li></ul><ul><li>(Underwood, 1993) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Obtaining Jobs: Types of Lies <ul><li>College degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Stretching employment periods to hide unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><li>Played on college football team </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Women </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> President of sorority </li></ul>
  9. 9. Advertising <ul><li>“ We’re conceived, born, and deceived. By the time someone reaches the age of 10, he’s pretty cynical.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Jerry Della Femina, advertising executive quoted in McLoughlin et al., 1987, p. 59) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Political Lies <ul><li>Lies to get elected </li></ul><ul><li>Lies to gain support for policy </li></ul><ul><li>Lies to protect national security </li></ul><ul><li>Stupid lies </li></ul>
  11. 11. Medical Students <ul><li>How many cheated on exams? </li></ul><ul><li>10% </li></ul>
  12. 12. Patients <ul><li>Number of psychiatrically hospitalized patients who lied about using drugs? </li></ul><ul><li>60% </li></ul><ul><li>(Blumberg et al., 1971) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Dodgy Scientists <ul><li>Isaac Newton fudged data </li></ul><ul><li>Louis Pasteur used another’s vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>Gregor Mendel fudged data </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Darwin used others’ theories without credit </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Millikan only used data that supported his theories </li></ul><ul><li>Cyril Burt fudged data </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Question is not do they lie </li></ul><ul><li>But </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>How much? </li></ul><ul><li>How well? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sex Offenders: Con Men or Liars?
  16. 16. Liars & Con Men <ul><li>Liars Specific lie(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Con Man Lies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persona </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Ferdinand Demara <ul><li>Posed as </li></ul><ul><li>Physician in Royal Canadian Navy </li></ul><ul><li>Removed a bullet within half an inch of the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Removed a lung </li></ul>
  18. 18. Ferdinand Demara <ul><li>Posed as </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Ph.D. in psychology </li></ul><ul><li>College dean </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant warden of a Texas prison </li></ul><ul><li>Joined and deserted from US army & navy </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>“ I am a superior sort of liar. I don’t tell any truth at all, so then my story has unity of parts, a structural integrity, and this sounds more like the truth than the truth itself.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Con man Ferdinand Demara quoted in Crichton, 1968, p. 92) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Detecting Deception <ul><li>General Principles </li></ul>
  21. 21. Good and Bad Lie Detectors <ul><li>Good Lie Detectors </li></ul><ul><li>More likely to use nonverbal alone or in relation to speech </li></ul><ul><li>Good at reading micro-expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Bad Lie Detectors </li></ul><ul><li>Used speech alone </li></ul><ul><li>(Ekman & O’Sullivan, 1991) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Sex Differences <ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>Better at reading nonverbal clues </li></ul><ul><li>Better at telling how people are feeling who are telling the truth </li></ul><ul><li>No better at detecting deception </li></ul><ul><li>(DePaulo et al., 1993) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Good Liars <ul><li>Practiced Liars </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Liars </li></ul><ul><li>Psychopaths </li></ul>
  24. 24. Detection Apprehension <ul><li>High Stakes Up </li></ul><ul><li>Suspicious Target </li></ul><ul><li>Low Stakes </li></ul><ul><li>Gullible Target Down </li></ul>
  25. 25. Detection Apprehension <ul><li>Greatest </li></ul><ul><li>Target reputation for being touch to fool </li></ul><ul><li>Target suspicious </li></ul><ul><li>Liar little practice and no record of success </li></ul><ul><li>Stakes high </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment, not just reward, at stake </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment is great </li></ul><ul><li>Target in no way benefits from lie </li></ul><ul><li>(Ekman, 2009) </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>“ A statement should not whisper deceit; it should shout it.” Avinoam Sapir </li></ul><ul><li>“ A lie catcher should never rely upon one clue to deceit; there must be many.” (Ekman, 2009, p. 147) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Common Error in Detecting Lying <ul><li>Othello error – misinterpreting emotion </li></ul>
  28. 28. What Detects Lying? <ul><li>Gaze Aversion? </li></ul><ul><li>Fidgeting? </li></ul>
  29. 29. Fidgeting <ul><li>Viewed as a sign lying </li></ul>
  30. 30. Gaze Aversion <ul><li>Sadness </li></ul><ul><li>Nervousness </li></ul><ul><li>Embarrassment </li></ul><ul><li>Guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Disgust </li></ul>
  31. 31. Gaze Aversion <ul><li>“ Even the guilty liar probably won’t avert his gaze much, since liars know that everyone expects to be able to detect deception in this way. . . Amazingly, people continue to be misled by liars skillful enough to not avert their gaze.” </li></ul><ul><li>  (Ekman, 1992, p. 141) </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>“ At times there was a great amount of shame for being deceitful. At times there was a great amount of pride: well, I pulled this one off again. You’re a good one. You’re very capable of doing this. It works for you. There were times when little old ladies would pat me on the back and say, ‘You’re one of the best young men that I ever have known.’ I would think back and think, ‘If you really knew me you wouldn’t say that.’” </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>“ To begin with, how I felt about fooling people is what’s really hard to describe. I felt ashamed. For lack of a better word to describe it. Because I knew these people were trusting me. . . When I would lie to them, to start with I felt a lot of shame. But eventually, I had lied so much to, the shame element was no longer there. It was just a matter of keeping my tail covered. Keeping everything covered up.” </li></ul>
  34. 34. Psychopaths <ul><li>“ There is agreement that neither guilt about lying nor fear of being caught will cause a psychopath to make mistakes when he lies.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Ekman, 2009) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Feelings of Psychopaths When Lying <ul><ul><ul><li>Excitement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relief at being believed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contempt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pride </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. 20 Years of Research on Lying <ul><ul><li>People rarely get above 60% accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some groups worse than chance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Ekman, 1992) </li></ul>
  37. 37. Who Can’t Tell <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CIA </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FBI </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ATF </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Police </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DEA </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forensic psychiatrists </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Custom Officials </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Police </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judges </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lawyers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Ekman, 1991) </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Who Can’t Tell? <ul><li>Customs inspectors vs. college students) </li></ul><ul><li>(Kraut & Poe, 1980) </li></ul><ul><li>Federal law enforcement officers vs students </li></ul><ul><li>(DePaulo & Pfeifer, 1986) </li></ul><ul><li>Police officers no better than chance </li></ul><ul><li>(Kohnken, 1987) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Who Can’t Tell <ul><li>Group % Above Chance </li></ul><ul><li>Secret Service 29% </li></ul><ul><li>Psychiatrists 12% </li></ul><ul><li>(Ekman, 1991) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Top Lie Detectors <ul><li>Very few </li></ul><ul><li>85% accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>(Ekman, 2009) </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Federal law enforcement officers </li></ul><ul><li>More Confident Than College Students </li></ul><ul><li>No More Accurate </li></ul><ul><li>(DePaulo & Pfeifer, 1986) </li></ul>
  42. 42. Accuracy <ul><li>What Didn’t Make a Difference </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Years of Job Experience </li></ul><ul><li>(Ekman, 1991) </li></ul>
  43. 43. Accuracy <ul><li>Polygraphers & Secret Service </li></ul><ul><li>Worse as Got Older </li></ul><ul><li>(Ekman, 1991) </li></ul>
  44. 44. Which Signs of Deception Work? <ul><li>Signs the liar doesn’t know to fake </li></ul><ul><li>Signs the liar can’t fake </li></ul>
  45. 45. What Are You Detecting? <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deception? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional leakage? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>“ There is no sign of deceit itself.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Ekman, 2009,p. 80) </li></ul>
  47. 47. Emotions Involved in Lying <ul><li>Fear of being caught </li></ul><ul><li>Guilt about lying </li></ul><ul><li>Guilt about behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Duping delight </li></ul>
  48. 48. Fear <ul><li>Fear of not being believed </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of being caught </li></ul>
  49. 49. Channels of Communication <ul><li>Face </li></ul><ul><li>Words </li></ul><ul><li>Voice Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Body Language </li></ul>
  50. 50. Facial Expressions <ul><li>Automatic Expressions </li></ul>
  51. 51. Automatic Expressions Sadness <ul><li>Inner corner of eyebrow raises, not full brow </li></ul><ul><li>15% voluntarily </li></ul><ul><li>(Ekman, 1992) </li></ul>
  52. 52. Automatic Expressions Worry, Apprehension, Fear <ul><li>Both eyebrows raise and pull together </li></ul><ul><li>10% voluntarily </li></ul><ul><li>(Ekman, 1992) </li></ul>
  53. 53. Emotions and Their Eyebrow/Eyelid Fakeability <ul><li>Hard </li></ul><ul><li>Fear, worry, apprehension, terror </li></ul><ul><li>Sadness, grief, distress </li></ul><ul><li>Easy </li></ul><ul><li>Anger, surprise </li></ul>
  54. 54. Most Reliable Facial Muscles <ul><li>Forehead </li></ul>
  55. 55. Anger <ul><li>Reliable: Narrowing of lips </li></ul>
  56. 56. Facial Expressions <ul><li>Micro-Expressions - 1/25” </li></ul>
  57. 57. Micro Expression Training Tool <ul><li> </li></ul>
  58. 58. Facial Expressions <ul><li>Squelched Expressions </li></ul>
  59. 59. Facial Expressions <ul><li>Asymmetry </li></ul>
  60. 60. Asymmetry <ul><li>Voluntary Expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Brow-lowering in anger stronger on left </li></ul><ul><li>Nose-wrinkling in disgust stronger on right </li></ul><ul><li>Stretching of lips back towards ears in fear are stronger on right </li></ul>
  61. 61. Facial Expressions <ul><li>Timing </li></ul>
  62. 62. Which Emotion is Shortest? <ul><li>Surprise 1 second </li></ul>
  63. 63. Duration of Emotion <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 seconds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Likely Phony </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 seconds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Almost Definitely </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Bad Timing <ul><li>Affect should be on face </li></ul><ul><li>Before or at start of words </li></ul>
  65. 65. Detecting Deception <ul><li>More speech hesitations </li></ul><ul><li>More changes in pitch </li></ul><ul><li>More pupil dilation </li></ul><ul><li>(DePaulo et al., 1985; Zucker & Driver, 1984) </li></ul>
  66. 66. Body Language <ul><li>Emblems </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrators </li></ul>
  67. 67. Emblems <ul><li>Wave goodbye </li></ul><ul><li>Thumbs up </li></ul><ul><li>Thumbs down </li></ul><ul><li>Come here </li></ul><ul><li>Hitchhiking </li></ul><ul><li>Peace </li></ul><ul><li>Crazy (circle ear) </li></ul><ul><li>Praying </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeping </li></ul><ul><li>Middle finger </li></ul>
  68. 68. Channels of Communication <ul><li>Face </li></ul><ul><li>Words </li></ul><ul><li>Voice Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Body Language </li></ul>
  69. 69. Detecting Deception: Language <ul><li>Deception statements contain: </li></ul><ul><li>Negative statements </li></ul><ul><li>Irrelevant information </li></ul><ul><li>Over-generalized statements </li></ul><ul><li>Less personally relevant information </li></ul>
  70. 70. Voice Characteristics <ul><li>Upset Pitch Rises </li></ul><ul><li>Sad Pitch Drops </li></ul><ul><li>Angry Louder/faster </li></ul>
  71. 71. Nurse Study Least Accurate <ul><li>Face </li></ul><ul><li>Words </li></ul>
  72. 72. Nurse Study: Most Accurate <ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Correct 65% of time </li></ul>
  73. 73. Communication <ul><li>Body Language 65% </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal content 7% </li></ul><ul><li>Voice quality 12% </li></ul><ul><li>Mixture odors, chemical </li></ul><ul><li>changes, etc. 16% </li></ul><ul><li>(Walters, 1996) </li></ul>
  74. 74. Nurse Study <ul><li>96% accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Voice Characteristics: Rise in Pitch </li></ul><ul><li>Face: Miserable Smiles </li></ul>
  75. 75. Detecting Deception <ul><li>False Smiles </li></ul><ul><li>No involvement of eyes or eyebrow </li></ul><ul><li>More asymmetrical </li></ul><ul><li>Offset not smooth </li></ul>
  76. 76. Facial Action Coding System (FACS) <ul><li>44 Action Units </li></ul><ul><li>30 Contraction of Specific Muscles </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.., Frontalis, pars medialis </li></ul><ul><li>Inner Corner of Eyebrow Raised </li></ul><ul><li>13 Unspecified </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.., Jaw Thrust </li></ul><ul><li>7000 Combinations Observed </li></ul>
  77. 77. Comprehensive Coding Systems for Emotional Recognition 10 Hours of Coding Time Per Minute of Behavior (Ekman, 1992)
  78. 78. Computerized Analysis of Facial Expressions <ul><li>96.7% Accurate </li></ul><ul><li>(Tian et al.,2000) </li></ul>
  79. 79. Pitt- CMU Au-Coded Face Expression Database <ul><li>N = 210 </li></ul><ul><li>69% Female; 31% Male </li></ul><ul><li>81% Euro-Americans </li></ul><ul><li>13% Afro-American </li></ul><ul><li>6% Other </li></ul><ul><li>Age 18 to 50 </li></ul><ul><li>(Kanade et al., 2000) </li></ul>
  80. 80. Same Behavior – Different Listening <ul><li>Listener Behavior: Hesitation </li></ul><ul><li>Suspicious Increased suspicion </li></ul><ul><li>Wants to believe Increased trust </li></ul><ul><li>(Kraut, 1978) </li></ul>
  81. 81. Can People Learn to Detect Lying? <ul><li>Disguised smiling </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of head movement </li></ul><ul><li>Increased rate of fidgeting </li></ul><ul><li>Increased pitch </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced rate of speech </li></ul><ul><li>Pause fillers (“uh,” “er”) </li></ul><ul><li>Less congruent nonverbal behavior from the various communication channels </li></ul><ul><li>(Zuckerman & Driver, 1984) </li></ul>
  82. 82. Role of Training & Experience <ul><li>True Statements </li></ul><ul><li>All groups more accurate with more experience, particularly with training and feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback less of a difference than expected </li></ul>