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3 adolescent sex offenders

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3 adolescent sex offenders

  1. 1. What Do We Know About Adolescent Sex Offenders? Anna C. Salter
  2. 2. Adult Sex Offenders & Age of Onset <ul><li>1/3 to 1/2 began offending </li></ul><ul><li>In adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>(Prentky et al., 2000) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Juvenile Sex Offenders: Age of Onset <ul><li>Begin Offending Under Age 12 </li></ul><ul><li>46% </li></ul><ul><li>(Burton, 2000) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Rise and Fall of Juvenile Crime 1983 – 1992 Arrests <ul><li>Girls +85% </li></ul><ul><li>Boys +50% </li></ul><ul><li>Youth in juvenile facilities +41% </li></ul><ul><li>( Children’s Defense Fund, 1997) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Rise of Juvenile Crime <ul><li>1980 – 1994 Arrests </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Violent crimes +64% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Murder +99% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Butts & Travis, 2002) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Fall in Juvenile Violent Crime <ul><li>Fell 6 years 1994 – 2000 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Butts & Travis, 2002) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Decline in Juvenile Crime <ul><li>Violent Crime </li></ul><ul><li>Murder, rape, robbery aggravated assault </li></ul><ul><li>-34% </li></ul>
  8. 8. Decline in Juvenile Crime <ul><li>Arrests </li></ul><ul><li>1994 - 2000 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Murder -68% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Robbery -51% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burglary -33% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rape -25% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Butts & Travis, 2002) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Decline in Violent Crime <ul><li>2000 Lowest in 20 years </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Butts & Travis, 2002) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Decline in Juvenile Crime <ul><li>Largest of any age group </li></ul>
  11. 11. Increases in Juvenile Crime <ul><li>Arrests </li></ul><ul><li>1994 – 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>DUI +54% </li></ul><ul><li>Liquor Law Violations +33% </li></ul><ul><li>Drug Abuse +29% </li></ul><ul><li>(Butts & Travis, 2002) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Decline in Crime 2008 <ul><li>Violent Crime </li></ul><ul><li>1999-2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased 41% </li></ul>
  13. 13. Decline in Crime 2008 <ul><li>Property Crime </li></ul><ul><li>1999-2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased 32% </li></ul>
  14. 14. Decline in Crime 2008 <ul><li>Decline in Rape & Sexual Assault </li></ul><ul><li>1999-2008 </li></ul><ul><li>53% </li></ul>
  15. 15. Adolescents & Violent/Sexual Crime
  16. 16. Age of Onset of Serious Violence <ul><li>85% of those involved in serious violence by age 27 report that their 1 st act occurred between 12 & 20 </li></ul><ul><li>Peak age of onset 16 </li></ul><ul><li>Almost no serious violence starts </li></ul><ul><li>< age 10 & > age 23 </li></ul><ul><li>(Prentky 2002) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Two Onset “Trajectories” <ul><li>Childhood Onset </li></ul><ul><li>strong link between childhood factors </li></ul><ul><li>and persistent violence into adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Juvenile Onset : </li></ul><ul><li>most violence begins in adolescence, </li></ul><ul><li>ends with the transition into adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>(Prentky, 2002) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Chronic Juvenile Offenders <ul><li>% of Offenders % of Crime </li></ul><ul><li>6.3% 52% </li></ul><ul><li>7.5% 61% </li></ul><ul><li>(Wolfgang’s 1958) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Juvenile Crime <ul><li>Offenders Crimes </li></ul><ul><li>8% 70% </li></ul><ul><li>(Beuhring, 2002; Howell, 1995; Kelley et al., 1997) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Interaction of Genes and Environment <ul><li>Males with low MAOA activity allele (specific gene) </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood maltreatment </li></ul><ul><li>Increased antisocial behavior </li></ul><ul><li>(Beaver, 2008) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Genetic Contribution to Violent Behavior <ul><li>½ Variance in antisocial behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Due to genetic factors </li></ul><ul><li>( Beaver, 2008; Mason & Frick, 1994; Miles & Carey, 1997; Rhee & Wald, 2002) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Genetics & Environment <ul><li>Interactive </li></ul><ul><li>(Rowe, 2002; Rutter, 2006; Walsh, 2002) </li></ul>
  23. 24. Violence Delinquency Scale <ul><li>How many times past 12 months hurt someone badly enough to require medical attention </li></ul><ul><li>Used a weapon to get something from someone </li></ul><ul><li>Took part in a group fight </li></ul><ul><li>(Beaver, 2008) </li></ul>
  24. 25. Onset of Sexual Offending <ul><li>Incarcerated adolescents N </li></ul><ul><li>Onset < 12 48 </li></ul><ul><li>Onset> 12 130 </li></ul><ul><li>Offending < and > age 12 65 </li></ul><ul><li>Seriousness & complexity of sexual acts more severe for the continuous offenders </li></ul><ul><li>(Burton, 2000) </li></ul>
  25. 26. What Do We Know About Adolescent Sex Offenders? Anna C. Salter
  26. 27. Agenda <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescent Sex Offenders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deception </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offender Treatment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Boundaries of Developmentally Normative Sexual Behavior
  28. 29. Normal & Deviant Adolescent Sexual Behavior (Adapted from Dr. Robert Prentky & Dr. William Friedrich)
  29. 30. “ Normal ” <ul><li>Sexually explicit conversations with peers </li></ul><ul><li>Obscenities and jokes within cultural norm </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual innuendo, flirting and courtship </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in erotica </li></ul><ul><li>Solitary masturbation </li></ul><ul><li>Hugging, kissing, holding hands </li></ul><ul><li>Foreplay, (petting, making out, fondling) </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual masturbation </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual intercourse with consenting partner * </li></ul>
  30. 31. Deviant Behaviors: Level 1 <ul><li>High degree of sexual preoccupation and/or anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent use of pornography or sex shows </li></ul><ul><li>Indiscriminate sexual contact with multiple partners </li></ul><ul><li>Sexually aggressive remarks/obscenities </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual graffiti (especially sexually aggressive images) </li></ul><ul><li>Embarrassment of others with sexual remarks or innuendo </li></ul><ul><li>Violation of others’ body space </li></ul><ul><li>Pulling skirts up / pants down </li></ul><ul><li>Peeping, exposing or frottage with known agemates </li></ul><ul><li>Obscene gestures or “mooning” </li></ul>
  31. 32. Deviant Level 1 <ul><li>Red flags - may signal an abnormally high degree of sexual preoccupation and/or sexually aggressive impulses </li></ul><ul><li>Some form of intervention may be desirable </li></ul>
  32. 33. Deviant Behaviors: Level 2 <ul><li>Compulsive masturbation (especially public) </li></ul><ul><li>Degradation/humiliation of self or others with sexual overtones </li></ul><ul><li>Attempting to expose others’ genitals </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic preoccupation with sexually aggressive pornography </li></ul><ul><li>Sexually explicit conversation with young children </li></ul><ul><li>Sexualized touching without permission (grabbing, goosing) </li></ul><ul><li>Sexually explicit threats (verbal or written) </li></ul><ul><li>Obscene phone calls (voyeurism, exhibitionism, frottage) </li></ul>
  33. 34. Deviant Level 2 <ul><li>Indicate a high degree of sexual preoccupation and/or deviant sexual interests, </li></ul><ul><li>Require intervention </li></ul>
  34. 35. Deviant Behaviors: Level 3 <ul><li>Genital touching without permission (e.g. fondling) </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual contact with significant age difference (sexual abuse of children) </li></ul><ul><li>Forced sexual contact (any assault having sexual overtones) </li></ul><ul><li>Forced penetration (vaginal or anal) </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual contact with animals (bestiality) </li></ul><ul><li>Genital injury to others </li></ul>
  35. 36. Deviant Level 3 <ul><li>Victim-involved sexual assault </li></ul><ul><li>Require intervention </li></ul>
  36. 37. Risk Assessment
  37. 38. Risk Assessment: Impact of Working with Offenders <ul><li>N = 200 young offenders of all types </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence = 2 years </li></ul><ul><li>Data: </li></ul><ul><li>Presentence </li></ul><ul><li>Current offense </li></ul><ul><li>Previous convictions </li></ul><ul><li>One meeting </li></ul><ul><li>(Williams, unpublished) </li></ul>
  38. 39. Risk Assessment: Impact of Working with Offenders <ul><li>Data: </li></ul><ul><li>Original information </li></ul><ul><li>Experience of working with offenders for previous years </li></ul><ul><li>(Williams, unpublished) </li></ul>
  39. 40. Risk Assessment: Impact of Working with Offenders <ul><li>Outcome </li></ul><ul><li>1st Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate correlation with recidivism </li></ul><ul><li>2nd Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>No outcome with recidivism </li></ul><ul><li>(Williams, unpublished) </li></ul>
  40. 41. JSORRAT <ul><li>Doug Epperson </li></ul>
  41. 42. Item 1 Number of Adjudications for Sexual Offenses, including the Current <ul><li>One………………………………………0 </li></ul><ul><li>Two………………………………………1 </li></ul><ul><li>Three…………………………………….2 </li></ul><ul><li>Four or more…………………………….3 </li></ul>
  42. 43. Item 1 <ul><li>Count the number of formal adjudications for sexual offenses </li></ul><ul><li>Include attempted sex offenses and conspiracy </li></ul><ul><li>Record the score and NOT the number of adjudications </li></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>Include all adjudications regardless of the level of the sex offense (misdemeanor or felony) </li></ul><ul><li>The number of victims or number of discrete events does not count – simply count the number of adjudications </li></ul>
  44. 45. Number of Adjudications & Recidivism <ul><li>No. N Sex Recidivism </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 452 6.2% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 118 26.3% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 37 35.1% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 + 29 41.4 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Epperson, 2005) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 46. Item 2 Number of Different Victims in Charged Sex Offenses, Including Current <ul><li>One………………………………………..0 </li></ul><ul><li>Two………………………………………..1 </li></ul><ul><li>Three or more ……………………………2 </li></ul>
  46. 47. Item 2 <ul><li>Count the number of different victims in charged sex offenses including current </li></ul><ul><li>Record the score, NOT the number of victims </li></ul><ul><li>For “hands-on” victims, count each distinct victim in charged offenses </li></ul>
  47. 48. Item 2 <ul><li>For “hands-off” exposure offenses involving groups, count only one victim for each offense </li></ul><ul><li>The number of events, charges or adjudications do not count – only the number of victims of charged sex offenses </li></ul>
  48. 49. Item 2 <ul><li>Do not count victims of self-reported or alleged offenses that were not charged </li></ul>
  49. 50. Number of Victims <ul><li>No. N Recidivism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 442 6.8% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 116 24.1% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 + 78 33.3% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Epperson, 2005) </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. Item 3 Length of Charged Sex Offending History, Including the Current Charge <ul><li>Zero time (only one charge).……………..0 </li></ul><ul><li>0.01 to 5.99 months.………………………1 </li></ul><ul><li>6.00 to 11.99 months.……………………..2 </li></ul><ul><li>12 months or longer.………………………3 </li></ul>
  51. 52. Item 3 <ul><li>Length of time in months between the date of the first sexual offense CHARGE and the date of the most recent sexual offense CHARGE </li></ul><ul><li>8 months & 10 days = 8 months </li></ul><ul><li>Count the number of full months between the two charges </li></ul>
  52. 53. Duration of Sex Offense History <ul><li>Duration N Recidivism </li></ul><ul><li>0 months(1 charge) 416 5.3% </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 6 months 144 17.4% </li></ul><ul><li>6 to 12 months 27 37% </li></ul><ul><li>12 + 49 55.1% </li></ul>
  53. 54. J-SORRAT Results Risk Level Score Juvenile Recidivists Percent Recidivism Low 0 – 2 3/305 1% Mod/Low 3 – 4 9/137 6.6% Moderate 5 – 7 26/107 24.3% Mod/High 8 – 11 28/65 43.1% High 12+ 18/22 81.1%
  54. 55. Results for Juvenile Reoffending <ul><li>Nearly ½ adolescent sex offenders </li></ul><ul><li>1% reoffense rate </li></ul><ul><li>30% </li></ul><ul><li>Significant risk </li></ul>
  55. 56. Adolescent Sex Offenders Deviant Arousal or Criminal Behavior
  56. 57. Specialists? <ul><li>50% Prior Arrests Same Crime </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapists 14% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Car Thieves 19% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burglars 25% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Violent Offenders 34% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Robbers 35% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(Cohen, 1986) </li></ul>
  57. 58. Specialists? <ul><li>50% of prior crimes were sex offenses </li></ul><ul><li>Rapists 4% </li></ul><ul><li>Child Molesters 41% </li></ul><ul><li>(Lussier et al., 2005) </li></ul>
  58. 59. Hanson Meta-Analysis Recidivism <ul><li>Follow-up = 4 - 5 Years </li></ul><ul><li>New Sex Offense 13% </li></ul><ul><li>Any Offense 37% </li></ul><ul><li>(Hanson & Bussiere, 1996) </li></ul>
  59. 60. Adolescent Sex Offenders: Sexual vs. General Recidivism <ul><li>FU up to 6 years </li></ul><ul><li>Recidivate </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual 7.5 to 14 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General Criminal 40 to 60 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Langstrom & Grann, 2000) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  60. 61. Adolescent Sex Offenders <ul><li>Committed a non-sex offense 86% </li></ul><ul><li>(Jacobs et al., 1997) </li></ul>
  61. 62. Deviant Arousal or Antisocial <ul><li>4 variables correctly classified 77% reoffenders </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement with delinquent peers </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against persons </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes towards sexual assault </li></ul><ul><li>Family normlessness </li></ul><ul><li>(Ageton, 1983) </li></ul>
  62. 63. Deviant Arousal or Antisocial <ul><li>Involvement with delinquent peers </li></ul><ul><li>Correctly classified 76% reoffenders </li></ul><ul><li>(Ageton, 1983) </li></ul>
  63. 64. Fluidity of Sexual Preference
  64. 65. Hunter & Becker, 1994 Hunter, Goodwin, & Becker, 1994 <ul><li>Hypothesized that “the majority of juvenile offenders, in contrast to most adult offenders, may not have yet developed a relatively fixed pattern of sexual arousal and interest which gives direction to consistent patterns of behaviour,” Hunter et al., 1994, p. 536. </li></ul>
  65. 66. The assumption of greater developmental fluidity in JSOs is supported by: <ul><li>(1) much higher number of juvenile, as opposed to adult, offenders with mixed gender victims; </li></ul><ul><li>(2) relatively high percentage of juveniles with multiple paraphilias; </li></ul><ul><li>(3) marked differences between juvenile and adult incest offenders </li></ul><ul><li>(Hunter et al., 1994) </li></ul>
  66. 67. Differences in Incest <ul><li>Adult incest offenders: </li></ul><ul><li>Less deviant arousal on the PPG </li></ul><ul><li>Have fewer victims </li></ul><ul><li>Begin offending at a later age. </li></ul><ul><li>Juvenile sex offenders </li></ul><ul><li>All less true </li></ul><ul><li>Considerable cross-over incest and non-incest </li></ul><ul><li>(Hunter et al., 1994) </li></ul>
  67. 68. Adult Psychopathy Best Predictor of Violence (Harris, Rice & Cormier, 1991)
  68. 69. Adolescent Psychopathy & Violence <ul><li>Age Range High Low </li></ul><ul><li>Younger (13 - 15.5) 52% 12% </li></ul><ul><li>Mid (15.5 - 18) 64% 54% </li></ul><ul><li>Older (18 - 20.5) 48% 33% (Forth, 1995) </li></ul>
  69. 70. High Vs Low Psychopathy Adolescents <ul><li>10 or More </li></ul><ul><li>Violent Acts </li></ul><ul><li>High Psychopathy 64% </li></ul><ul><li>Low Psychopathy 37% </li></ul><ul><li>(Forth, 1995) </li></ul>
  70. 71. Earlier Onset of Criminal Activity
  71. 72. Psychopathy & Age of Onset <ul><li>Nonviolent Violent </li></ul><ul><li>Low PCL 12 15 </li></ul><ul><li>High PCL 9 12 </li></ul><ul><li>(Forth, A. E., 1995) </li></ul>
  72. 73. Treatment Versus Sanctions
  73. 74. Impact of Treatment Vs. Sanctions (Andrews, 1998)
  74. 75. Impact of Treatment Vs. Sanctions Young Offenders Dowden & Andrews, 1999
  75. 76. Impact of Appropriate Vs. Inappropriate Treatment (Andrews, 1998)
  76. 77. Type of Treatment & Young Offenders Dowden & Andrews, 1999
  77. 78. Appropriate Treatment <ul><ul><li>Higher Risk More Intensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Targets Criminogenic Needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement Treatment As Designed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Andrews, 1998) </li></ul></ul>
  78. 79. Criminogenic Needs <ul><li>Criminogenic Non Criminogenic </li></ul><ul><li>Antisocial Attitudes Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Antisocial Friends Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Substance Abuse Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsivity </li></ul>
  79. 80. Targeting Criminogenic Needs Gendreau, French & Taylor, 2002
  80. 81. Self Esteem Vs. Criminogenic Needs
  81. 82. What Works <ul><li>Higher Risk Offenders </li></ul><ul><li>At least 2 sessions per week </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller groups </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation Monitored </li></ul><ul><li>Staff Trained on Cognitive-Behavioral Tx </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Proportion of Treatment Completers </li></ul>
  82. 83. Programming That Doesn’t Work <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychodynamic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-directive/Client-centered </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disease Model </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Andrews, 1998) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  83. 84. Cost of Recidivism <ul><li>To Taxpayers </li></ul><ul><li>To Victims </li></ul>
  84. 85. Computing Cost of Recidivism <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Police Investigation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adjudication </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corrections </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medical Care of Victims </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mental Health Care of Victims </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Property Damage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Future Earnings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Aos, 1999) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  85. 86. Computing Victim Cost of Recidivism <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medical Care </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mental Health Care </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Property Damage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Future Earnings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pain and Suffering </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of Life </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Aos, 1999) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  86. 87. Cost Effectiveness of Correctional Programming <ul><li>Every $1 Spent on Correctional Programming </li></ul><ul><li>Taxpayers Save $5 </li></ul><ul><li>Victims Save $7 </li></ul><ul><li>(Aos, 1999) </li></ul>
  87. 88. <ul><li>“ We found the largest and most consistent returns are for programs designed for juvenile offenders.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Aos et al., 1999, p. 6) </li></ul>
  88. 89. Cost Effectiveness of Programming for Juveniles <ul><li>For Every $1 Spent on Juvenile Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Tax Payers Save Between $7.62 & $31.4 </li></ul><ul><li>(Aos, 1999) </li></ul>
  89. 90. Cost/Benefit of Adolescent Non Offender Programs <ul><li>Program Taxpayers Taxpayers & </li></ul><ul><li> Alone Victims </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum $.09 $.13 </li></ul><ul><li>Big Brothers $1.30 $2.12 </li></ul><ul><li>(Aos, 1999) </li></ul>
  90. 91. Cost/Benefit of Adolescent Non Offender Programs <ul><li>Program Cost/ Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Participant Size </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum $18,292 -.42 </li></ul><ul><li>Big Brothers $1,009 -.05 </li></ul><ul><li>(Aos, 1999) </li></ul>
  91. 92. Cost/Benefit of Adolescent Supervision Programs <ul><li>Program Taxpayers Taxpayers & </li></ul><ul><li> Alone Victims </li></ul><ul><li>Diversion $7.62 $13.61 </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Probation .90 1.49 </li></ul><ul><li>Boot Camp .42 .26 </li></ul><ul><li>(Aos, 1999) </li></ul>
  92. 93. Cost/Benefit of Adolescent Treatment Programs <ul><li>Program Taxpayers Taxpayers & </li></ul><ul><li> Alone Victims </li></ul><ul><li>ARP $19.57 $31.40 </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Systemic 8.38 13.45 </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Fam 6.85 10.99 </li></ul><ul><li>Multi Tx Foster 14.07 22.58 </li></ul>
  93. 94. Cost/Benefit of Adolescent Treatment Programs <ul><li>Program Cost/ Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Participant Size </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement </li></ul><ul><li>Training $404 -.26 </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Sys </li></ul><ul><li>Family Tx $4,540 -.68 </li></ul><ul><li>(Aos, 1999) </li></ul>
  94. 95. What Does It Take to Break Even <ul><li>Depends on the Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Percent Reduction to </li></ul><ul><li>Break Even </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement </li></ul><ul><li>Training 1.4% </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Systemic </li></ul><ul><li>Family Therapy 10.2% </li></ul>

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