BE1257 Lecture 3: Sustainable Development

868 views

Published on

Lecture 3 of the Environmental Design module - Northumbria University

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
868
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
29
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
30
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

BE1257 Lecture 3: Sustainable Development

  1. 1. Sustainable  Development Dr.Alex Hope BE1257 Environmental Design
  2. 2. Sustainable  Development “Our biggest challenge this new century is to take an idea that seems abstract - sustainable development - and turn it into a reality for all the world’s people” Kofi Annan, former UN Secretary General 2001
  3. 3. What  is  the  nature  of  the   problem? • 7 Billions people want decent life styles • Today’s lifestyles and resource and energy intensive • Providing enough energy and resources for 7 Billion • Unsustainable ‘western’ lifestyles What is ‘Sustainable Development’?
  4. 4. Defining  Sustainable   Development “Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” Our Common Future, United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), 1987
  5. 5. Classical  model  of  sustainability http://sustainabilityinitiatives.wmwikis.net/file/view/The_three_spheres_of_sustainability.png
  6. 6. The  Five  economic  pillars  Sustainability Manufactured Capital Fiscal Capital Cultural Capital Human/Social Capital Natural Capital J. Porritt, Capitalism As If the World Matters, Routledge S. Hawken, A. Lovins, H. Lovins, Natural Capitalism, Routledge
  7. 7. Ecological  Footprint A  measure  of  how  much  area   of  biologically  produc=ve   land  and  water  an  individual,   popula=on  or  ac=vity   requires  to  produce  all  the   resources  it  consumes  and  to   absorb  the  waste  it   generates,  using  prevailing   technology  and  resource   management  prac=ces.   The  Ecological  Footprint  is  usually   measured  in  global  hectares.   Because  trade  is  global,  an   individual  or  country's  Footprint   includes  land  or  sea  from  all  over   the  world.  Ecological  Footprint  is   oDen  referred  to  in  short  form  as   Footprint.  "Ecological  Footprint"   and  "Footprint"  are  proper  nouns   and  thus  should  always  be   capitalized. http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/page/glossary/
  8. 8. Ecological  Footprint Current population Available land area 1.8 Global Hectares per person=
  9. 9. Ecological  Footprint:  Overshoot Overshoot  is  said  to  occur  when  humanity’s  annual  demand   upon  the  natural  world  has  exceeded  what  the  Earth  can  renew   in  a  year.  This  has  occurred  every  year  since  the  1970’s   http://assets.wwf.org.uk/downloads/lpr_2012_rio_summary_booklet_final_9may2012.pdf
  10. 10. Ecological  Footprint If we all consumed the same amount of resources, how many planets would we need?
  11. 11. Ecological  Footprint USA Europe World http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/page/world_footprint/ http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/page/basics_introduction/
  12. 12. Ecological  Footprint
  13. 13. But  of  course  we  only  have  one   planet…… THINK GLOBAL ACT LOCAL
  14. 14. Human  Development
  15. 15. Human  Development  Index • The  Human  Development  Index  (HDI)  is  a  summary  measure  of  human  development.  It   measures  the  average  achievements  in  a  country  in  three  basic  dimensions  of  human   development:  a  long  and  healthy  life  (health),  access  to  knowledge  (educa=on)  and  a  decent   standard  of  living  (income).  Data  availability  determines  HDI  country  coverage.  To  enable   cross-­‐country  comparisons,  the  HDI  is,  to  the  extent  possible,  calculated  based  on  data  from   leading  interna=onal  data  agencies  and  other  credible  data  sources  available  at  the  =me  of   wri=ng. • The  term  Human  Development  Index  (HDI)  is  taken  to  be  a  synonym  of  the  older  term   standards  of  living  or  Quality  of  life  and  dis=nguish  between  "very  high  human   development",  "high  human  development",  "medium  human  development",  and  "low   human  development"  countries.   http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/hdi/
  16. 16. Human  Development  Index http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/hdi/
  17. 17. Human  Development  Index
  18. 18. Gender  Inequality  Index
  19. 19. Gender  Inequality  Index  (GII)   • The  Gender  Inequality  Index  is  a  composite  measure  reflec=ng  inequality  in  achievements   between  women  and  men  in  three  dimensions:  reproduc=ve  health,  empowerment  and  the  labour   market.  It  varies  between  zero  (when  women  and  men  fare  equally)  and  one  (when  men  or   women  fare  poorly  compared  to  the  other  in  all  dimensions).   • The  health  dimension  is  measured  by  two  indicators:  maternal  mortality  ra=o  and  the  adolescent   fer=lity  rate.   •  The  empowerment  dimension  is  also  measured  by  two  indicators:  the  share  of  parliamentary   seats  held  by  each  sex  and  by  secondary  and  higher  educa=on  aXainment  levels.   •  The  labour  dimension  is  measured  by  women’s  par=cipa=on  in  the  work  force.  The  Gender   Inequality  Index  is  designed  to  reveal  the  extent  to  which  na=onal  achievements  in  these  aspects   of  human  development  are  eroded  by  gender  inequality,  and  to  provide  empirical  founda=ons  for   policy  analysis  and  advocacy  efforts.
  20. 20. Gender  Inequality  Index  (GII)   http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_TechNotes.pdf
  21. 21. Are  we  making  progress… •            1.3  billion  people  live  in  absolute  poverty  and  have  no   access  to  safe  drinking  water •          35,000  people  die  of  starva=on  everyday •          Twice  as  many  Ethiopians  face  starva=on  due  to   famine  now  than  in  1984 •          225  of  the  world’s  richest  individuals  have  an  annual   income  equivalent  to  the  poorest  47%  of  the  world’s   en=re  popula=on
  22. 22. But  of  course  we  only  have  one   planet…… THINK GLOBAL ACT LOCAL
  23. 23. Sustainable  Development Sustainable  Development  may  be  described  as  minimising  the   Ecological  Footprint  whilst  also  maximising  the  Human  Development   Index  (HDI).
  24. 24. 0" 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 7" 8" 9" 10" 0" 0.1" 0.2" 0.3" 0.4" 0.5" 0.6" 0.7" 0.8" 0.9" 1" Ecological(Footprint( Human(Development(Index( Human(Development(Index(and(Ecological(Footprint( Human  Development  Index  and   Ecological  Footprint Small ecological footprint HighHDI Sustainable Development Quadrant
  25. 25. Human  Development  Index  and   Ecological  Footprint Only one country (Cuba) populates the Sustainable Development Quadrant Global Footprints Network http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/52/1/43844294.htm#H56
  26. 26. 0" 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 7" 8" 9" 10" 0" 0.1" 0.2" 0.3" 0.4" 0.5" 0.6" 0.7" 0.8" 0.9" 1" Ecological(Footprint( Human(Development(Index( Human(Development(Index(and(Ecological(Footprint( Human  Development  Index  and   Ecological  Footprint Small ecological footprint HighHDI By  what  means  can  the  sustainable  development  quadrant  be  populated?
  27. 27. Contrac=on  and  Convergence http://gci.org.uk/
  28. 28. 0" 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 7" 8" 9" 10" 0" 0.1" 0.2" 0.3" 0.4" 0.5" 0.6" 0.7" 0.8" 0.9" 1" Ecological(Footprint( Human(Development(Index( Human(Development(Index(and(Ecological(Footprint( Human  Development  Index  and   Ecological  Footprint Small ecological footprint HighHDI Contraction and convergence
  29. 29. Human  Development  Index  and   Ecological  Footprint 0" 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 7" 8" 9" 10" 0.0" 0.1" 0.2" 0.3" 0.4" 0.5" 0.6" 0.7" 0.8" 0.9" 1.0" Ecological(Footprint( Human(Development(Index( Human(Development(Index(and(Ecological(Footprint( By  what  means  can  the  sustainable  development  quadrant  be   populated?
  30. 30. Are$we$making$progress…$
  31. 31. But  of  course  we  only  have  one   planet…… THINK GLOBAL ACT LOCAL
  32. 32. Summary'' •  Definitions of Sustainable development •  Models of sustainable development •  Ecological and Carbon footprinting •  Human Development Index
  33. 33. Text What  if  it’s  all  a  hoax?
  34. 34. Further'Reading' IISD (2010) ‘Sustainable Development Timeline’, International Institute for Sustainable Development [Online]. Available at: www.iisd.org Goodland, R. (1995) ‘The Concept of Environmental Sustainability’, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 26 pp. 1-24 Anand, S. and Sen, A. (2000) ‘Human Development and Economic Sustainability’, World Development 28 (12) pp. 2029-2049 McKenzie, S. (2004) ‘Social Sustainability: Towards some definitions’, Hawke Research Institute Working Paper Series 27. Magill: Hawke University UNDP (2011) ‘Human Development Report 2011: Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All’. Available at: http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2011/download/

×