Lec 19 20 Lab Animal Rabbits And Guinea Pigs


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  • Lateral saphenous vein can also be used for indwelling catheters.
  • Induce hypnosis in rabbit by placing it in dorsal recumbency and gently stroking its ventrum.
  • Texel gp
  • Lec 19 20 Lab Animal Rabbits And Guinea Pigs

    1. 1. Lab Animals in Research• AALAC – http://www.aaalac.org/• IACUC – http://www.iacuc.org/
    2. 2. Lab Animal &Small Mammal Husbandry
    3. 3. Rabbits veterinarypartner.com www.rabbit.org
    4. 4. CHAPTER 9Rabbits
    5. 5. Oryctolagus cuniculus• Rabbit - not rodent but lagomorph• Size range 3 lbs to 20 lbs• About 45 different breeds• Uses: Meat, fur, research & pets
    6. 6. History of Rabbits• Fossils date back 30 to 37 million years• Domestic breeds developed from European wild rabbit – First reports during 1100 BC – Domesticated by French monks in Middle Ages• Became pests in latter 19th century – European wilds now flourish – Cottontail common in North America – http://www.rabbitfreeaustralia.org.au/rabbit_problem.html An initial introduction of 24 wild European rabbits in 1859 produced an astounding 10 billion rabbits by the 1920’s.
    7. 7. Uses for Rabbits• Meat• Research• Fur/wool (rex, angora)• 4H / FFA Project animals• Pets
    8. 8. Five Rabbit Weight Categories• Dwarf or miniature• Small• Medium• Large• Gianthttp://www.arba.net/breeds.htm
    9. 9. Dwarf or Miniature Rabbits• Britannia Petite• Netherland Dwarf• Himalayan• Dwarf Hotot• Polish• Jersey Wooly• Holland Lop• American Fuzzy Lop• Mini Rex
    10. 10. Small Rabbits• Dutch• Tan• Florida White• Silver• Havana• Mini Lop (mini refers to ear length, not body size)
    11. 11. Medium Rabbits• English Spot • Silver Martin• Standard Chinchilla • Belgian Hare• English Angora • Rhinelander• Satin Angora • Harlequin• French Angora • Sable• Lilac • Shorthaired Rex
    12. 12. Large Rabbits • Champagne d’Argent • American • American Chinchilla• Beveren • English Lop• Californian • New Zealand• Hotot • Silver Fox• Palomino• Satin• Cinnamon• Creme d’Argent
    13. 13. Giant Rabbits• Giant Angora• French Lop• Checkered Giant• Giant Chinchilla• Flemish Giant
    14. 14. Breeding• Male – buck; Female – doe; young – kit Process of giving birth – kindling• Life span: 5 to 8+ years• Sexual maturity: 4-10 months• Induced ovulators (like cats)• Sexual dimorphism
    15. 15. Breeding & Gestation• ALWAYS take the female to the male’s cage for breeding (does cage protective)• Gestation 29-35 days (4-10 typical litter size)• Nesting box necessary• Extremely rich milk, fed 1-2x/day (if not wrinkled, if warm & if bunched together it’s being fed)• Do not disturb doe and kits first 10-14 days• Weaned at 4-6 weeks
    16. 16. Anatomy• Continuously growing teeth. Two pairs of incisors.• Cecum, like horses: hind gut fermenters • Nictitating membrane• Cecotrope (a type of (Third eyelid) dropping that is eaten by the rabbit directly from the • Highly vascular ears anus and then digested to give aa’s, FAs, vitamins from low energy foods) • Fragile spine
    17. 17. Rabbit Housing & Equipment• Rabbit houses called “hutches” – Determined by breed, bigger is better – Partial solid floors prevent irritation (pododermatitis 2nd to poor sanitation / 100% wire flooring) – SECURE LID, DOORS – Absorbent materials best for litter: pelleted paper, pelleted grass (NOT corn cob, walnut shell, clay litter)• Other equipment – For feeding: Galvanized-metal self-feeders – For water: Ceramic bowls or vacuum-type bottles
    18. 18. http://www.radil.missouri.edu/info/dora/RABBPAGE/mis.htm
    19. 19. Rabbit Feeding• FREE CHOICE grass, oat or timothy hay• Alfalfa is too high in Ca++ & calories• Vegetables: 3+ different types daily of dark green / dark yellow veggies – kale, dandelion greens, broccoli leaves, collard greens, green/yellow peppers• Commercial pelleted rabbit food – free choice to young, measured and limited amount to adults (no >20% of diet)• Fruit as a treat (no > 1-2 tbsp per 5#/day)• Particularly when warm: clean, fresh water should be abundantly available
    20. 20. Rabbit Maintenance• Regular (daily ideal) cleaning, sanitation of housing / environment• Nail trimming• Some require incisor trimming (malocclusion)• Brushing (1-2x/week; daily if long hair)• May need flea/insect prevention (cat meds / doses often used)
    21. 21. Bunny Behavior• Generally docile disposition• Noises: occasional panic scream, warning growl• May spray urine if upset (males > females)• Can be housebroken, harness trained• Chewers! (make sure hutch is sturdy)• Not heat tolerant• Coprophagic
    22. 22. Handling of Rabbits• Rabbit’s size drives handling method – Never pick a rabbit up by the ears• Approach cage slowly, speaking to rabbit• Rub rabbit before attempting lifting – Place one hand under belly, one behind – For large rabbits, use arm for cradling – Tuck head under elbow of supporting arm• Put rabbit down slowly, hind end first – Allow rabbit to see where it is going
    23. 23. Restraint• Never pick up by the ears• DO scruff behind ears• Always support the hindquarters!!! – Can fracture spine if rear legs kick too hard or in awkward position – Delicate!• Restraint by hypnosis (cradle on its back, scruff in hand, rear end supported w/ back resting against handler)• Return to cage hind end first
    24. 24. Injection Sites in Rabbits• Injection Sites – IM: quadriceps – SQ, IP also may be used• Venipuncture sites – Marginal ear vein – Cephalic vein – Lateral saphenous vein – Jugular vein• May require anesthesia for catheter placement – delicate veins (delicate skin, too) 26
    25. 25. Rabbit Anesthesia• Withhold food? – When fasting is not recommended in rabbits, it has to with exhausting glycogen stores which can lead to hypoglycemia which may cause post-operative ileus. When fasting is recommended, it is to decrease stomach volume compressing the diaphragm and respiratory space. The inability to vomit is also sometimes cited a reason to not require fasting in rabbits. – rabbits are unlikely to vomit/regurgitate in the perianesthetic period. I usually take the animals off water 1-2 hrs before just in case they will passively reflux under anesthesia. Prolonged fasting in rabbits is likely to lead to ileus, a common problem in rabbits.• Must be free from respiratory disease• Injectable agents – Ketamine + Midazolam/Diazepam + Xylazine + Butorphanol (healthy) – Midazolam/Diazepam + Butorphanol + Glycopyrrolate (ill/debilitated) – Ketamine + Acepromazine, Ketamine + Xylazine
    26. 26. Common LagomorphDiseases / Conditions
    27. 27. Common Rabbit Ailments• Gastrointestinal (anorexia > 24-28h  hepatic lipidosis, diarrhea or ileus, no stool) – Trichobezoars – Bacterial (Tyzzer’s: Clostridium piliformis; other Cl. Sp.), coccidia, – Dental Malocclusion, tooth root abscess• Respiratory (Dyspnea, Pneumonia) – Heat stress / stroke – Bacterial (Pasturella, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Bordatella, Staphylococcus…) rhinitis, pneumonia, pyothorax – Neoplasia (metastasis of uterine adenocarcinoma)
    28. 28. Trichobezoars (Hairballs)• Rabbits are clean and groom frequently• Diagnosis: Not eaten in 24 hrs, and x- rays show food in the stomach• Treatment: Drugs early on to change gut motility, or surgery (50% mortality rate)• Prevention: High fiber diet; hair ball medication; frequent brushing
    29. 29. Common Rabbit Ailments• Neurologic – Otitis interna, torticollis (Pasturella, Staphylococcus) – Trauma – Fungal – Toxin (lead)• Integument – Infection, wounds 2nd to poor housing/sanitation – Parasites – pruritis – fleas• Urogenital – Uroliths, sludge – Dystocia, Mastitis
    30. 30. Pasturella (Snuffles)• Clinical Signs: – Discharge from eyes and/or nose – Squinting or redness of eyes – Otitis  torticollis – Abscesses• Tx: Abx (injection, oral, IN, ocular)• Many rabbits are chronically infected
    31. 31. Skin Diseases• Bacterial Infections: Treat with Antibiotics• Ringworm: Treat with topical medication, oral medication or medicated shampoos• Fleas: Can use products safe on cats
    32. 32. Parasites• Mange (walking dandruff) – seen as hair loss and dandruff Diagnosis by skin scraping Treatment- medicated shampoo• Ear mites: Dark crusty material in ears, scratching and shaking head – injectable or topical medication• Coccidia: Fecal testing to find - medication
    33. 33. Cystic Calculi (Bladder Stones)• Clinical Signs: Frequent urination, straining to urinate Blood in the urine.• Treatment: Surgical Removal• Prevention: Increase activity level and provide more space, Decrease/remove pellets and add fiber, leafy greens to diet, plenty of water
    34. 34. Uterine Adenocarcinoma and/or pyometra• Intact (not spayed) female rabbits• Clinical signs: Older female, listless, not eating• Treatment – exploratory surgery• Prevention – spay early; If breeding the doe, spay when breeding life is done.
    35. 35. Disease Prevention• Quarantine new rabbits for 30 days• Reduce stress• Avoid overcrowding• Avoid dietary changes, provide appropriate & quality diet• Keep litter clean
    36. 36. Guinea Pigs (cavy)
    37. 37. CHAPTER 14Guinea Pigs
    38. 38. Cavia porcellus• Guinea Pig Rodent - More closely related to porcupines and chinchillas• Average weight 750 grams• Eleven breeds for show
    39. 39. History of Guinea Pigs• Exact history of domestic cavy unknown – May come from C. aperea, C. tschudii, or C. fulgida – Does not come from Guinea• Bred for meat production in South America for at least 3,000 years• Brought to Europe in 16th century• Since mid-1800s, used for pathology, nutrition, genetics, and toxicology research, as well as serum development
    40. 40. Uses for Guinea Pigs• Meat (S. America)• Research• 4H / FFA Project animals• Pets
    41. 41. Common Guinea Pig Varieties• Abyssinian• American• Peruvian• Satin• Silkie• Teddy• White Crested
    42. 42. Abyssinian Guinea Pig• Rough, wiry hair coat – Hair made of rosettes (swirls or cowlicks) – More rosettes are desirable• Found in all colors and color combinations
    43. 43. American Guinea Pig• Most common variety• Short, very glossy, fine hair – Short hair eases care• Found in widely varied colors and color combinations
    44. 44. Peruvian Guinea Pig• Longhaired variety – Hair length, evenness, and balance are deciding features – Hair requires much upkeep (can be 20” long)• Lacks a tail• Found in many of the colors and color combinations as American variety
    45. 45. Satin Guinea Pig• Fur is distinguishing feature – Fine, dense, and soft – Luxurious and shiny• Found in colors and color combinations of other varieties
    46. 46. SilkyGuinea Pig• Longhaired variety – Unlike Peruvian, no long frontal sweep over head – Mane sweeps back from head, between ears, over the back, and down the sides• Sometimes called the Sheltie• Found in colors and color combinations of other varieties
    47. 47. Teddy Guinea Pig• Short, kinky hair – Short, resilient strands – Lies thick and close to the body – Whiskers also kinked• Found in colors and color combinations of other varieties
    48. 48. White Crested• Shorthaired variety – Resembles American shorthair except for crest – Crest is white rosette that radiates evenly from center of forehead• Found mainly in self, solid, and agouti colors
    49. 49. Characteristics of Guinea Pigs• Physical makeup – Adult length of 8 to 10”, weight of 1 to 2 pounds – Short, stocky build with short legs – Short, blunt, rounded nose – Short ears with little fur – Agouti, self, solid, and marked colors• Skills – Very sensitive hearing – Highly developed sense of smell – Excellent peripheral vision• Behaviors – Live in colonies or clans – One dominant male and 5 to 10 females
    50. 50. Anatomy• No tail • Open rooted teeth• One pair of • Born with teeth mammary glands • Born with eyes open• Herbivore • Heavy body weight for size • Susceptible to Bordatella
    51. 51. Guinea Pig Reproduction• Average life span 5 years (4-8y)• Males are boars• Females are sows• Polyestrous with spontaneous (induced) ovulation• 1-6 young/litter
    52. 52. Guinea Pig Reproduction• Sexual maturity – Females at 2 months (4-6w) – Males at 3 months (9-10w)• First breeding before female is 6 months / before reaching 500 grams body weight (6m old is when pelvic symphysis fuses) – Pair breeding (monogamous) – Colony breeding (polygamous / harem: 1 boar/4-10 sows)• Gestation period from 56 to 74 days• Up to 5 litters yearly (2 to 4 average)• Young fully developed at birth (precocious) – Weigh 1½ to 4½ ounces – Have open eyes and full fur – Running and eating solid food in 24 hours
    53. 53. Desired Qualities of Guinea Pig Housing• At least 12” x 12” x 12” per adult (double size if breeders)• Plastic bottom that is 3 or 4” deep• Sides of vertical wire bars or glass• Hiding box / area for sleeping• Abundant bedding – shavings, shredded paper – CLEAN FREQUENTLY• Heavy glass or earthenware food bowls• Vacuum-type water bottle• When housed outside – Portable house or run-in (3 square feet/pig) – Temperatures above 50°F (55-70 ideal, >80-85 BAD)
    54. 54. Basics of Guinea Pig Feeding• Sensitive GI system – no rapid diet changes!• Vegetarian diet – mix of veggies, hay, guinea pig pellets – Must consume vitamin C (~0.5mg/kg/day) – Vit C deficiencies often from use of old food• Foods tailored to age/state – Young or pregnant pigs: alfalfa pellets and dry alfalfa hay – Adults: Clover and grass hay pellets and low-protein dry clover and grass hays• Other food sources – Dandelion greens, Romaine or green leaf lettuce (no iceberg), kale, carrots, apples, pears, turnips, beets, cucumbers• Constant source of fresh water – clean daily
    55. 55. Basic Care of Guinea Pigs• Regular grooming – Shorthaired: Daily brushing – Longhaired: Combing and brushing, clipping• Occasional bathing – Use mild shampoo – Avoid chills• Regular nail clipping
    56. 56. Handling Methods for Guinea Pigs• Acclimation process – In new home, allow long exploration time – Offer treats (fresh greens, carrots, apples) – Pet and lift to overcome shyness• Lifting technique – Grasp firmly around front shoulders with one hand, support rear with other – Cradle in palm and forearm close to body
    57. 57. Guinea Pig Ailments• Respiratory diseases (bacterial, viral pneumonia)• Diarrhea (bacterial, diet related enteritis)• Dystocia, Toxemia (pregnant females)• Integument: – Pododermatitis – Mites and biting lice – Neck swellings (e.g. cervical abscess)• Overgrown or maloccluded teeth• Genital-area obstructions – clean area to prevent
    58. 58. Scurvy• Vitamin C deficiency Clinical Signs: anorexia/poor appetite, swollen, painful joints and ribs, reluctance to move, poor bone and teeth development, and spontaneous bleeding especially from the gums, into joints, and in muscle. Treatment: Supplement with Vitamin C injections; Add Vitamin C to water; feed fresher food and fresh vegetables
    59. 59. Dystocia & Toxemia• Must be bred before 6 months of age• Toxemia seen in obese guinea pigs during late pregnancy. Prevention includes reducing stress during pregnancy and correct diet.
    60. 60. Hyperthermia• Temperatures over 85 degrees, Humidity over 70%, inadequate shade and ventilation, overcrowding Signs: panting, slobbering, weakness, lethargy, convulsions Treatment: cool water spray or bath, alcohol on foot pads, change environment to prevent future episodes