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Feathers make up 6-10% of a mature broiler chicken (Ajayi, 2014)
Feathers contain 83-87% crude protein (CP) (...
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Ajayi- OWSD, 2016-poster for presentation.pdf 2


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Ajayi- OWSD, 2016-poster for presentation.pdf 2

  1. 1. Introduction Feathers make up 6-10% of a mature broiler chicken (Ajayi, 2014) Feathers contain 83-87% crude protein (CP) (Tiwary and Gupta, 2012; Ajayi, 2014). Hydrolysed feather meal (HFM) has low digestibility leading to poor performance in poultry (Shiroma and Hongo, 1974). Exogenous enzymes improve digestibility and nutrient availability of poorly digestible materials (Kocher et al., 2002, Cowieson and Adeola, 2008), they can be used in targeted part production (Ajayi, 2015). Keratin (the protein of feathers) can be hydrolyzed by keratinases which are not produced by animals. CIBENZA DP100 is a commercial protease feed enzyme that is believed to have keratinase activity. Enzyme use in animal feeding can also lead to a reduction in the nutrient level in diets and subsequent reduction of voided nutrients (Oxenboll et al., 2011). Protein feedstuffs are more expensive compared to other nutrient feedstuffs (Ajayi and Iyayi, 2014). A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding hydrolysed feather meal (HFM) in low crude protein (CP) diets supplemented with a protease (CIBENZA DP100)on performance indices and carcass measures of broiler chickens. Materials and methods Two hundred and forty, day old broiler chickens were randomly allotted to 8 treatment diets. There were three replicates and 10 birds per replicate in a 2x2x3 factorial arrangement. HFM was fed at 0% and 2%, protease at 0g and 5g/kg diet and the CP were 15.5%, 17.5% and 23% based on the matrix value of the serine protease used. Four diets had 23% CP, two of which contained 0% HFM, while two contained 2% HFM; the remaining four diets all contained HFM, two had 17.5% CP and the other two had 15.5% CP; all with and without protease. All birds were given feed and water ad libitum in deep litter pens (Fig.1.). Body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR); and carcass weights were assessed at 42days. Acknowledgments We thank N. C. Ugorji for farm assistance, D. F. Ajayi and A. Oyedeji for assistance with sample collection. Protease for this work was provided by Norgem Nigeria limited, a subsidiary of Novus USA. Results HFM significantly decreased BWG from 1083g to 896g/bird and FI from 1895g to 1404g/bird. Protease significantly increased BWG from 872g to 1013g/bird The interaction between HFM and protease improved BWG significantly but had no effect on the FI and FCR. Interaction between all variables significantly improved BWG of birds fed inadequate CP diets. HFM had a significant decreasing effect on the live weight and dressed weight while protease significantly improved dressed percent from 72.5 to 74.1 while breast meat deposition is improved with protease supplementation across treatments. A two-way ANOVA of GLM procedure in SAS (2004) was employed for data analysis and means separated by Tukeys (p<0.05). Ajayi, H.I. and Iyayi, E.A. Department of Animal Science and Animal Technology, FAAT, Benson Idahosa University Benin City, Edo state. Nigeria Literature cited Ajayi, H. I. 2015. Effect of protease supplementation on performance and carcass weights of broiler chickens fed low protein diets. Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment Vol.11(1) 29-32 Ajayi, H. I. 2014. Ileal crude protein digestibility of feather meal supplemented with protease in broiler chicks. PhD Thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria. Ajayi, H. I. and Iyayi, E. A. 2014. Ileal nutrient digestibility and performance in broiler chickens fed graded levels of feather meal. Ibadan Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 10(2):78-87. Cowieson, A. J. and Adeola, O. 2008. Carbohydrases, Protease and Phytase have an additive beneficial effect in nutritionally marginal diets for broiler chicks. Poultry Science 1860- 1867. Kocher, A. Choct, M. Porter, M. D. and Broz, J. 2002. Effects of feed enzymes on nutritive value of soyabean meal fed to broilers. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 52:447-452. Oxenboll, K. M. Pontoppidan, K. and Fru-Nji, F. 2011. Use of a protease in poultry feed offers promising environmental benefits. International Journal of Poultry science 10(11):842-848. Tiwary, E. and Gupta, R. 2012. Rapid conversion of chicken feather to feather meal using dimeric keratinase from Bacillus licheniformis ER-15. Journal of Bioprocessing and Biotechnology 2(4): 123. Figure 1. Photograph of day old broiler chickens in deep litter pens Conclusions Feeding Hydrolysed feather meal with a serine protease to broiler chickens significantly improved weight gain and dressed percent. Birds fed adequate CP diets containing HFM and protease performed comparably to birds fed a normal diet without HFM and protease. Birds fed 15.5% CP containing HFM and protease produced breast meat comparable to birds fed the control diet. Figure 2. Detail of treatment diets For further information Please contact the corresponding author: +234803 608 6864 Department of Animal Science and Animal Technology Faculty of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology Benson Idahosa University Benin City, Edo state. Nigeria Performance and Carcass Weights of Broiler Chickens Fed Low Protein Diets Containing Hydrolysed Feather Meal (HFM) With Protease Supplementation Table 1: Performance indices of broiler chickens fed protease, different CP and HFM levels (0-42days) HFM 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 Protease 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 CP 23 23 23 23 17.5 17.5 15.5 15.5 SEM BWG 1077.7a 1088.3a 848.7c 1115.3a 733.7d 862.3c 828.7c 989.3b 76.6 FI 1853.7c 1935.8c 1484.3b 1280.0a 1429.1b 1450.9b 1445.6b 1332.4ab 147.4 FCR 1.8cd 1.8cd 1.6bc 1.3a 1.9d 1.7c 1.6bc 1.5b 0.2 a,b,c Figures along the row with same superscript are not significantly different statistically. HFM= Hydrolysed Feather Meal, CP= Crude Protein, BWG= Body weight Gain, FI= Feed Intake, FCR= Feed Conversion Ratio, SEM= Standard Error of Mean, (P= 0.05) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Bodyweightgain(g) Treatment diets BWG of birds fed diet containing HFM with adequate CP and supplemented with protease (treatment 4) performed best Figure 3. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 FCR Treatment diets Birds fed diet treatment 4 had best FCR Figure 4 Treatment No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 HFM (%) 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 Protease (g/kg) 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 CP (%) 23 23 23 23 17.5 17.5 15.5 15.5 +ve Control -ve Control 1 -ve Control 2 -ve Control 3 Table 2: Combined effect of protease supplementation, HFM inclusion and different CP levels on carcass weights of broilers (0-42d) Treatment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SEM DP (%) 73.1a 74.3a 72.8b 74.2a 71.6b 73.4a 72.6b 74.7a 1.8 Breast (g) 171.6a 192.4a 155.9b 176.3a 136.2b 141.6b 143.3b 163.0a 32.7 Thigh (g) 100.4ab 109.3a 90.4ab 101.8a 70.9c 83.8bc 91.8ab 88.2b 17.2 Drumstick (g) 97.8ab 104.9a 90.5bc 106.8a 70.7d 72.1d 79.2cd 88.9bc 14 a,b,c Figures along a row with same superscript are not significantly different statistically. HFM= Hydrolysed Feather Meal, DP= Dressed Percent, SEM= Standard Error of Mean, (P= 0.05) 0 50 100 150 200 250 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Values(g) Treatment diets Protease supplementation improved breastmeat deposition Breast Thigh Drumstick Figure 6. 70 70.5 71 71.5 72 72.5 73 73.5 74 74.5 75 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Dressedpercent Treatment diets Protease supplementation improved dressed percent in all treatments Figure .5.