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APA & MLA stylesheets for research papers

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  1. 1. Preparing References and Bibliography - Dr.G.Saroja Asst. Professor Dr.B.R.Ambedkar Open University Hyderabad – 500 033 .
  2. 2. Definition of concepts <ul><li>References : A reference is a direction to a book, article or webpage etc., where certain information may be found; an indication of the author, work, page etc., to be looked at or consulted. Referencing is the term given to the linking of the citations within the body of the work and the reference list. </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliography : A bibliography is a list of sources you have used in the course of writing your essay, assignment or report and is given simply as a list at the end of your work </li></ul><ul><li>Citation : citations are references to works that have actually been cited in one’s research paper </li></ul>
  3. 3. Concepts contd.. <ul><li>Footnotes and Endnotes : It is a note of text placed at the bottom of a page in a book or document. The note comments on and may cite a reference for part of the main body of text . Embedded references in combination with footnotes or endnotes are not for referencing but for additional substantive remarks, caveats, etc., that are sufficiently important to include, but which would be disruptive to the flow of the text if included in the body of the text. </li></ul><ul><li>APA styleguide recommends using footnotes or endnotes to avoid long explanations in the text. </li></ul><ul><li>MLA syleguide recommends to make all notes endnotes, unless otherwise instructed. Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page, beginning four lines below the text . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Concepts contd.. <ul><li>There are a number of ways to refer to the foot notes or end notes within the text like – Author-Date system; Number System etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples for Author-Date system : Between 1968 and 1988, television coverage of presidential elections changed dramatically (Hallin, 1992,p.5) </li></ul><ul><li>Disciplines such as Chemistry, mathematics, medicine and physics use the number system. In this system, arabic numerals designate entries in the list of works cited and appear in parenthetical documentation followed by commas and the relevant volume and page references. Ex:Frye defined the alazon as a “self deceiving or self-deceived character in fiction”(2,p.365). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Concepts contd.. <ul><li>Ibid ( Latin , short for ibidem , &quot;the same place&quot;) is the term used to provide an endnote or footnote citation or reference for a source that was cited in the preceding endnote or footnote. It serves a similar purpose to ditto marks </li></ul><ul><li>Op. cit. ( Latin , short for &quot;opus citatum&quot;/&quot;opere citato,&quot; meaning &quot;the work cited/from the cited work&quot;) is the term used to provide an endnote or footnote citation to refer the reader to an earlier citation. To find the Op. cit. source, one has to look at the previous footnotes or general references section to find the relevant author. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Need for referencing <ul><li>To acknowledge and give credit to sources of words, ideas, diagrams, illustrations, quotations borrowed, or any materials summarized or paraphrased. </li></ul><ul><li>To show that you are respectfully borrowing other people’s ideas, not stealing them, i.e. to prove that you are not plagiarizing. </li></ul><ul><li>To offer additional information to your readers who may wish to further pursue your topic. </li></ul><ul><li>To give readers an opportunity to check out your sources for accuracy. An honest bibliography inspires reader confidence in your writing. </li></ul><ul><li>To maintain uniformity among different kinds of document formats </li></ul><ul><li>If you do not provide references, others may not accept the paper as scholarly work. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Plagiarism </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. etc.. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Different Formats of Published Works <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter in a Edited Book </li></ul><ul><li>Articles published in Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper or Magazine article </li></ul><ul><li>Reference material like Encyclopaedias, dictionaries etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Micrographic material </li></ul><ul><li>Cartographic material </li></ul><ul><li>Online Source etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. What information to include in the citation or reference <ul><li>AUTHOR </li></ul><ul><li>TITLE </li></ul><ul><li>PLACE OF PUBLICATION </li></ul><ul><li>PUBLISHER </li></ul><ul><li>DATE OF PUBLICATION </li></ul><ul><li>PAGE NUMBER(S) (For articles from magazines, journals, periodicals, newspapers, encyclopedias, or in anthologies). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Referencing Style Guides <ul><li>APA Style Guide – Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edition. Mainly used for citations in psychology, education, and other social sciences </li></ul><ul><li>MLA Style Guide ( Modern language Association)- Mainly used for citations in literature, arts, and humanities </li></ul>
  10. 10. Reference Format for Books with Author (APA) <ul><li>Order of details : </li></ul><ul><li>Author. (Date). </li></ul><ul><li>Title.Place of publication: Publisher. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor, W.N. (2000). How to be a successful technical writer. Starkville, MS: State Publishing House. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Reference Format for Books with Author (MLA) <ul><li>Order of details : </li></ul><ul><li>Author. Title . Place of publication: Publisher, year. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor, W.N. How to be a successful technical writer . Starkville, MS: State Publishing House, 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Note : Note: Use a colon before a subtitle if any. Underline the title including subtitle. Shorten the publisher name. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Two Authors (APA & MLA) <ul><li>APA Style: </li></ul><ul><li>Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 66 , 1034-1048. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: List authors by their last names. Use ‘&’ to join the authors followed by the year in paranthesis . </li></ul><ul><li>MLA Style: (2 and 3 authors) </li></ul><ul><li>Eggins, Suzanne, and Diana Slade. Analysing Casual Conversation . London: Cassel, 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Reverse only the name of the first author. Add a comma and give the other name in the normal form . </li></ul>
  13. 13. MORE THAN THREE AUTHORS (APA & MLA style) <ul><li>APA Style: (3 to 6 authors) </li></ul><ul><li>Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., & Harlow, T. (1993). There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65 , 1190-1204. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand. For more than six authors, write all the authors followed by comma and et al . </li></ul><ul><li>MLA Style: (more than 3 authors) </li></ul><ul><li>Gilman, Sander, et al. Hysteria beyond Freud. Berkeley. U of California, p. 1993 . </li></ul><ul><li>Note: In case of more than 3 authors, write only the first name and add et al. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Edited Book (APA) <ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>Josselin, Daphné, ed. 2001. Non-State Actors in World Politics . New York: Palgrave. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter in Edited Book : </li></ul><ul><li>Boserup, Ester. &quot;Economic Change and the Roles of Women.&quot; In Persistent Inequalities:Women and World Development , edited by Irene Tinker. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990: 14-24 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Edited Book (MLA) <ul><li>Note: To cite an anthology or compilation that was edited or compiled , begin the entry with name of that person followed by the abbreviation ed . or comp . </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Lopate, Phillip. Ed. The Art of the Personal Essay: An anthology from the Classical Era to the Present . NewYork: Anchor-Doubleday, 1994. </li></ul><ul><li>Sevillano, Mando, comp. The Hopi Way: Tales from a Vanishing Culture. Flagstaff. Northland. 1986. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Corporate Author (APA) <ul><li>National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. </li></ul><ul><li>American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with eating disorders (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author </li></ul>
  17. 17. Corporate Author (MLA) <ul><li>A Corporate author may be a commission, an association, a committee, or any other group whose individual members are not identified. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: MLA guidelines recommend to cite the book by corporate author even if the corporate author is the publisher . </li></ul><ul><li>American Medical Association. The American Medical Association Encyclopedia of Medicine . Ed. Charles B. Clayman. New York: Random, 1989. </li></ul><ul><li>National Research Council. Beyond Six Billion: Forecasting the World’s Population. Washington: Natl.Acad.,2000. </li></ul>
  18. 18. An article in Encyclopedia <ul><li>APA </li></ul><ul><li>Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica. </li></ul><ul><li>MLA </li></ul><ul><li>Mohanty, Jitendra M. “Indian Philosophy.” The New Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropedia . 15 th ed. 1987. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Do not cite the editor of the reference work. For famous reference works, no need to give publication information. Enclose the title in quotation marks. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Journal Article <ul><li>APA </li></ul><ul><li>Swortzel, K. A., Deeds, J. P., Taylor, W. N., & Jackson, G. B. (2002). Factors influencing the importance of the information technology workforce in Mississippi: A delphi study. Journal of Agricultural Education, 44 (3), 10-16 . </li></ul><ul><li>MLA </li></ul><ul><li>Hanks, Patrick. “Do Word Meanings Exist?” Computers and the Humanities 34(2000): 205-15 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Article in a Newspaper <ul><li>APA </li></ul><ul><li>Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today , pp. 1A, 2A . </li></ul><ul><li>Note: p. is used to give single page no. & pp. for multiple pages. </li></ul><ul><li>MLA </li></ul><ul><li>Jeromack, Paul. “This Once, a David of the Art World Does Goliath a favor.” New York Times 13 July 2002, New England ed:A13+ </li></ul><ul><li>Note: complete details like day, month and year should be given. It is important to state the edition because different editions of the same issue of a newspaper contain different information . </li></ul>
  21. 21. Non Print Materials (APA) <ul><li>Motion Picture </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, J.D. (Producer), & Smithee, A.F. (Director). (2001). Really big disaster movie [ Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Television Broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>Important, I. M. (Producer). (1990, November 1). The nightly news hour [Television broadcast]. New York: Central Broadcasting Service . </li></ul><ul><li>Music Recording </li></ul><ul><li>Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy [CD]. London: Big Pig Music Limited. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Non Print Materials (MLA) <ul><li>Television Broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>“ Frederick Douglass.” Civil War Journal. Narr,Danny Glover. Dir. Craig Haffner. Arts and Entertainment Network. 6 Apr.1993 . </li></ul><ul><li>Note: “Frederick Douglass.” is an episode of the program Civil War Journal . </li></ul><ul><li>Sound Recording </li></ul><ul><li>Joplin, Scott. Treemonisha . Perf.Carmen Balthrop, Betty Allen and Curtis Rayam. Houston Grand Opera Orch and Chorus. Cond.Gunther Schulle. Audocassette. Deutsche Grammophon, 1976. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Underline titles of recordings. Select the main access depending on desired emphasis. Title of the recording. List all the artists, manufacturer, conductor, performer etc. </li></ul><ul><li>If the recording medium is other than CD, record the medium. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Electronic Source s (APA)
  24. 24. References <ul><li>Büthe, Tim (2003). A Guide to Scholarly Referencing and related issues. Chicago: Chicago Manual of Style. </li></ul><ul><li>Gibaldi, Joseph (2003). MLA Handbook for writers of Research Papers. 6 th ed. NewYork:MLA. </li></ul><ul><li>APA Manual. 5 th ed. </li></ul>