601 Session 14-Information Literacy


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Intro. to reference and Information Services
Fall 2011
Dr. Diane Nahl
University of Hawaii
Library and Information Science Program

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  • The learning standards begin by defining nine foundational common beliefs: Reading is a window to the world. ・ Inquiry provides a framework for learning. ・ Ethical behavior in the use of information must be taught. ・ Technology skills are crucial for future employment needs. ・ Equitable access is a key component for education. The definition of information literacy has become more complex as resources and technologies have changed. The continuing expansion of information demands that all individuals acquire the thinking skills that will enable them to learn on their own . Learning has a social context. School libraries are essential to the development of learning skills. The Standards describe how learners use skills, resources, and tools to 1. inquire, think critically, and gain knowledge; 2. draw conclusions, make informed decisions, apply knowledge to new situations, and create new knowledge; 3. share knowledge and participate ethically and productively as members of our democratic society; 4. pursue personal and aesthetic growth.
  • Much of our GE reform is driven by accreditation requirements. All the UH campuses have either recently gone through accreditation or are in the process. This is a good time for librarians to participate in campus governance, such as GE Committees, faculty senates and accreditation taskforces. We need to actively spread the word. The audience is all ears! Much of our GE reform is driven by accreditation requirements. All the UH campuses have either recently gone through accreditation or are in the process. This is a good time for librarians to participate in campus governance, such as GE Committees, faculty senates and accreditation taskforces. We need to actively spread the word. The audience is all ears!
  • As you know General Education reform is not easy. There is a lot at stake and many stakeholders. But, information literacy seems to be a set of skills that easily lends itself to integration within both lower division and upper division curriculum. This is an opportunity for librarians to truly support their institutions broader goals and objectives and contribute to the students ability to be a lifelong learner and critical thinker.
  • The committee reviewed instructional tools from other campuses and shared individual ideas. One of our goals is the development of standardized assessment tools. We work within the framework of the ACRL Standards.
  • Donna Matsumoto asked her students to comment on LILO in writing. They did write down their comments on LILO on Nov. 19, 2005. Most students felt that LILO was helpful to their research. They especially like journal feature, citation builder, and assignment calculator. Out of 38 students, only 2 of them said that LILO is not helpful.
  • 1.The information literate student understands many of the ethical, legal and socio-economic issues surrounding information and information technology. Outcomes Include : 1.Identifies and discusses issues related to privacy and security in both the print and electronic environments 2.Identifies and discusses issues related to free vs. fee-based access to information 3.Identifies and discusses issues related to censorship and freedom of speech 4.Demonstrates an understanding of intellectual property, copyright, and fair use of copyrighted material
 2.The information literate student follows laws, regulations, institutional policies, and etiquette related to the access and use of information resources. Outcomes Include : 1.Participates in electronic discussions following accepted practices (e.g. "Netiquette") 2.Uses approved passwords and other forms of ID for access to information resources3.Complies with institutional policies on access to information resources 4.Preserves the integrity of information resources, equipment, systems and facilities 5.Legally obtains, stores, and disseminates text, data, images, or sounds 6.Demonstrates an understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and does not represent work attributable to others as his/her own 7.Demonstrates an understanding of institutional policies related to human subjects research 3. The information literate student acknowledges the use of information sources in communicating the product or performance. Outcomes Include : 1.Selects an appropriate documentation style and uses it consistently to cite sources 2.Posts permission granted notices, as needed, for copyrighted material
  • 601 Session 14-Information Literacy

    1. 1. Information Literacy and Reference Services Fall 2011 Dr. Diane Nahl University of Hawaii Library and Information Science Program
    2. 2. Global Challenge of IL <ul><li>Whatever else you bring to the 21st century workplace, however great your technical skills and however attractive your attitude and however deep your commitment to excellence, the bottom line is that to be successful, you need to acquire a high level of information literacy . What we need…are people who know how to absorb and analyze and integrate and create and effectively convey information and who know how to use information to bring real value to everything they undertake. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthony Comper, President, Bank of Montreal,1999 </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    3. 3. National IL Initiatives <ul><li>ALA Information Literacy Task Force [1989] </li></ul><ul><li>National Forum on Information Literacy (NFIL) [1990] </li></ul><ul><li>National Research Council, Mandate for Information Technology Literacy [1997] </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    4. 4. National Higher Education IL Initiatives <ul><li>Institute for Information Literacy Immersion [1996] </li></ul><ul><li>ALA, ACRL, Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education [2000, 3rd edition] http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/informationliteracycompetency.cfm </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    5. 5. National K-12 IL Initiatives <ul><li>ALA, AASL, Information Power [2002, 2nd edition] </li></ul><ul><li>ALA, AASL, Standards for the 21st-Century Learner [2007] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/aasl/guidelinesandstandards/learningstandards/standards.cfm </li></ul></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    6. 6. International IL Initiatives <ul><li>IFLA International Federation of Library Associations, Information Literacy Section http://www.ifla.org/en/information-literacy </li></ul><ul><li>SCONUL (UK) The Seven Pillars of Information Literacy http://www.sconul.ac.uk/groups/information_literacy/seven_pillars.html </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    7. 7. IL Mandates Lifelong Learning Skills <ul><li>External academic accrediting bodies [WASC for Hawaii schools & colleges] </li></ul><ul><li>University Strategic Plan </li></ul><ul><li>General Education Reforms </li></ul><ul><li>UH Information Literacy Hallmark </li></ul><ul><li>UH Systemwide UH Libraries IL Committee (UHLILC) </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    8. 8. WASC Accreditation Standards <ul><li>Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC) Standard 2 states: </li></ul><ul><li>Baccalaureate programs engage students in an integrated course of study… to prepare them for work, citizenship, and a fulfilling life . These programs also ensure the development of core learning abilities and competencies including … Information literacy … </li></ul><ul><li>WASC 2001 Accreditation Handbook, Standard 2 (Achieving Educational Objectives Through Core Functions): Criteria for Review. </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    9. 9. General Education Hallmarks <ul><li>UH Manoa - approved in 2002; other campuses are adopting this Hallmark: </li></ul><ul><li>To satisfy the Written Communication requirement, a course will [among other things]... help students develop information literacy by teaching search strategies, critical evaluation of information and sources, and effective selection of information for specific purposes and audiences; teach appropriate ways to incorporate such information, acknowledge sources and provide citations. </li></ul><ul><li>UH Manoa GE Foundations Requirement. </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    10. 10. ACCJC Accreditation Standards <ul><li>The Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges (ACCJC) Standard II.3.A (Instruction: General Education) states: General education has comprehensive learning outcomes for the students who complete it... including ... a capability to be a productive individual and life long learner: skills include oral and written communication, information competency , computer literacy, scientific and quantitative reasoning, critical analysis/logical thinking, and the ability to acquire knowledge through a variety of means. </li></ul><ul><li>ACCJC Accrediting Commission Standards, 2002 , Standard IIA (Student Learning Programs and Services: Instructional Programs). </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    11. 11. ACCJC Standards (cont.) <ul><li>ACCJC Standard II.C.1.b (Library and Learning Support Services) states: </li></ul><ul><li>The institution provides ongoing instruction for users of library and other learning support services so that students are able to develop skills in information competency . </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    12. 12. UH Libraries Information Literacy Committee <ul><li>Instruction librarians from each UH campus </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Formed in 2003 to address system-wide campus and library IL goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a forum for discussion, resource sharing, and the production of instructional online research and assessment tools for the entire system </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    13. 13. Importance of IL in an Academic Reference Librarian’s Job <ul><li>Integral to academic reference work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal & informal instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff, student & faculty instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Listed in nearly every job description as integral to the position </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted : applicants with experience designing lessons, instructing, and assessing student learning (SLOs) </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    14. 14. Typical Position Description <ul><li>Title : Reference/Instruction Librarian </li></ul><ul><li>Description : Provides quality reference and research services in person and online; including serving as second tier referral for advanced reference assistance. Participates with instruction team to create and deliver instruction sessions for faculty and students which incorporate the use of active learning strategies, both in person and online . Works closely with other Information Services and Information Literacy librarians to plan, develop, maintain, and assess innovative instructional and outreach programs . … </li></ul><ul><li>Preferred : Experience providing library instruction and reference services; Knowledge of information literacy theory and practice , various teaching methodologies and learning styles ; Experience with emerging computer technologies and their applications in academic libraries such as Web 2.0 applications; Creativity and experience designing instructional/informational materials , both in print and online; … </li></ul><ul><li>University of Texas, Arlington, (abridged) January 2010 </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    15. 15. KapCC 2010 PD <ul><li>Instructor or Assistant Professor, CC (Learning Resources Librarian) Duties and Responsibilities: </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes the leadership role in the direction and coordination of the Library and Learning Resources (LLR) Instruction program ; </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborates with KCC instructional faculty to provide individual and class instruction in the use of print and electronic resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides general reference and information services as part of the Reference Team; </li></ul><ul><li>Creates print and online instructional guides and tutorials to facilitate access to Library collections . </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes a leadership role in the direction and coordination of the Library ’s Collection Development program, including policy review, revision, and implementation; </li></ul><ul><li>Selects and prioritizes materials in various formats for addition to the Library Collection in accordance with the Library Collection Development Policy and in collaboration with Library Subject Specialists. </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as coordinator for Library student learning outcome initiatives and serves as liaison to KCC Student Learning Outcomes Coordinator. </li></ul><ul><li>Collects and evaluates data for ongoing assessment of student learning outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Participates in evaluation, selection and implementation of emerging technology . </li></ul><ul><li>Rotates evening and weekend shifts; and other duties as assigned. </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    16. 16. UH LIS IL Courses <ul><li>LIS 100 Libraries, Technology and Scholarship </li></ul><ul><li>LIS 665 Teaching Information Technology Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>LIS 686 Information Literacy and Learning Resources </li></ul><ul><li>LIS 690 Teaching Internships </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    17. 17. Information Literacy at UH <ul><li>Instructional Services http://library.manoa.hawaii.edu/services/instruction/instruction.html </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guides & Handbooks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Tutorials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class Sessions for the Disciplines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LILO Learning Information Literacy Online http://www.hawaii.edu/lilo/ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Research Journal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assignment Calculator & Citation Machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyword Strategy Builder </li></ul></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    18. 18. LILO L earning I nformation L iteracy O nline <ul><li>Created for ENG 100 undergraduate students in the University of Hawaii System </li></ul><ul><li>Created by librarians with input from writing instructors throughout the UH System </li></ul><ul><li>Includes examples and content pertinent to real-life research experiences in Hawaii </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    19. 19. LILO <ul><li>An interactive, Web-based productivity tutorial that engages students in thinking critically about a research topic and the sources needed to support a thesis statement. </li></ul><ul><li>An easy way for instructors to monitor a student ’s understanding of the research process and his/her progress in developing information literacy skills within a course. </li></ul><ul><li>The Research Journal function saves student work in a database account. </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    20. 20. LILO <ul><li>Teaches skills in information competency—a learning outcome of the ACCJC General Education requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrates the Association of College & Research Libraries ’ Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education . </li></ul><ul><li>The Research Journal, Citation Builder, and Assignment Calculator were identified by students as the most useful LILO tools </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    21. 21. Student Feedback <ul><li>Students in Leeward CC instructor Donna Matsumoto ’s writing classes said: “LILO improved my research dramatically. It has everything you need and journals to keep you updated on where you are on your research. Without LILO, I would've procrastinated on this assignment.” </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    22. 22. Student Feedback (cont.) <ul><li>“ The most useful aspect of LILO is the way everything is broken down into steps… often when researching... the hardest part is knowing where to start. LILO solves this problem.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The thing I find most useful in LILO is probably its journal.” </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    23. 23. Student Feedback (cont.) <ul><li>“ I found the research part the most useful and having to actually look up a source and paste it to LILO was a good thing.“ </li></ul><ul><li>“ The best part about LILO is that it gave me a step by step tutorial on how to do my research.” </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    24. 24. Information Literacy is the ability to: <ul><li>Recognize an Information Need </li></ul><ul><li>Access Information </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Information </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesize Information </li></ul><ul><li>Ethically Use Information </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    25. 25. The Ability to Recognize an Information Need <ul><li>Realizing that a problem can be solved by obtaining new information </li></ul><ul><li>Overcoming resistance to systematically searching for reliable information </li></ul><ul><li>Intending to approach a reliable information source to begin solving an information problem </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    26. 26. The Ability to Access Information <ul><li>Using a variety of sources & formats </li></ul><ul><li>Applying correct concept analysis & search logic </li></ul><ul><li>Using appropriate controlled vocabulary & natural language </li></ul><ul><li>Using browse & keyword search modes </li></ul><ul><li>Browsing physical and online collections & resources </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    27. 27. The Ability to Evaluate Information <ul><li>Applying critical thinking criteria to found material </li></ul><ul><li>Judging the relevance of information </li></ul><ul><li>Judging the accuracy of information </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing the authority of information </li></ul><ul><li>Judging objectivity of information </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing the currency of information </li></ul><ul><li>Determining the coverage of information sources </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    28. 28. The Ability to Synthesize Information <ul><li>Identifying, separating and eliminating inadequate, out-dated, invalid or irrelevant information </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating and citing facts, view points, and theories from diverse sources </li></ul><ul><li>Resolving conflicting or divergent information </li></ul><ul><li>Making informed decisions </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    29. 29. The Ability to Ethically Use Information <ul><li>Understanding the ethical, legal and socio-economic issues surrounding information and information technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Following laws, regulations, institutional policies, ethics codes, and etiquette related to the access and use of information resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledging the use of information sources in communicating through a product or performance. </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    30. 30. Information Literacy Models <ul><li>Information Search Process Model [p. 46 Handouts] </li></ul><ul><li>Big Six Information Skills Model </li></ul><ul><li>Information Searching Competence Matrix [p. 47 Handouts] </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    31. 31. Information Search Process Nahl LIS 601 2011 Carol Kuhlthau, Seeking Meaning , 2004, p. 82. STAGES AFFECTIVE Feelings COGNITIVE Decisions SENSORIMOTOR Actions APPROPRIATE TASK 1. Initiation Uncertainty General Vague Seeking background information Recognize need 2. Selection Optimism Scheduling Planning Conference with others Identify 3. Exploration Confusion/ Frustration Becoming informed about a topic Seeking relevant information Investigate 4. Formulation Clarity Narrowed focus Selecting ideas Formulate 5. Collection Sense of direction & confidence Defining & supporting focus Making notes of relevant information Gather 6. Presentation Relief Satisfaction or Disappointment Clearer More focused Personalized synthesis of topic Complete
    32. 32. Information Searching Competence Matrix Nahl LIS 601 2011 Diane Nahl, 1987; 1990, 1993 SKILL LEVEL AFFECTIVE Domain of Feelings COGNITIVE Domain of Decisions SENSORIMOTOR Domain of Actions Level 3. Advanced A3 Feeling Empowered as a Searcher C3 Acquiring Familiarity and Intuition with Disciplinary Knowledge S3 Practicing Careful Documentation Routines Level 2. Intermediate A2 Being Supportive of the IR System Environment C2 Understanding Search Strategy S2 Identifying Implicit Features of the Information Setting Level 1. Basic A1 Showing Acceptance of Complex Information Structure C1 Decoding Information Displays and Terminology S1 Recognizing Information Elements and Locations
    33. 33. Thinking Like a Novice Searcher <ul><li>I chose to look up women’s health first because I felt it was an issue I am interested in. I’m trying to navigate through Internet with specific personal goals incorporated into the class assignments. I Bookmarked the information on domestic violence because after I graduate this semester I want to work as a counselor at a domestic abuse shelter. [Bold italics added] </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    34. 34. Thinking Like an Expert Searcher <ul><li>Query : Find out about national groups and ethnic conflicts in the Third World and their influence on the activities of international organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>I thought about the “Third World.” Another term is “developing countries.” The controlled vocabulary advises to use the term “developing countries” instead of “third world”… </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    35. 35. Thinking like a professional searcher: <ul><li>So I selected as a first alternative the free text terms “third*” and “world*” with truncations; and as a second alternative “developing countries” both as a descriptor and as a free text term… </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011
    36. 36. <ul><li>Then I selected this “national groups” as a descriptor. I thought they are groups in any case. In free text they may be anything--it is difficult to guess--so we can be satisfied with the descriptors. If needed there are other descriptors : “ethnic minorities” and “population groups.” </li></ul><ul><li>Ivonen & Sonnenwald, JASIS 1998, 49(4):312-326, p. 320 </li></ul>Thinking like a professional searcher: Nahl LIS 601 2011
    37. 37. Due Next Week & Beyond <ul><li>Guest speaker Lori Bell on My Info Quest SNS reference project </li></ul><ul><li>Chapters 13, 20 & 21, UTSA Mobile Library; Cirasella (syllabus links) </li></ul><ul><li>Geography Search Ex. 8; Government Documents Search Ex. 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Quiz review (Quiz Dec 8) </li></ul><ul><li>Course Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Reference Interactions Field Report Dec 13 </li></ul><ul><li>December 13 is the last day to turn in assignments and bonus work </li></ul>Nahl LIS 601 2011