Disaster Risk Management


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  • Indicators are more specifically defined than objectives, since they define the program attributes with a focus on expected effects translated into specific measures providing the basis collecting valid and reliable information for evaluation. ( CDC ‘Framework for Evaluation’ pg 15). Indicators spell out & provide guidance for periodic monitoring and non-periodic assessment of higher level outcomes (results). They are tools that tell the story of program progress and success. For example: increases in the contraceptive prevalence rate is an indicator for the increased use of family planning in a country. Other examples include: Indicators for measuring program activities such as program capacity to delivery services, participation rate, levels of client satisfaction, or amount of intervention exposure. Indicators for measuring program effects, such as changes in a particular behavior, community norms, or health status.
  • Please review these and make suggestions Valid –For example, if we use the indicator “knows at least three modern methods of family planning,” this will give an indication over time of a changing level of knowledge. If, however, we are interested in whether people’s interest in using family planning is changing, this would NOT be a valid indicator. Reliable –If we use the same indicator, it should be reliable when asked by different people during different survey rounds. However, if women (or interviewers) are not clear about the definition of “modern,” the validity may be compromised since different people may count different methods as modern. Precise –As mentioned above, if we can clearly define our indicator by including a list of modern FP methods that are acceptable answers to be counted among the three, then the indicator is precise enough to determine whether the respondent can be counted among those who know three modern FP methods. Timely –With a concerted education effort, we certainly expect to be able to see change in this indicator within a relatively short time. However, if for example we have a 2–3-year project and want to measure change in family size, the indicator (family size decreased) will not be observable within the life of the project. Comparable –Our indicator on knowledge of three modern family planning methods is easily comparable across different groups. For example, it would be easy to compare whether husbands’ and wives’ knowledge levels are the same, or whether couples who received counseling vs. those who did not had the same knowledge level. In contrast, if we were to choose an indicator that is intervention-specific, such as those who receive counseling and know at least three modern methods, we could use this on the subgroup of people who received counseling but could not use this indicator with the population at large.
  • Consistent with project design –This is related to validity. Is it measuring what we think it is measuring, and whether it is measuring what we think the project is impacting. If we are measuring change in knowledge because the project has an intensive community mobilization campaign, then the knowledge of three modern methods may be a good indicator. However, if the project is addressing quality of care and contraceptive availability, then change in knowledge may not be the best indicator, even if we are hoping that counseling on different methods is part of the quality improvement effort. Useful –Indicators serve both to evaluate the impact of a project and to monitor its progress in order to make program adjustments. We may select some indicators that primarily serve for evaluation. However, it is also important to have indicators that will provide information for program adjustment. For example, the knowledge of modern family planning methods is a population-based indicator that is probably more useful to evaluate the impact of a community-mobilization campaign. However, an indicator measuring the availability of three different kinds of contraceptives in the health center could be used to evaluate the access and logistics system, but it also provides routine information that can be used to adjust the management and logistics systems if a problem is identified. Available and Affordable –These criteria are essential and are often under-considered when planning. Information is useful, but it also costs time and money. We always need to balance the relative benefit of an indicator with the time and money it will cost to collect information on it. For example, if you are planning to do a baseline survey of mothers of children under 2 years old as part of a child survival project, you probably would not want to choose an indicator that asks about the percentage of men of reproductive age who know three modern methods of family planning. Even if you were targeting men and wanted some indicator of their level of involvement, if such an indicator is going to require that you survey men when all the other indicators target mothers, it is probably not worth it. An alternative might be the percentage of mothers of children under 2 years old (because this is the group you plan to survey) who report having discussed different contraceptive options with their husbands. While this is somewhat different, it might be valid as an indicator and a lot cheaper to collect.
  • Disaster Risk Management

    1. 1. Monitoring and Evaluation Basic Definitions, Institutional andAttributes to Establish an M&E System 8 Aug 2012 By Tariq Zaman 1
    2. 2. What is M&E?M&E is about collecting, storing, analyzing and finally transforming data into strategic information“Do not COLLECT data unless somebody is going to USE IT” 2
    3. 3. What Is M&E?MonitoringA continuing function that uses systematic collection of dataon specified indicators to provide management withindications of the extent of progress and achievement ofobjectives and progress in the use of allocated fundsEvaluationThe process of determining the worth or significance of aprogram to determine the relevance of objectives, the efficacyof design and implementation, the efficiency or resource use,and the sustainability of results M&E are synergistic…monitoring is a necessary, but not sufficient, input into evaluation 3
    4. 4. What is Program Monitoring, Evaluation?Monitoring is the Evaluation is the use of social research routine process of methods to data collection and systematically measurement of investigate an progress toward achievement of a program objectives program’s results 4
    5. 5. Why M&E? S Data & M yinformation & s t E e m Strategic Information Evidence informed decision making Reduced morbidity and mortality 5
    6. 6. Importance of M&E Provides information: a) on program progress and effectiveness b) for policy-making and advocacy c) to plan future resource needs Improves program management and decision-making (managing by results) Allows accountability to stakeholders, including donors Ensures most effective and efficient use of resources 6
    7. 7. Definition of Monitoring• Monitoring is the systematic and continuous collection and analysis of information about the progress of a project over time• It is a tool for identifying strengths andweaknesses in a project and for providingmanagement with sufficient information tomake the right decisions 7
    8. 8. Differences Monitoring  Evaluation  Short-term view  Long-term view  Immediate analysis of  Through analysis of achievement of ongoing activities specific objectives  Influences control of  Influences future ongoing activities planning  Periodical and regular  A detailed report with  Carried out by staff or suggestions donors  Carried out by external or internal (donors) 8
    9. 9. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MONITORING AND EVALUATION Monitoring means tracking the key elements of programme performance on a regular basis (inputs, activities, results) In contrast, evaluation is the episodic assessment of the change in targeted results that can be attributed to the programme/project intervention, or the analysis of inputs and activities to determine their contribution to results. 9
    10. 10. The Purpose of M&E Program Improvement Data Sharing with Partners Reporting/ Accountability 10
    11. 11. What is the purpose….? Improve program implementation  Data on program progress and implementation  Improve program management and decision making Inform future programming Inform stakeholders  Accountability (donors, beneficiaries)  Advocacy 11
    12. 12. Purpose of Monitoring Produces timely, accurate and adequateinformation about the adherence of a project with itsplan Provides data so that plans can be adjusted and resources managed in answer to project needs and opportunities Records information in sufficient detail to illustrate accountability and provide for future evaluations Appropriate monitoring generates the minimum data necessary for analysis and uses the simplest effective data collection methods 12
    13. 13. Purpose of Monitoring Determining whether the inputs in the project are well utilized Ensuring all activities are carried out properly by the right people and in time Identifying problems facing the community or project and finding solutions Determining whether the way the project wasplanned is the most appropriate way of solving theproblem at hand 13
    14. 14. Who needs, uses M&E Information? ManagersTo Improve program implementation…  DonorsTo Inform and improve  Governments future programs  Technocrats  DonorsInform stakeholders  Governments  Communities  Beneficiaries 14
    15. 15. Who conducts M&E….?Program implementerStakeholdersBeneficiaryRemember ..M&E Technical skills Participatory process 15
    16. 16. M&E Results – RBM Approach SMART Results pecific: Results must describe a specific future condition S easurable: Results, whether quantitative or qualitative, must have M measurable indicators, making it possible to assess whether they were achieved or not A chievable: Results must be within the capacity to achieve elevant: Results must make a contribution to selected priorities of the R national development framework imebound: Results are never open-ended - there is an expected date of T accomplishment 16
    17. 17. BENEFITS OF MONITORING & EVALUATIONMonitoring and evaluation (M&E) helps programmeimplementers to:Determine the extent to which the programme/project is on track and to make any neededcorrections accordinglyMake informed decisions regarding operationsmanagement and service delivery;Ensure the most effective and efficient use ofresources;Evaluate the extent to which the programme /projectis having or has had the desired impact. 17
    18. 18. Monitoring System It is a system for collecting and using information about the progress of a project It helps to take appropriate decisions Provides a communication system, in whichinformation flows in different directions between all thepeople involved 18
    19. 19. Essential Components of a Monitoring System Selection of indicators for each activity Collection of data concerning the indicators Analysis of data Presenting information in an appropriate way Using this information to improve the work 19
    20. 20. Monitoring Tools and Templates Monitoring and Evaluation Framework LFA, RBM, and other formats of donors Internal/External reviews reports Progress reports and reviews Work plan and reporting matrix Budget utilization and audit reports, etc Surveys (structured and un structured interviews) Data – primary and secondary (office record,progress reports) 20
    21. 21. Baseline Data A collection of data about the characteristics, for example of a population or an area before aprogram or project is set up. The data can be comparedwith a study of the same characteristics carried out later inorder to see what has changed. 21
    22. 22. Baselines, Targets and Performance Commitment PerformanceCurrentlevel ofachievement Baseline Target Achievement 22
    23. 23. Logical Framework Analysis/Approach Logical Framework Analysis/Approach (LFA) is an analytical process for structuring and systematizing the analysis of a project or program 23
    24. 24. LFA MATRIXNarrative Verifiable Means of AssumptionsSummary Indicators VerificationGoalsPurposeOutcome/OutputActivities 24
    25. 25. The Logical approach Goal ofLong-term, widespread improvement  the Results Chain (Long in society Term “Big picture”(country longer term Impacts) strategy) Strategy  Effects or behavior changes OutcomesResults Planning resulting from a strategic program Outputs  Products and services that need to be delivered to achieve the expected Programming outcomes Activities  What actually was done with the available resources to produce the intended outputs Inputs  Critical resources (expertise, equipment, supplies) needed to 25 implement the planned activities
    26. 26. Kinds of Monitoring Process Monitoring Effect Monitoring Monitoring Significant Change 28
    27. 27. Process Monitoring Process monitoring includes information on the use of resources, progress of activities, and the way they are carried out, which is known as processmonitoring 29
    28. 28. Process Monitoring Process monitoring is collecting information on the use of inputs, the progress of activities, and the way these are carried out Process monitoring looks at why and how things have happened; it looks at relevance, effectiveness and the efficiency of processes It involves stakeholders and beneficiaries in planning, in deciding what is to be monitored, and in developing and recording monitoring processes Process monitoring requires documentation of how the process was carried out 30
    29. 29. Effect Monitoring Effect monitoring is collecting information on progress towards achieving objectives, and on what the effects are in relation to these objectives Effect monitoring is a form of continuous self- evaluation. If it is done well, formal evaluations will be needed less often, and if a formal evaluation is carried out, the program staff will already be familiar with their work in relation to their objectives. They will be able to participate more fully in the evaluation, and find it less threatening. All monitoring systems should include both process and effect monitoring. 31
    30. 30. Monitoring Significant Change The "significant change"; method of monitoring is not new, but it is not widely known The method has been used by Australian Overseas Volunteers to assess their contribution in development agencies, during their overseas appointment Contd..... 32
    31. 31. Monitoring Significant Change The first step to take is for the staff of the implementing organization to identify what areas, or domains, of change they want to monitor using the significant change method. The primary focus should be on two types of change: changes in the lives of individuals, and changes in the organization The basis of the significant change method is a simple question: "Describe what you think was the most significant change that you contributed to your project" 33
    32. 32. The Chain Of Results: Causal Sequence For An Intervention To Achieve Desired ObjectiveINPUTS ACTIVITIES OUTPUTS OUTCOMES IMPACT Quality of life . Management . Services Conditions: .Infrastructure . Training . Counseling - Access - Quality . Behaviors . Practices . Human . Human . Economic . Logistic . Awareness . Decision . Finance . Civic management . Knowledge . Utilization . Equipment . Environment . Operation research . Attitude of services . Technology MDGs: . Capacities . Policy . Conference . Competency . Poverty . Time . Facilitation . Opinion . Morbidity . Volunteers . etc. . Aspiration . Mortality . Partners . Motivation . HIV prevalence . Education . Employment . Gender equality Measure processUNCT 26th February 2009 Measure impact 34
    33. 33. Inputs The human, financial and technical resources deployed, their effectiveness, cost effectiveness and opportunities can be assessed 35
    34. 34. Output Monitoring Output monitoring looks at the immediate results of a development programe or project OR The immediate results the project achieves.It is sometimes called as “deliverables” 36
    35. 35. Outcome Monitoring Outcome monitoring is the regular reporting ofprogram results in ways that stakeholders can use tounderstand and judge these results 37
    36. 36. Impact Assessment Significant lasting changes in people’s lives, brought about by a given action or a series of actions 38
    37. 37. Roadmap: From Input to Impact • Child mortality reduced, poverty reduced, higher Goal income levels, improvedResults (Impacts) gender equality, sustainable agriculture • Increased market access, Outcomes increased short term income • # producers in the system, # Outputs new products available, #Implementation producers supported, # consumers aware • Awareness raising campaigns, Activities development of standards, producer support, audits • Funds, staff & resources etc Inputs 39
    38. 38. Multi-tiered Holistic M&ERebuilding Lives and Communities Input Output Outcome Impact Monitoring Monitoring Monitoring Assessment CMTs SSTs • PC-I •TMRs of •Measurement of •Captures the services changes in • Planning and provided by ERRA peoples lives Designing physical reconstruction • Tendering works •Commencement •Carried out at •Carried out at CMTs facilities and SSTs the Household •Carried out at beneficiary level Level the Projects’ Site
    39. 39. Monitoring and Evaluations Framework 41
    40. 40. M&E Questions Monitoring questions  What is being done?  By whom?  Target population?  When?  How much?  How often?  Additional outputs?  Resources used? (Staff, funds, materials, etc.) 42
    41. 41. M&E Questions Evaluation Questions?  Is the content of the intervention or the activity being delivered as planned?  Does the content of the intervention or the activity reflect the requisite standards?  Have the intervention achieved the expected results? 43
    42. 42. What do we need to answer these questions…?INDICATORS …to take measurements. 44
    43. 43. Indicators: Definition Markers that help to measure change by showing progress towards meeting objectives Observable, measurable, and agreed upon as valid markers of a less well-defined concept or objective Indicators differ from objectives in that they address specific criteria that will be used to judge the success of the project or program. See comment for examples 45
    44. 44. What is an indicator? The United Nations World Food Programmes Office of Evaluation describes an as a indicator quantitative or qualitative factor or variable that provides a simple and reliable means to measure achievement or to reflect the changes connected with an intervention. Indicators are compared over time in order to assess change. In the logical framework approach, an operation is broken down into design elements (inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes and impacts) and separate indicators are used to measure performance. 46
    45. 45. General characteristicsThe desired properties of indicators, also known asvariables, will depend on the approach adopted and thenature of the programme or project being evaluated. Allindicators have specific characteristics: Numeric = the values are numbers Nominal = the values have names (e.g. male and female) Continuous = the values are infinite or very large Ordinal/categorical = the values have a known order (e.g. low to high) 47
    46. 46. Characteristics of Good Indicator Indicators will vary from one project to another, according to the work and its context, but in general they are often expected to be: SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and time-bound) SPICED (subjective, participatory, interpreted, cross-checked, empowering and diverse) 48
    47. 47. Type and Level of Each Indicator  Type  Input/Process (Monitoring)  Outcome / Impact (Evaluation)  Level  Global level  Country level  Program level 49
    48. 48. What Is a Good Indicator? Valid: Measures the effect it is supposed to measure Reliable: Gives same result if measured in the same way Precise: Is operationally defined so people are clear about what they are measuring Timely: Can be measured at an interval that is appropriate to the level of change expected Comparable: Can be compared across different target groups or project approaches 50
    49. 49. KPI = Key Performance Indicator 55
    50. 50. Key Performance Indicators Key performance indicator (KPI) is a measure that is employed to refer to a concept when no directmeasure is available 57
    51. 51. WFP Emergency Operation M&E Framework RESULTS Input Activities Output Outcomes Impact (Resources) ( Interventions, Targeted Increased Increased Services) women receiving household food consumption full family ration supply especially W, Ch & V Ind. X kg maize, Distribution of # of family % of target house Average # of X kg oil Family ration to ration recipients Hold with adequate Meals per day X Kg other Women disaggregated Food supply by gender by gender and age Program-based Data Population-based Survey Measure process Measure impact 58
    52. 52. Evaluation “Evaluation is a management tool which measures the change or results a project intervention An assessment at one point in time of the effects of a piece of work and the extent to which statedOBJECTIVES have been achieved.” 60
    53. 53. Purpose of Evaluation Worth or significance of a development activity, policy orprogramme The relevance of objectives of projects The relevance and effectiveness of programme/project design and implementation The efficiency of resource use The sustainability of results Incorporates lessons learned into the decision making process of both partner and donor organizations Provides recommendations for policy formulation Presents longer term implications in terms of sustainability of the proposed intervention 61
    54. 54. Evaluation should not be done for To justify a decision which has already been made for other reasons, for example, the decision to stop funding a place of work To assign blame for a problem which has arisen 62
    55. 55. Types of Questions Addressed by Evaluation About how the programme could be improved About how the aims and objectives should bemodified or revised About the work can be monitored and evaluated About how the work could be made more costeffective 63
    56. 56. Role of Evaluator The evaluator is a CONTROLLER in an attempt to hold implementing agencies responsible for their decisions and actions The evaluator is a MEDIATOR between divergentknowledge interests The evaluator is a FACILITATOR in support of weak groups attempts to increase their decisions and influence their own lives 64
    57. 57. Advantages and Disadvantages of Internal and External Evaluators External InternalCan a fresh look at the programme Knows the programme too wellNot personally involved so it is easier to be Finds it hardest to be objectiveobjectiveIs not part of the normal power structure Is part of the power and authority structureGains nothing from the programme, but May be motivated by hopes of personal gainmay gain prestige from the evaluationTrained in evaluation methods. May have May not be specially trained in evaluationexperience in other evaluators. Regarded methods. Does not have more (or only aas an expert by the programme little more) training than others in the programmeAn outsider who may not understand the Is familiar with and understands theprogramme or the people involved. May programme and can interpret personaltake a long time to read background behavior and attitudesinformationMay cause anxiety as programme staff and Known to the programme, so poses noparticipants be not sure of his or her threat of anxiety or disruption. Finalmotives recommendations may appear 65 less threatening
    58. 58. Methodology of evaluations Combination of qualitative(desk reviews, key informants interviews, focus group discussions, observations) and quantitative(household surveys, health facility surveys or other special surveys) methods need to be used and spelled out in this section. 66
    59. 59. Theory-based evaluation Similar to Log Frame but more detailed in understanding programme logic Seeks to identify causal or determining factors seen as important for success and then what should be monitored Ultimately leads to the determination of critical success factors (CSFs) Evaluation of CSFs used to inform likelihood of programme success 67
    60. 60. Cost benefit evaluation Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses are tools for assessing whether or not the costs of an activity can be justified by the outcomes and impacts Cost-benefit analysis measures both inputs and outputs in monetary terms Cost-effectiveness analysis estimates inputs in monetary terms and outcomes in non- monetary quantitative terms 69
    61. 61. Impact Assessment The systematic identification of the effects –positive or negative, intended or not – caused by a program or project Impact evaluations can range fromlarge scale sample surveys to small-scale rapid assessment 71
    62. 62. Impact Domains Impact at Individual and House hold levels  Physical assets  Financial assets  Human assets  Income  Food security Impact at Community Level  Physical assets  Natural resource base  Social capital Higher-Level Impact  On Institutions  On Policies and Regulations 82
    63. 63. M&E SYSTEM FOR QUALITY RESULTS A robust M&E systems supports:  Compliance and mid-course correction  Organizational effectiveness  Efficient resource management and  Timely accomplishment of quality results 83
    64. 64. Monitoring and Ealuation Framework Core Principles Joint and Harmonized. Provides a robust M&E Umbrella for all stakeholders Results Focused. Focuses on results and impacts as well as Budgets Lesson Learning. Presents information for continuous lesson learning and programme planning as well as accountability People Focused. Involves all stakeholders and includes direct feedback from beneficiaries Transparency and Communication. Demonstration independence and communicates information to appropriate people 84
    65. 65. Strategic Planning for M&E: Setting Realistic Expectations All Most Some FewNumberofProjects Input/ Output Process Outcome Impact Monitoring Evaluation Monitoring / Monitoring / Evaluation Evaluation Levels of Monitoring & Evaluation Effort 93 93