Am I Healthy Yet?
Europeans in the Canadian Arctic   Professional Observation of the Inuit Diet <ul><li>Prof. V. Stefansson, a Harvard train...
The 1928 Bellevue Stefansson Experiment <ul><li>What Stefansson Ate: </li></ul><ul><li>Protein 115 grams/day (15-20% of da...
 
What Ketosis is Not: Ketoacidosis <ul><li>The distinction between a ketogenic diet resulting in “ nutritional ketosis ” an...
Fat: Guilty by Association? A lot of marketing is going into foods with reduced, or no fat content. But could the increase...
A Poorly Explored Variable Fatty Acid Composition
 
Taking need to the Extreme <ul><li>Taubes spent five years working on the book, which runs to more than 450 pages. The bib...
The 11 Critical Conclusions of Good Calories, Bad Calories <ul><li>1. Dietary fat, whether saturated or not, does not caus...
 
Ketoadaptation <ul><li>A ketogenic diet results from varying  combinations of calorie and carbohydrate restriction that in...
Saturated Fat Saturated Fat Blood Saturated Fat Levels Low Carb Diet  (45 g CHO/d) Low Fat Diet  (208 g CHO/d) Saturated F...
Despite a >3-fold greater intake of saturated fat…  ...a low carbohydrate diet results in a 2-fold greater reduction in to...
 
 
Keto-adaptation Confirmed  MIT Study <ul><li>Our Vermont study result was verified for a full-calorie (eucaloric) ketogeni...
MIT Study Performance Parameters Baseline   4 Wks Ketosis VO 2 max  (L/min)   5.1  5.0 Endur  @65% VO 2 max (min)  147  15...
 
Start Eating with an Open Mind! <ul><li>I’m not asking you to go home and start throwing away food with carbs, but to inst...
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Am I Healthy Yet

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Issues brought up in the book Good Calories, Bad Calories by Gary Taubes.

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Am I Healthy Yet

  1. 1. Am I Healthy Yet?
  2. 2. Europeans in the Canadian Arctic Professional Observation of the Inuit Diet <ul><li>Prof. V. Stefansson, a Harvard trained anthropologist, lived and traveled extensively among the Inuit from 1905-17. His writings so scandalized the nascent nutrition establishment that he had to submit to 12-months’ “incarceration” in 1928 to bring merit to his work, eating only meat and fat to prove that he would not become ill. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The 1928 Bellevue Stefansson Experiment <ul><li>What Stefansson Ate: </li></ul><ul><li>Protein 115 grams/day (15-20% of daily calories) </li></ul><ul><li>Fat > 200 grams/day (>80%) </li></ul><ul><li>Carb < 10 grams/day (<2%) </li></ul><ul><li>He ate meat, fish, poultry (with broth), brains, marrow, liver and kidney. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: McClellan W, et al. JBC 87:651,1930) </li></ul>
  4. 5. What Ketosis is Not: Ketoacidosis <ul><li>The distinction between a ketogenic diet resulting in “ nutritional ketosis ” and type-1 diabetes (AKA juvenile diabetes) resulting in diabetic ketoacidosis is important but often ignored </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional ketosis, completely benign, is associated with serum ketone levels of 1 to 5 millimolar </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Point of reference – most people in this room have serum ketones in the neighborhood of 0.05 millimolar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ketoacidosis from type-1 diabetes, potentially fatal, is characterized by serum ketones of 20-30 millimolar. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Fat: Guilty by Association? A lot of marketing is going into foods with reduced, or no fat content. But could the increased sugar, hydrogenated oils, and thickening agents used to replace the fat actually be less healthy than if the foods had just been left alone.
  6. 7. A Poorly Explored Variable Fatty Acid Composition
  7. 9. Taking need to the Extreme <ul><li>Taubes spent five years working on the book, which runs to more than 450 pages. The bibliography alone goes on for more than 60 pages. He also says he interviewed more than 600 doctors, researchers and administrators, though he adds that “the appearance of their names in the text ... does not imply that they agree with all or even part of the thesis set forth in this book.” </li></ul><ul><li>In the book Taubes elaborates on how the low-fat diet emerged and why carbohydrates rather than fat cause obesity, heart disease, diabetes, and what he calls ‘diseases of civilization.’ </li></ul>
  8. 10. The 11 Critical Conclusions of Good Calories, Bad Calories <ul><li>1. Dietary fat, whether saturated or not, does not cause heart disease. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Carbohydrates do, because of their effect on the hormone insulin. The more easily-digestible and refined the carbohydrates and the more fructose they contain, the greater the effect on our health, weight, and well-being. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Sugars—sucrose (table sugar) and high fructose corn syrup specifically—are particularly harmful. The glucose in these sugars raises insulin levels; the fructose they contain overloads the liver. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Refined carbohydrates, starches, and sugars are also the most likely dietary causes of cancer, Alzheimer’s Disease, and the other common chronic diseases of modern times. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Obesity is a disorder of excess fat accumulation, not overeating and not sedentary behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Consuming excess calories does not cause us to grow fatter any more than it causes a child to grow taller. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Exercise does not make us lose excess fat; it makes us hungry. </li></ul><ul><li>8. We get fat because of an imbalance—a disequilibrium—in the hormonal regulation of fat tissue and fat metabolism. More fat is stored in the fat tissue than is mobilized and used for fuel. We become leaner when the hormonal regulation of the fat tissue reverses this imbalance. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Insulin is the primary regulator of fat storage. When insulin levels are elevated, we stockpile calories as fat. When insulin levels fall, we release fat from our fat tissue and burn it for fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>10. By stimulating insulin secretion, carbohydrates make us fat and ultimately cause obesity. By driving fat accumulation, carbohydrates also increase hunger and decrease the amount of energy we expend in metabolism and physical activity. </li></ul><ul><li>11. The fewer carbohydrates we eat, the leaner we will be. </li></ul>
  9. 12. Ketoadaptation <ul><li>A ketogenic diet results from varying combinations of calorie and carbohydrate restriction that induce the body to make ketones from fat to fuel the body beside the eyes and blood. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a general rule, any diet providing an adult with less than 50 grams (200 kcal) of carbohydrates per day is ketogenic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary protein reduces ketones somewhat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary fat has no negative effect on ketones </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. Saturated Fat Saturated Fat Blood Saturated Fat Levels Low Carb Diet (45 g CHO/d) Low Fat Diet (208 g CHO/d) Saturated Fat Synthesis Saturated Fat Intake (12 g/d) Saturated Fat Synthesis Saturated Fat Intake (36 g/d) Saturated Fat Burned as Fuel Saturated Fat Burned as Fuel
  11. 14. Despite a >3-fold greater intake of saturated fat… ...a low carbohydrate diet results in a 2-fold greater reduction in total saturates in triglycerides -12% -5% -57% -24%
  12. 17. Keto-adaptation Confirmed MIT Study <ul><li>Our Vermont study result was verified for a full-calorie (eucaloric) ketogenic diet given to 5 highly fit and lean bicycle racers. Key management factors were protein content, type of dietary fat, major & trace minerals </li></ul><ul><li>(Phinney et al, Metabolism 32:769, 1983) </li></ul><ul><li>4 weeks of adaptation allowed </li></ul><ul><li>between baseline and final </li></ul><ul><li>endurance tests </li></ul><ul><li>Diet Composition like Stefansson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15% protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80+% fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>< 2% carbohydrate </li></ul></ul>
  13. 18. MIT Study Performance Parameters Baseline 4 Wks Ketosis VO 2 max (L/min) 5.1 5.0 Endur @65% VO 2 max (min) 147 151 RQ CO2 produced/O2 consumed 0.83 0.72* Pre Musc Gly ( mMol/kg) 143 76 Post Musc Gly 56* 53* WBC (biomarker of inflammation) 5.2 4.5*
  14. 20. Start Eating with an Open Mind! <ul><li>I’m not asking you to go home and start throwing away food with carbs, but to instead be less fearful of fattening foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Carb-free foods for those interested include </li></ul><ul><li>Meat, Seafood, Fowl, Cheese, Eggs, Butter, Oils (Olive Oil*, Flaxseed oil*, etc.), Mustard, Salt, Pepper, Soy Sauce, Tea, Coffee, and Heavy Cream. </li></ul><ul><li>These foods can be consumed in moderation </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Starchy Vegetables, Mushrooms, Nuts, Protein Powder, and some Wines. </li></ul>

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