for  hydrocarbons<br />
Contents<br />Colombia<br />Industry background<br />Open Round Colombia 2010<br />Legal aspects and Contracts<br />Commun...
General vision of the hydrocarbons potential in Colombia
Technical aspects of the areas on offer</li></li></ul><li>HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF COLOMBIA <br />Prof. Carlos A. Vargas J...
Agenda<br />Introduction and geologic setting<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusions<br />
Agenda<br /><ul><li>Introduction and geologic setting
Methodology
Results
Conclusions</li></li></ul><li>Giant fields classified by type of basin<br />Mann et al. (2003)<br />
Giant fields classified by age<br />(911 Oil & Gas fields)<br />Age of 910 giant reservoirs<br />Precambrian<br />Paleozoi...
Giant fields classified by reservoir rocks<br />(911 Oil & Gas fields)<br />Carbonates<br />Sandstones<br />Turbidites<br ...
Giant fields classified by trap<br />(911 Oil & Gas fields)<br />Stratigraphic<br />Structural<br />Reef<br />Combined<br />
Giant fields classified by depth<br />(911 Oil & Gas fields)<br />910 giants sorted by depth to producing level<br />&lt;1...
New patterns derived from incorporation of data in the frontier exploration&apos;s acres<br />2003<br />2010<br />
HC resources in Colombia<br />Different methodologies, different expectations and different results ...<br />
Example: Eastern Llanos<br />- 8.300km 2D-seismic<br /><ul><li> 36 wells
 Aero-geophysical data
 Geological and geochemical data</li></ul>40 areas heavy oil prospects <br />Source: Halliburton (2008)<br />Source: IHS (...
Agenda<br /><ul><li>Introduction and geologic setting
Methodology
Results
Conclusions</li></li></ul><li>Methodology<br />: Montecarlo<br />High variability and uncertainty <br />of variables<br />...
Porosity<br />Petroleum reservoir porosity versus depth: Influence of geological age. AAPG Bulletin, v. 93, no. 10 (Octobe...
Σ(Production areas) / Basin area<br />Catatumbo<br />MMV<br />UMV<br />LMV<br />Caguan-Putumayo<br />Eastern Llanos<br />G...
Σ(Production areas) / MBOE<br />Corollary 2<br />Caguan-Putumayo<br />Eastern Llanos<br />LMV<br />MMV<br />Catatumbo<br /...
Trend of maximum basin area that might be involved <br />in production processes<br />Llanos<br />Caguan - Putumayo<br />V...
PDF of h, Sw and Boi<br />
Questions that arise from the assumed hypothesis<br />1. 	How to support with geologic evidence, the observation that prod...
North American plate<br />North American plate<br />Atlantic Ocean<br />Atlantic Ocean<br />2<br />2<br />3<br />3<br />5<...
Dutch Antilles & Venezuelan Islands<br />Merida Andes<br />South Caribbean deformed belt<br />Aves Ridge<br />Venezuelan B...
Younger rocks toward the east<br />
South Caribbean Deformed Belt<br />Kroehler (2007)<br />
E’<br />D’<br />E<br />D<br />Evidence of the GAC<br />
Free air anomalies<br />
Oil & Gas fields and seeps<br />
Cardon IV gas discovery<br />Chuchupa gas field<br />Northern Trinidad-Vzla gas fields<br />Tectonic terranes and the infe...
Ages and present configuration of ridges and rifts<br />Meschede et al. (1998)<br />
Flat subduction<br />Gutscher et al. (2000)<br />
Sunken ridges: Flat subduction<br />Gutscher et al. (2000)<br />
Cocos<br />Coiba<br />Malpelo<br />Carnegie<br />Ridges and volcanic chains<br />
Seismicity<br />
Depth x 111km<br />The Nazca plate is subducting with evidence of tearing<br />
Basins and HC manifestations<br />
Geothermal gradient and HC manifestations<br />
Golden zone<br />P. A. Bjorkum & P. Nadeau<br />STATOIL<br />“… the pattern in all sedimentary basins independent of the w...
Depth of basement, seeps and, oil & gas fields<br />Tectonic Map of the World <br />(Exxon, 1985)<br />
Depth of basement and Golden zone<br />
Area of basins for estimating the potential<br />1. How to support with geologic evidence, the observation that production...
Calculation of the mass of hydrocarbons generated<br />Volumetric Calculation of Hydrocarbons Generated, James w. Schmoker...
Uncertainties and other basins? : Montecarlo<br />
A<br />S<br />T<br />B<br />U<br />C<br />D<br />E<br />G<br />X<br />F<br />H<br />J<br />Y<br />W<br />K<br />Case studi...
Values from case-studies used to calculate the amount of generated petroleum from pods of Active Source Rock<br />Magoon, ...
Direct geochemical observations of 16 basins<br />Catatumbo<br />Sinu – San Jacinto<br />Eastern Cordillera<br />Caguán - ...
TOC, HI, Tmax of 257 wells<br />LMV<br />UMV<br />Eastern Llanos<br />MMV<br />
1. Identifying the source rock area<br />
There is a trend that may well support a hypothetical assumption: the kitchen area  α  to the basin area<br />
Now we are able to estimate the kitchen area in some frontier basins<br />
Other trends are confirming the mass of HC generated from the source rock<br />
Steps 2 and 3: Is there any relation between TOC and the mass of HC generated in the Colombian basins?<br />
There is a trend that may support a new hypothetical assumption: TOC(%)  α  to the mass of HC generated<br />
Now, knowing the TOC(%) of any basin, it is possible to calculate the mass of HC generated with degrees of confidence!<br />
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3 Hydrocarbon Potential Of Colombia

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The Hydrocarbon Potential of Columbia is a detailed technical analysis of hydrocarbon potential within Columbia. It was presented in Houston, Texas on February 9th, 2010 by the Agencia Nacional de Hidrocarburos. Its target audience is specifically the petroleum geologist analyzing opportunities. Highly recomended for companies looking for new opportunities to explore. For more information please do not hesitate to contact me. We also have detailed analysis by specific Colombian region/blocks to be put up for BID in 2010. doug.green@translation-source.com

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3 Hydrocarbon Potential Of Colombia

  1. 1. for hydrocarbons<br />
  2. 2. Contents<br />Colombia<br />Industry background<br />Open Round Colombia 2010<br />Legal aspects and Contracts<br />Communities and environmental priorities<br />Technical aspects<br /><ul><li>Introduction
  3. 3. General vision of the hydrocarbons potential in Colombia
  4. 4. Technical aspects of the areas on offer</li></li></ul><li>HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF COLOMBIA <br />Prof. Carlos A. Vargas J.<br />Departamento de Geociencias<br />Universidad Nacional de Colombia<br />
  5. 5. Agenda<br />Introduction and geologic setting<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusions<br />
  6. 6. Agenda<br /><ul><li>Introduction and geologic setting
  7. 7. Methodology
  8. 8. Results
  9. 9. Conclusions</li></li></ul><li>Giant fields classified by type of basin<br />Mann et al. (2003)<br />
  10. 10. Giant fields classified by age<br />(911 Oil & Gas fields)<br />Age of 910 giant reservoirs<br />Precambrian<br />Paleozoic<br />Mesozoic<br />Cenozoic<br />
  11. 11. Giant fields classified by reservoir rocks<br />(911 Oil & Gas fields)<br />Carbonates<br />Sandstones<br />Turbidites<br />Others<br />
  12. 12. Giant fields classified by trap<br />(911 Oil & Gas fields)<br />Stratigraphic<br />Structural<br />Reef<br />Combined<br />
  13. 13. Giant fields classified by depth<br />(911 Oil & Gas fields)<br />910 giants sorted by depth to producing level<br />&lt;1.5km<br />1.5km ≤ depth &lt; 3.0 km<br />&gt; 3.0km<br />
  14. 14. New patterns derived from incorporation of data in the frontier exploration&apos;s acres<br />2003<br />2010<br />
  15. 15. HC resources in Colombia<br />Different methodologies, different expectations and different results ...<br />
  16. 16. Example: Eastern Llanos<br />- 8.300km 2D-seismic<br /><ul><li> 36 wells
  17. 17. Aero-geophysical data
  18. 18. Geological and geochemical data</li></ul>40 areas heavy oil prospects <br />Source: Halliburton (2008)<br />Source: IHS (2008)<br />
  19. 19. Agenda<br /><ul><li>Introduction and geologic setting
  20. 20. Methodology
  21. 21. Results
  22. 22. Conclusions</li></li></ul><li>Methodology<br />: Montecarlo<br />High variability and uncertainty <br />of variables<br />Hauy octahedron<br />Geologic risk<br />Recovery factor<br />
  23. 23. Porosity<br />Petroleum reservoir porosity versus depth: Influence of geological age. AAPG Bulletin, v. 93, no. 10 (October 2009), pp. 1281–1296.<br />
  24. 24. Σ(Production areas) / Basin area<br />Catatumbo<br />MMV<br />UMV<br />LMV<br />Caguan-Putumayo<br />Eastern Llanos<br />Guajira<br />Sinú-San Jacinto<br />Eastern Cordillera<br />Corollary 1<br />
  25. 25. Σ(Production areas) / MBOE<br />Corollary 2<br />Caguan-Putumayo<br />Eastern Llanos<br />LMV<br />MMV<br />Catatumbo<br />UMV<br />
  26. 26. Trend of maximum basin area that might be involved <br />in production processes<br />Llanos<br />Caguan - Putumayo<br />VIM<br />VMM<br />Catatumbo<br />Σ(Production areas) / MBOE<br />VSM<br />Σ(Production areas) / Basin area<br />Hypothesis<br />
  27. 27. PDF of h, Sw and Boi<br />
  28. 28. Questions that arise from the assumed hypothesis<br />1. How to support with geologic evidence, the observation that production acres are limited to up to 6% of the total area in the Colombian basins?<br />2. Has there been enough HC generated for supporting the YTF expectations? <br />
  29. 29. North American plate<br />North American plate<br />Atlantic Ocean<br />Atlantic Ocean<br />2<br />2<br />3<br />3<br />5<br />5<br />4<br />6<br />4<br />6<br />3<br />3<br />7<br />7<br />1<br />1<br />Caribbean plate<br />Caribbean plate<br />South American plate<br />South American plate<br />Pacific ocean<br />Pacific ocean<br />500 km<br />500 km<br />Late Cretaceous<br />Late Cretaceous<br />1<br />3<br />5<br />7<br />1<br />3<br />5<br />7<br />Recent<br />Recent<br />Middle Eocene<br />Middle Miocene<br />Middle Eocene<br />Middle Miocene<br />4<br />4<br />2<br />2<br />Middle Oligocene<br />Middle Oligocene<br />6<br />6<br />Early Pliocene<br />Early Pliocene<br />Middle Paleocene<br />Middle Paleocene<br />Tectonic history of Caribbean<br />After Lugo & Mann (2003)<br />
  30. 30. Dutch Antilles & Venezuelan Islands<br />Merida Andes<br />South Caribbean deformed belt<br />Aves Ridge<br />Venezuelan Basin<br />Lesser Antilles Ridge<br />Orinoco River<br />Guyana<br /> Shield<br />Barbados<br />N<br />Main morphologic features<br />Atlas CBTH (2009)<br />
  31. 31. Younger rocks toward the east<br />
  32. 32. South Caribbean Deformed Belt<br />Kroehler (2007)<br />
  33. 33. E’<br />D’<br />E<br />D<br />Evidence of the GAC<br />
  34. 34. Free air anomalies<br />
  35. 35. Oil & Gas fields and seeps<br />
  36. 36. Cardon IV gas discovery<br />Chuchupa gas field<br />Northern Trinidad-Vzla gas fields<br />Tectonic terranes and the inferred SA plate border<br />
  37. 37. Ages and present configuration of ridges and rifts<br />Meschede et al. (1998)<br />
  38. 38. Flat subduction<br />Gutscher et al. (2000)<br />
  39. 39. Sunken ridges: Flat subduction<br />Gutscher et al. (2000)<br />
  40. 40. Cocos<br />Coiba<br />Malpelo<br />Carnegie<br />Ridges and volcanic chains<br />
  41. 41. Seismicity<br />
  42. 42. Depth x 111km<br />The Nazca plate is subducting with evidence of tearing<br />
  43. 43. Basins and HC manifestations<br />
  44. 44. Geothermal gradient and HC manifestations<br />
  45. 45. Golden zone<br />P. A. Bjorkum & P. Nadeau<br />STATOIL<br />“… the pattern in all sedimentary basins independent of the way they formed, their history of development, and age, shows an accumulation of oil and gas between 60ºC - 120ºC commonly referred to as &apos;The Golden Zone‘ ...”<br />Geo ExPro (September, 2004)<br />
  46. 46. Depth of basement, seeps and, oil & gas fields<br />Tectonic Map of the World <br />(Exxon, 1985)<br />
  47. 47. Depth of basement and Golden zone<br />
  48. 48. Area of basins for estimating the potential<br />1. How to support with geologic evidence, the observation that production is limited to up to 6% of the total area in the Colombian basins?<br /><ul><li>A first look at several sedimentary basins of Colombia suggests that the area assumed in the hypothesis may be greater than 6%.</li></ul>2.Has there been enough HC generated for supporting the YTF expectations? <br />
  49. 49. Calculation of the mass of hydrocarbons generated<br />Volumetric Calculation of Hydrocarbons Generated, James w. Schmoker<br />U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado, USA.<br />Magoon, L. B., and W. G. Dow, eds., 1994, The petroleum<br />system-from source lo trap: AAPG Memoir 60.<br />The source rock is identified and its boundaries defined.<br />2. The mass of organic carbon in the source rock is calculated.<br />M(gTOC) = [TOC (wt %)/100) x r (g/0113) x V (cm3)<br />3. The mass of hydrocarbons generated per unit mass of organic carbon is estimated.<br />R(mgHC/gTOC) = HIo (mg HC/g TOC) - HIp (mg HC/g TOC)<br />4. The total mass of hydrocarbons generated is determined by multiplication of this data.<br />HCG(kgHC) = R(mg HC/g TOC) x M (g TOC) X 10-6 (kg/mg)<br />
  50. 50. Uncertainties and other basins? : Montecarlo<br />
  51. 51. A<br />S<br />T<br />B<br />U<br />C<br />D<br />E<br />G<br />X<br />F<br />H<br />J<br />Y<br />W<br />K<br />Case studies<br />Magoon, L. B., and W. G. Dow, eds., 1994, The petroleum<br />system-from source lo trap: AAPG Memoir 60.<br />
  52. 52. Values from case-studies used to calculate the amount of generated petroleum from pods of Active Source Rock<br />Magoon, L. B., and W. G. Dow, eds., 1994, The petroleum<br />system-from source lo trap: AAPG Memoir 60.<br />
  53. 53. Direct geochemical observations of 16 basins<br />Catatumbo<br />Sinu – San Jacinto<br />Eastern Cordillera<br />Caguán - Putumayo<br />Sinu offshore<br />Urabá<br />Chocó<br />Tumaco<br />Cesar - Rancheria<br />Guajira offshore<br />Tumaco offshore<br />Los Cayos<br />
  54. 54. TOC, HI, Tmax of 257 wells<br />LMV<br />UMV<br />Eastern Llanos<br />MMV<br />
  55. 55. 1. Identifying the source rock area<br />
  56. 56. There is a trend that may well support a hypothetical assumption: the kitchen area α to the basin area<br />
  57. 57. Now we are able to estimate the kitchen area in some frontier basins<br />
  58. 58. Other trends are confirming the mass of HC generated from the source rock<br />
  59. 59. Steps 2 and 3: Is there any relation between TOC and the mass of HC generated in the Colombian basins?<br />
  60. 60. There is a trend that may support a new hypothetical assumption: TOC(%) α to the mass of HC generated<br />
  61. 61. Now, knowing the TOC(%) of any basin, it is possible to calculate the mass of HC generated with degrees of confidence!<br />
  62. 62. Estimations for every basin<br />
  63. 63. Agenda<br /><ul><li>Introduction and geologic setting
  64. 64. Methodology
  65. 65. Results
  66. 66. Conclusions</li></li></ul><li>Potential resources in 21 basins<br />
  67. 67. 12.513<br />1.064<br />1841<br />218<br />P10<br />P90<br />P90<br />P10<br />486<br />654<br />57<br />P90<br />P10<br />3.202<br />246<br />3.653<br />P10<br />P90<br />300<br />4.373<br />524<br />1932<br />1.026<br />331<br />P90<br />P10<br />112<br />73<br />125<br />P10<br />P90<br />P10<br />P90<br />P10<br />P90<br />3.150<br />255<br />3.441<br />1.815<br />P90<br />P10<br />287<br />128<br />2.694<br />P10<br />P90<br />P10<br />P90<br />6.318<br />289<br />14<br />0,14<br />41.756<br />550<br />2.706<br />P90<br />P10<br />2.226<br />5.330<br />P10<br />P90<br />207<br />P90<br />P10<br />1885<br />155<br />P10<br />P90<br />P90<br />P10<br />1153<br />94<br />801<br />2.956<br />265<br />2.086<br />180<br />P10<br />P90<br />P10<br />P90<br />10.525<br />P10<br />P90<br />846<br />P90<br />P10<br />418<br />13.596<br />1.144<br />P90<br />P10<br />
  68. 68. Agenda<br /><ul><li>Introduction and geologic setting
  69. 69. Methodology
  70. 70. Results
  71. 71. Conclusions</li></li></ul><li>Assuming conservative scenarios (GR ~ 30% and RF~20%), the undiscovered resources could range between 34,141.5 and 82,117.3 MBOE.<br />
  72. 72. Recommendations and precautions<br />Given the regional nature of this study, it is suggested that a more representative data analysis of each basin be considered in order to refine the above undiscovered resource values.<br />Even accepting the numbers presented in this work, it would be necessary to systematically assess the geologic risk and the recovery factor.<br />

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