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Wcfneas student and teacher friendly assessment of reading brief ppt [compatibility mode]


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Wcfneas student and teacher friendly assessment of reading brief ppt [compatibility mode]

  1. 1. 2011-03-07 Student- and Teacher-Friendly Assessment That Turns Kids into Readers Presented at the 7th Annual Western Canadian First Nations Administrators Education Symposium Enoch Cree Nation, March 9, 10, 11, 2011 Douglas B. Rogers, Ed.D.Student Learning Assessment and Performance Measures Lead, First Nation Student Success Program,  Kwayaciiwin Education Resource Centre After March 31, 2011: Education Director, Baby Steps to Reading“The elementary school must assumeas its sublime and most solemnresponsibility the task of teachingevery child in it to read. Any schoolthat does not accomplish this hasfailed.” --William John Bennett 1
  2. 2. 2011-03-07 Skillists vs EruditionistsThe Philosophical Baby:What Childrens Minds Tell Us About Truth, Love and the Meaning of Life. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2009.Look at these observations from Debra Black’s review, “Whats Going on in the Brain of a Baby?” in the Toronto Star (Black, August 16, 2009). Skillists vs Eruditionists"Weve discovered very young children – even babies– have powerful learning mechanisms such as theability to do statistics, do experiments and use logic.They h l h dTh help them determine what the world is like. One i h h ld i lik Oof the basic questions is how do we get truth about theworld. Well, we have brains that even as youngchildren are designed to let us find out the truth.” Skillists vs Eruditionists“Before I was a teacher, I used to work on a farmgiving field trips to classes. I would take classesthrough the farm, teaching about the animals, the roleof the f f h farm, the f h farm community, etc., and then we i d hwould pick pumpkins out in the field and go on anature hike in the back forest. Since we were just inthe greenbelt outside of Toronto, we did get manygroups from the city. 2
  3. 3. 2011-03-07 Skillists vs Eruditionists“One day, I had a kindergarten class from downtowntake the bus up. I knew right away that the kids didnthave much experience on a farm when they steppedoff of the b so I tried to make everything really ff f h bus, i d k hi llaccessible for them. When we got to the cow, I beganto talk about it giving them facts about the animal asclues as to its identity, and as I did I noticed one kidseyes getting big. When I asked if anyone knew whatthe animal was, he started waving his hand frantically. Skillists vs Eruditionists“Now you have to picture the day -- it was October, soa bit chilly and the cows breath was fogging up. Thiskid, too, was standing right up near the fence, starringdirectly up at the cow that towered over him. No onedi l h h d hi Nelse had any clue, so I chose him. "I know I know! Itsa dragon!" he shouted completely wide eyed.” The Simple View of Reading Reading comprehension is a p product of a p person’s word recognition or reading of single words and listening comprehension . 3
  4. 4. 2011-03-07 Learning to read is justlearning to understand languagewe see rather than hear. Coltheart’s Dual Route Theory 4
  5. 5. 2011-03-07 Recently, we all used the non-lexical, phonological recoding route to learn to read a word new to us:• Tahrir Square Pre-test of Decoding Mastery simkut flutting buling neelfimber twelabe wrealbitawmit slitterlingly mationable knoitowd mishtaneous Reading diagnosis, then, explores•current reading performance (word recognition andreading comprehension),•listening comprehension, and•related factors that we may have to take into accountin reading instruction (e.g., autism, hyperactivity,intellectual deficit, depression, attitude toward school,and so forth). 5
  6. 6. 2011-03-07Determine each student’s currentreading abilityBegin a reading diagnosis of a JKstudent with theEnvironmental Print Reading TestIf the student seems to know few or nowords, administer theKnowledge of Text Conventions Subtest 6
  7. 7. 2011-03-07 Knowledge of Text Conventions SubtestwordsHere is a sentence sentence.____________________________________________ Once upon a time, three pigs went out into theworld. The first pig decided to build himself a houseof straw. The second pig decided to build herself ahouse of sticks. The third pig decided to build herself ahouse of bricks. Knowledge of Text Conventions Subtest• “Point with your finger at a letter that is all by itself.”•“Point to the word that is all by itself.”•“Point to a sentence.”•“Show me where to begin to read here.” [Touch intothe middle of the text below the line on the studentcopy.] Knowledge of Text Conventions Subtest• If•“If I read this word first [touch the word Once] show Once],me the words I would read next “•“When I get here, [Touch the end of the first line],point to where I should go to read more. 7
  8. 8. 2011-03-07Continue with theAlphabet Knowledge Subtest.If the student seems to read somewords already, administer theSan Diego Quick Assessment: Graded Word List.San Diego Quick Assessment: GradedWord List, grade 6 listbridgecommercialabolishtruckerapparatuselementarycommentnecessitygalleryrelativity 8
  9. 9. 2011-03-07 Teachers can use the results of the graded word list to identify, tentatively, material students can read easily. d ilContinue by determining currentindependent and instructional readinglevels by having the student readgraduated text, using an informalreading inventory or leveled books. We analyze oral reading • to find reading levels, • to consider how to help the student do better lexical and non-lexical word recognition non lexical (Castles, Coltheart, Larsen et al, 2009), and • to decide how to help the student become a better comprehender 9
  10. 10. 2011-03-07 Reading levels• The highest readability level of text the student can read with at least 98% word recognition is his independent reading level g p g• The highest readability level of text the student can read with at least 95% word recognition is his instructional reading level• Poorer performance will frustrate the student. Go easy to make strong readers• “High levels of reading accuracy produce the best reading growth” (Allington, 2009, p ) p. 46) How easy are we talking?“The reading achievement of students whoreceived Reading Rescue tutoring [a program thatemphasized lots of easy reading and phonicslessons] appeared to be explained primarily byone aspect of their tutoring experience—readingtexts at a high level of accuracy, between 98% and100%” (Ehri, Dreyer, Flugman, and Gross, 2007,p. 441). 10
  11. 11. 2011-03-07 Really, how easy are we talking? “These findings indicate that high text-reading accuracy during tutoring was the strongest predictor and the only unique predictor of students’ reading achievement at the end of first grade” (Ehri, Dreyer, Flugman, and Gross, 2007, p. 440).What should a tutor do when a student makes an error or hesitates while reading aloud?“When he makes an error, correct it and have himsay the word and reread the sentence” (Heubuschand Lloyd, 1998).What should a tutor do when a student makes an error or hesitates while reading aloud?“Every oral reading error should be corrected, notjust the ones that alter the meaning” Grossen andCarnine, 1990, p. 18). 11
  12. 12. 2011-03-07 What should a tutor do when a student makes an error or hesitates while reading aloud? After he reads the passage or short book, study each word misread by talking about how the letters spell the sounds of the word and reading the word several times (Stuart, 2003, p. 3). What should a tutor do when a student makes an error or hesitates while reading aloud? Then the student should re-read the book for further experience reading with high word recognition accuracy (Allington, 2009). How can we ensure our students do greater amounts of easy reading?• Match each student with text he can read easily and arrange for lots of reading, including having students read in trios, assigning text that the weakest reader of the trio can read easily.• Arrange for students to read to a buddy.• Encourage students to read to parents and volunteers. 12
  13. 13. 2011-03-07 How easy are we talking?• Reading the Secret Life of Bees at 99% word recognition accuracy would mean that in 300 pages you would encounter more p g y than 1000 words that you couldn’t read correctly or only by slowing to decode!Aren’t we going to easy on these kids? No!• A child reading the Magic School Bus series—each book is about 40 pages long— with 95% WR accuracy would encounter y 250 words that he couldn’t read easily!• Even at 99% word recognition accuracy, he would still meet almost 50 words hard to read, if he could read them at all!If the student is independentlyreading below the fourth gradelevel, look at progress in learningto read single words words. 13
  14. 14. 2011-03-07The teacher may want to assess thestudent’s progress in learning torecognize automatically the mostcommon words in English (e.g., thewords on Dolch’s (1942) Basic SightWord Test). First 10 of the 220 words on the Basic Sight Word Test (Dolch, 1942)• the• to• and• a• I• you• it• in• said• for 14
  15. 15. 2011-03-07 Word WallThe teacher may want to the student’sphonics skills. Coltheart’s Dual Route Theory 15
  16. 16. 2011-03-07Administer the Pretest of DecodingMastery if you wonder Can the studentread words automatically? d d t ti ll ? Pre-test of Decoding Mastery simkut flutting buling neelfimber twelabe wrealbitawmit slitterlingly mationable knoitowd mishtaneous If the student is unable to read the polysyllabic words, proceed to the Fundamental Code Phonics Subtest. 16
  17. 17. 2011-03-07 Fundamental Code Phonics Subtest up Fundamental Code Phonics Subtest on Fundamental Code Phonics Subtest• 1. m up mup• 2. s up sup• 3. t up tup• 4. f up fup• 5. d on don• 6. r on ron• 7. g on gon• 8. p up pup• 9. h up hup 17
  18. 18. 2011-03-07 Variants Code Phonics Subtest • 46. hammer • 47. glass • 48. letter • 49. cymbals • 50. puppet • 51. tennis • 52. cat • 53. head • 54. arrowIf students show weak phonic analysisskills or limited sight vocabulary, theteacher should assess the student’sphonemic awareness and knowledge ofconcepts about print, using, forexample, the Phonemic AwarenessSubtest from the RPT Phonemic Awareness Subtest:Blending phonemes to recognize words Say, “I can say words very slowly, sound by sound. Listen to how I can say man very slowly: /m/ . . . /a/ . . . /n/. Could you tell that I said man very slowly? I’m g g going to say another word slowly. You tell me what y y word I’m saying slowly. /f/ . . . /u/. . ./n/.” [Student should say “fun.”] “Let’s try some more. I’ll speak a word slowly; you say the word the way we say it when we talk.” 1. /m/ . . . /i/ . . . /t/ ____________ 18
  19. 19. 2011-03-07 Phonemic Awareness Subtest:Segmenting spoken words to hear each phoneme distinctly Say, “If I say a word slowly, you can hear the sounds that make up that work. If I say no very slowly, /n . . . / . . . /ō/, y you can hear the two sounds that we speak to say the word p y no. Now, I want you to say a word very slowly so I can hear every sound. Say hat very slowly.” [Say, “Good” if the student is successful. Offer one more practice if the student fails.] Say, “I’ll say some more words. You say each word slowly, sound by sound.”• 6. make ____________ When reading is easy, kids read lots • Animorphs • Goosebumps • Junie B. Jones • Magic School Bus • Wimpy Kid • Captain Underpants • Choose Your Own Adventures Determine the Student’s Listening Comprehension Level 19
  20. 20. 2011-03-07 The Simple View of ReadingReading comprehension is approduct of a p person’sword recognition or reading ofsingle words andlistening comprehension. Learning to read is justlearning to understand languagewe see rather than hear. Why do some kids not seem to understand the simplest text?“Vocabulary experts agree that adequate readingcomprehension depends on a person alreadyknowing between 90 and 95 percent of the words ina text. Knowing such a high percentage of wordsallows the reader to get the gist of what is beingsaid and therefore to guess correctly what theunfamiliar words probably mean” Hart and Risley,cited in Hirsch, 2003, p. 16) 20
  21. 21. 2011-03-07 The student’s listening comprehension level is the highest readability level of text at which the student can answer at least 70% of the questions.If the student can recognize wordsautomatically, assess how well thestudent can read to learn: Determinehow t h l th t d t d t lh to help the student read to learnWhen the student is puzzled whilereading, does he routinely tryharder to understand?• Does the student reread puzzling text?• D Does th student skip a few words? the t d t ki f d?• If still puzzled, does the student seek out material at a more introductory level? 21
  22. 22. 2011-03-07 Does the student show an understanding of how to learn effectively?• Does the student pause in reading to ask questions to check building a mental representation of the g p passage topic?• Does the student use a dictionary to clarify the meaning of words in the passage?• Does the student seek to talk about the material?• Does the student highlight what he must remember to limit review? Does the student show an understanding of how to learn effectively? • Does the student use mnemonic tactics such as creating acronymns (e.g., HOMES for Great i ( f Lakes)? • Does the student use study procedures to preview the text, set questions before reading, try to answer the questions after reading, and review the text for points still not understood? Does the student show an understanding of how to learn effectively? • Does the student pay vigilant attention when his teachers teach a guided or directed reading lesson? • Does the student realize that there are ways other than reading to learn information? • Does the student read widely on many topics? • Does the student practice good study habits? 22
  23. 23. 2011-03-07 Does the student show an understanding of how to learn effectively? • Does the student make notes, document sources, make graphic aids, outline, draft, and revise writing as a way to learn? • Does the student find easier material on the topic? Can the student locate information?• Does the student use book parts to learn information?• Does the student locate information in a dictionary? oes t e stude t ocate o at o d ct o a y?• Does the student use encyclopedias and other reference works?• Does the student use information-retrieval tools (e.g., electronic card catalog, online databases, Internet search engines)? Can the student interpret graphic aids? • Does the student read graphs, charts, tables, cartoons, pictures, diagrams? 23
  24. 24. 2011-03-07 More about study-reading: Rogers, Douglas B. (1984). “Assessing study skills.” Journal of Reading, 27, pp. 346-354.After assessing current literacyperformance, consider related factorsthat you may have to consider todifferentiate instructionSome related factors that you may haveto consider to differentiate instruction• Size of preschool child’s listening vocabulary• Physical disabilities• Developmental disorders (hyperactivity, autism, and so forth) 24
  25. 25. 2011-03-07Write a learning plan (LP) for eachstudent• current reading performance (word recognition and reading comprehension) ,• listening comprehension, and• related factorsYou’ve explored a comprehensiveapproach to assessing the reading ofstudents• assessment of beginner readers,• the growing word recognition prowess of students,• limits to students’ ability to comprehend discourse, and• related factors that educators must consider in planning instruction, including how children feel about themselves and their school.If we’ve assessed and taught wordrecognition well and helped childrendevelop an understanding of more ofthe world including the topics in thecurriculum, they will earn high scoreson any literacy test we give them. 25
  26. 26. 2011-03-07Final Exam: Please write the missingwords into the summary below. Capable readers can look at words and understand them as easily as they do when they _____ them. Mostly readers look at a word and connect directly to the word in their _____ vocabulary: They can understand language through their eyes as well as language they hear. When readers see a word they don’t recognize on sight, they can figure out pretty well the _____ form of the printed form. If the word is in their listening vocabulary, they will recognize this word because their brain will have connected the spoken form with the word meaning stored in their _____. Reading is the product of our ability to _____ single words and to _____ them. If students can read the text aloud but can’t summarize it or answer questions, they need to find more _____ materials, either simpler books or other media. 26