Basic Communication of Public Relations


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Basic Communication of Public Relations

  2. 2. COMMUNICATION • Harold Laswell (dalam Berger & Chaffe, 1987): Who? Says what? In what channel? To Whom? With what effect? • De Vito (1995): Interpersonal communication is communication that takes place between two person who have an establish relationship; people who are in some way ‘connected’Dorien Kartikawangi
  3. 3. THE BASIC FORM OF COMMUNICATION • Nonverbal communication • Verbal communicationDorien Kartikawangi
  4. 4. Nonverbal Communication • Nonverbal communication is the process of communicating without words • Nonverbal communication has view rules and often occurs unconsciously • Action speak lauder than wordsDorien Kartikawangi
  5. 5. The Important of Nonverbal Communication • Nonverbal communication is more reliable and more efficient than verbal communication • People use nonverbal signals to support and clarify verbal communicationDorien Kartikawangi
  6. 6. The Types of Nonverbal Communication • Facial expressions and eye behavior • Gestures and postures • Vocal characteristics • Personal appearance • Touching behavior • Use of time and spaceDorien Kartikawangi
  7. 7. Means: • The face and eyes command particular attention as a source of nonverbal messages • Body language and tone of voice reveal a lot about a person’s emotions and attitudes • Physical appearance and personal style contribute to our identity • Use of touch, attitude toward time, and use of space (all of which are affected by culture) help establish social relationshipDorien Kartikawangi
  8. 8. Important! • Nonverbal communication can be different for men and women • Improve nonverbal skills by paying more attention to cuesDorien Kartikawangi
  9. 9. Verbal Communication • Verbal communication is the process of communicating with words • Language is composed of words and grammarDorien Kartikawangi
  10. 10. Speaking and Writing • Businesspeople rely more heavily on oral than on written communication channels for sharing information on a day-to-day basis, but they often put important messages in writingDorien Kartikawangi
  11. 11. Listening and Reading • People receiving messages by listening and reading • People spend more time receiving messages than transmitting it • Effective business communication depends on skill in receiving messages as well as in sending them • To absorb information people must concentrate, evaluate, and retain what they read or hearDorien Kartikawangi
  12. 12. THE PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION • The communication process consists of six phase linking sender and receiver 1 6 Sender Receiver & Feed back 2 Channel 5 situation Encoding And decoding Medium 3 4 Transmiting Receiver gets The messageDorien Kartikawangi
  13. 13. • The sender has an idea • The sender transform the idea into a message • The sender transmits the message • The receiver gets the message • The receiver interprets the message • The receiver reacts and sends feedback to the senderDorien Kartikawangi
  14. 14. Formulating a Message• Indecision about content. Include only the information that is useful to audience, and organize it in a way that encourages its acceptance.• Lack of familiarity with the situation or receiver. Ask why you are preparing the message and for whom you are preparing it.• Difficulty expressing ideas. An inability to put thoughts into words can be overcome through study and practiceDorien Kartikawangi
  15. 15. Overcoming Communication Barriers • Communication barriers exist between people and within organizations • Noise is any interference in communication process that distorts or obscures the sender’s meaningDorien Kartikawangi
  16. 16. Communication Barriers Between People • Differences in perception • Incorrect filtering • Language problems • Poor listening • Differing emotional states • Differing backgroundDorien Kartikawangi
  17. 17. Communication BarriersWithin Organizations • Information overload • Message complexity • Message competition • Differing status • Lack of trust • Inadequate communication structureDorien Kartikawangi
  18. 18. • Incorrect choice of medium, depends on message, audience, need for speed, situation A continuum of media richnessRicher Learner Face Telephone Addressed Un-addressed To Electronic Documents Documents Face Mail (notes, memo) (fliers, bulletins) • Closed communication climate • Unethical communication • Inefficient communication • Physical distractionsDorien Kartikawangi
  19. 19. IMPROVING COMMUNICATION • Effective communication requires perception, precision, credibility, control, and congeniality • Create the massage carefully • Minimize noise • Facilitate feedbackDorien Kartikawangi
  20. 20. THANK YOUDorien Kartikawangi
  21. 21. Pendahuluan • Ohfsdfh jfwjfw jfjf fjfjrggni • Cbjvhwenf jfkjv urnefv pu • Vh hgeghj eiorghkdnv;ciw9g ;vpoeu f wDorien Kartikawangi