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Bangladesh-- As of Fall 2013


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Hi! I gave this presentation back in Fall 2013, to an audience of people who were actually there while I was there. It was nuts. My intention with that presentation was to have these slides up in the background while I gave further details on whatever particular slide we were on, using my mouth box supplemented/augmented/enhanced/more business lingo'd with/by index cards, brain memory, body motion and physical presence, pictures lovingly hand-crafted right there on the spot, and more things of that nature. So, in the presentation's current format on this website, some slides on their own might not be quite as enlightening or useful without at least some person there to yap about things or make hand signals or draw pictures to explain what a slide was intended to represent. I also believe that I want to update this presentation a bit further now, given that I have even more impressive knowledges stored into my stupid, ugly head than I did way back then. So... with all that being said, I hope you understand that this piece is not quite complete just on its own. It is not just yet, at least.

Any questions, suggestions, comments, complaints, compliments, etc. that you may have for me/about this piece-- and anything that you want me to clarify, flesh out, correct, and so on-- please feel free to let me know. Thank you for your time.

Published in: Economy & Finance
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Bangladesh-- As of Fall 2013

  1. 1. Bangladesh!!!
  2. 2. Growth! PPP-adjusted income – $1,830. Up from 2008's $1,450. Using the math from Chapter 1, we can find the growth rate for the four years. ($1830/$1450)^(1/4) – 1 = g ≈ 5.99%
  3. 3. Growth! Bangladesh seems to have received much more pro-poor growth than Pakistan. “Farm yields are up dramatically, and the economic growth rate tops 4%.”
  4. 4. The Multifiber Agreement.  The MFA was designed by developed countries to place quotas on clothing imports from developing countries. ~ The USA-Japan-China-Taiwan-Bangladesh Example – Richer, poorer, poorer, poorest. – Japan, China, Taiwan, Bangladesh.
  5. 5. The Generalized System of Preference (GSP) in the EU  The EU allowed duty and quota free market access for textile industries in the very poorest countries.  So Bangladesh benefited from the GSP system greatly as well, being one of the very poorest countries.  76% of the country today lives on under $2 a day, and that's an improvement since back then. So yeah, it fit the criteria.
  6. 6. Why Bangladesh lasted when the MFA ended in 2005  "Labor in Bangladesh is cheaper than anywhere else in the world," says Tipu Munshi, the head of the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association.
  7. 7.  “The supplier of choice for cotton trousers.”
  8. 8. From The Travels of a T-Shirt in the Global Economy
  9. 9. Global Financial Crisis
  10. 10.  There was an impact felt.  “A deceleration of trade and migration flows.”  “300 thousands jobs could be lost in export- led sectors.”  “Affected households had started to cope by reducing the number of meals, diversifying their income sources.”  “A cut in consumption is more painful for someone who consumes very little to start with.”
  11. 11. But,  In a case study from Poor Economics, “The point is not that construction jobs were not lost during the crisis … some surely were— but for most of these young men, the salient fact for the time being was the opportunity.”  People who were affected by the crisis may have lost one job, but this just gave them an opportunity to move to the city, where there were jobs.  A migrant construction worker was still better in their eyes than working on the farm.
  12. 12.  43.3% of the population lives on under $1.25 a day.  Incomes of the poorest have been rising.  6% lower than the 2008 stat.  Impressive given that this is the “international basket case.”
  13. 13. Why'd poverty decrease? − The green revolution. − NGOs. − Women's employment. − Remittances.
  14. 14. The Multidimensional Poverty Index  Bangladesh has a score of 0.292.  It's the 73rd best-off country.
  15. 15.
  16. 16. Education and Literacy - The adult literacy rate in Bangladesh is 57.7%. The rate of growth of literacy is quicker and with more gender equity compared to Pakistan. - The female literacy rate is 52.2%.
  17. 17. - 8.8% of GDP per capita was spent on primary schooling, per student. 27.7% was spent on tertiary schooling, per student.  Brain drain?  Problems too big?  Shirk responsibility? - Teachers can tend to be hired for political reasons, and teacher absence on any given day is a considerable problem.
  18. 18. 52% combined school enrollments. In the 70's, attending school seemed like a luxury for the poor. Today, over 2/3rds of students complete primary school.
  19. 19. The female to male primary school enrollment ratio is 1.07 to 1. Greater parity for male and female literacy levels, in the future.
  20. 20. NGOs NGOs have helped significantly towards the progress of education in Bangladesh.
  21. 21. Gender Equity Overall gender equity has decreased about 4% from '04 to '012. Amongst South Asian countries though, Bangladesh is still above average. Just not on a global scale. And in gender equity in education, it remains “above average”, globally.
  22. 22. Gender Equity Bangladesh has a Male to female ratio of 0.95. The female to male literacy rate is 85%.
  23. 23. Working Conditions The working conditions are harsh compared to Western standards. Many workers are paid less than the official minimum wage.
  24. 24. Health Life expectancy is 68.94. Child malnutrition went from 2/3rds to under ½, since 1990. The green revolution helped bring about better nutrition in the area. The under-5 mortality rate is 46 per 1,000.
  25. 25. The Green Revolution. Advances in food technology led to increased productivity of crops in Bangladesh. For rice, this came about through “seed technology and improved management practices in fertilizers and irrigation use.” First a type of rice was made that doubled the yield of the previous kind, Then types were made that were pest and disease resistant, And then those traits became integrated with ones against conditions like flood and salinity.
  26. 26. Works Cited "World Health Statistics 2013." World Health Organization, 2013. Web. 4 Oct. 2013. < >. "Poor Nutrition Stunts Growth of Nearly Half of Under-fives in Bangladesh." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited, 2013. Web. 04 Oct. 2013. < >.