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Developing skills and competencies for life and work – what role digital technologies?

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Long version of presentation at UNESCO Mobile Learning Week. The argument is that we have to think about what to learn and to encourage frequent participation in learning. The question is how to encourage people, who tend not to participate - these are usually those who have a lower level of formal education and are older. However, these two groups are most likely to be affected by automation and other changes to our economies. Recognising people's acquired skill level through digital badges and connecting these to recognition pathways can be a way to ensure empower all learner groups - and to aid skills matching in the labour market.

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Developing skills and competencies for life and work – what role digital technologies?

  1. 1. Developing skills and competencies for life and work – what role digital technologies? [long version] Dr. Dominic Orr d.orr@fibs.eu @dominicorr Source:ownphoto.Lalibela,Ethiopia. Mobile Learning Week “Skills for a connected world” , UNESCO Paris 28.03.2018
  2. 2. Developing skills and competencies for life and work – what role digital technologies? Two central questions: 1. What to learn? – in the context of changes in a digital world 2. How to encourage more people to acquire skills more to help people live good lives in the context of changes in a a) Who participates in lifelong learning? b) How can we encourage and empower other people to Preamble
  3. 3. 1. The challenge: increasing automation and increasing instability of career pathways 2. The good and the bad of formal education 3. The increasing need for ‘skills discovery’ and linked ‘learning pathways’ 4. The new approach of community recognition of informal learning using digital badges and learning pathways Agenda
  4. 4. The challenge: increasing automation and increasing instability of career pathways Q: What to learn? – in the context of changes in a digital world Agenda
  5. 5. Nedelkoska, L., & Quintini, G. (2018). Automation, skills use and training (OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers). https://doi.org/10.1787/2e2f4eea-en • Social intelligence - the ability to effectively negotiate complex social relationships, to collaborate, to empathize, to recognize cultural sensitivities, to care for others • Cognitive intelligence – the ability to problem-solve, complex- reasoning and the ability to be creative, work outside or redefine the ‘rules’ • Perception and manipulation – the ability to carry out physical tasks in an unstructured work environment CC BY: Gerd Leonard, author of Technology vs. Humanity: The coming clash between man and machine Engineering bottlenecks to automation (Frey & Osbrey)
  6. 6. Source:PIAAC2012,2015 • OECD analysis (32 countries) used engineering bottlenecks to calculate probability of automation • Unemployment rate between the least and the most automatable occupation is 44 pp • 33%+ of variance in the occupational unemployment rate attributed automatability, when not controlling for other factors Nedelkoska, L., & Quintini, G. (2018). Automation, skills use and training (OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers). https://doi.org/10.1787/2e2f4eea-en Probability of automation by occupational group
  7. 7. McKinsey Global Institute (2017): Jobs lost, jobs gained: Workforce transitions in a time of automation Need to switch occupations based on future scenarios • In advanced economies, one third of workers projected to need to change occupation by 2030 • In emerging economies less due to differences in economies (less complexity and lower wages) and infrastructure; one tenth of workers projected to need to change occupation by 2030
  8. 8. • 21st Skills according to Fadel et al. • Bessen’s emphasis of skills need in sectors (i.e. those most likely to be making technology):  Mature sectors have a consensus on standardised knowledge required to implement tasks  In innovative areas knowledge on best practice has yet to become is difficult to define exactly what is • In this case more fluid skills sets, which person holding them, to adapt to new will become more relevant. Fadel, C.; Trilling, B.; Bialik, M. (2015). Four-Dimensional Education: The Competencies. Center for Curriculum Redesign. Bessen, J. (2015). Learning by Doing: The Real Connection between Innovation, Wages, and Wealth. Yale University Press. Types of skills and competencies
  9. 9. The good and the bad of formal education Agenda Q: How to encourage more people to acquire skills more frequently? (How to help people live good lives in the context of changes in a digital world?) a) Who participates in lifelong learning? b) How can we encourage and empower other people to participate?
  10. 10. Nedelkoska, L., & Quintini, G. (2018). Automation, skills use and training (OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers). https://doi.org/10.1787/2e2f4eea-en Link between automation and educational level • Automation less likely in jobs held by people the higher their educational attainment • Graduates of tertiary education appear most protected from risk of automation in their occupation
  11. 11. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1 9 9 0 1 9 9 1 1 9 9 2 1 9 9 3 1 9 9 4 1 9 9 5 1 9 9 6 1 9 9 7 1 9 9 8 1 9 9 9 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 3 2 0 0 4 2 0 0 5 2 0 0 6 2 0 0 7 2 0 0 8 2 0 0 9 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 2 0 1 4 Gross enrolment ratio, tertiary, both sexes (%) Total e nrollment i n te rtiary e ducation ( ISCED 5 to 8) , re gardless of age , e xpressed as a pe rcentage of the total population of the f i ve- year age group f ollowing on f rom se condary school l e aving High income countries Low income countries World United States United Kingdom Poland Brazil China India Source: Orr Growth in educational attainment across the world • Huge growth in formal education participation • E.g.: in tertiary education:World x2, India x4, China x10 in two decades
  12. 12. Source: Busso, M., Cristia, J., Hincapié, D., Messina, J., & Ripa, L. (Eds.). (2017). Learning better - Public policy for skills development. Inter-American Development Bank. Retrieved from http://www.iadb.org/es/investigacion-y- http://www.iadb.org/es/investigacion-y-datos/aprender-mejor-politicas-publicas-para-el-desarrollo-de- habilidades,20770.html Where skills are formed • Most of our life, we are outside of the formal education sector • Increasing importance of learning at work and at home over time • Empirical chart of location of skills formation (here using in LatinAmerican and Caribbean regional average)
  13. 13. Decision to take part <> Taking part +/- Gender does not contribute after controlling for the other predictors + Number of co-workers: employers in larger firms are more likely to participate + Level of education: most likely to participation are graduates of tertiary education ++ Age: younger persons under 50 years old are more likely to participate ++ Occupation: academics, craftsmen, technicians • Level of education significant predictor of taking part in further education • Data from multivariate analysis of German Education Survey FiBS (unpublished) • Model explains ca. of variance – what Who takes part in further education? Source: FiBS analysis for project VoREFFI
  14. 14. • ABC model from Stern et al. to overcome internalist-externalist dichotomy • Behaviour (B) is an interactive product product of personal sphere attitudinal attitudinal variables (A) and contextual contextual factors (C) Attitude Context positive negative positivenegative Adapted from: Jackson, T. (2005). Motivating Sustainable Consumption: A Review of the Evidence on Consumer Behaviour and Behavioral Change. Sustainable Development Research Network. https://doi.org/10.1260/0958305043026573 Participation in training determined by attitude and context
  15. 15. The increasing need for ‘skills discovery’ and linked ‘learning pathways’ Agenda Q: How to encourage more people to acquire skills more frequently? (How to help people live good lives in the context of changes in a digital world?) a) Who participates in lifelong learning? b) How can we encourage and empower other people to participate?
  16. 16. Source: World Economic Forum, 2016 Skill discovery & learning pathways Taking a more holistic approach to be more inclusive
  17. 17. Source: own analysis of CEDEFOP European Skills and Jobs Survey • Over one third of workers in EU find their skill level is higher than required by their job 2 consequences: • Need better methods to make people’s skill profiles more visible, so that both individuals and society can fully harness their skills and competencies • Need to activate people’s recognition of the need to learn and support their learning pathways (esp. in the dynamic ‘digital economy’). A new insight: people’s perception of their skill level
  18. 18. The new approach of community recognition of informal learning using digital badges and learning pathways Agenda
  19. 19. Technical tool to make skills more visible – open badges
  20. 20. connected metadata New development: connecting Open Badges to skills standard • Open Badge connected to ESCO - European Skills, Competences, Qualifications and Occupations standards • e.g. “Manage quantitative data”
  21. 21. • E.g.: Start-up indorse.io from Singapore • Ethereum-based decentralized recognition system • Skills validated in “an anonymous, simple and objective way” through consensus of other expert users • E.g.: MIRVA project - Making Informal RecognitionVisible and Actionable through the development of “open recognition hubs”, which recognition between individuals, between individuals and organisations (O), between organisations, between organisations and systems (S) and between systems Open Recognition Hubs – context for badge technologies
  22. 22. 1. What to learn? – yes cognitive skills, but especially metacognition (learning to learn), social and emotional skills, are fluid and can be adapted to new situations 2. How to encourage more people to acquire skills more frequently? a) Who participates in lifelong learning? – attitudinal and contextual barriers to learning on the one hand, those with formal learning frequently undertake further education on b) How can we encourage and empower other people to participate? – provide a new context, recognise what they can do now and support them (this will also have benefits skills matching on the job market), digital badge To sum up: responses to two central questions
  23. 23. FiBS, Michaelkirchstr. 17/18, D-10179 Berlin,Germany Tel: +49 (0)30 8471 223-0 · Fax: +49 (0)30 8471223-29 www.fibs.eu ENHANCING LIFELONG LEARNING FOR ALL Research Institute · Consulting · Think Tank Germany · Europe ·Worldwide

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