Explain the gross anatomy and functions of the respiratory system. Discuss the structure and functions of the upper and lo...
Respiratory System Function <ul><li>Major Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Upper respiratory system: </li></ul><ul><li>Air cond...
Respiratory Epithelium <ul><li>Structure? </li></ul><ul><li>Mucus  produced by  ________ </li></ul>Mucus escalator <ul><li...
Nasal Conchae <ul><li>Superior, middle and inferior </li></ul><ul><li>Other name: “Turbinate bones” because they create __...
Upper Respiratory System <ul><li>1)   Nose </li></ul><ul><li>external and internal nares </li></ul><ul><li>turbinates  or ...
Lower Respiratory  System <ul><li>Anything below Pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Larynx:  Cartilaginous  cylinder (from C 4 - C ...
Trachea <ul><li>Passageway to lungs (attached via ligament to ?) </li></ul><ul><li>Lining ? </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete c...
Tracheal Blockage or Heimlich Maneuver or abdominal thrust Tracheostomy
From Bronchi to Lungs <ul><li>1   bronchi ( enter lungs at hilus, complete cartilage rings) </li></ul><ul><li>2   bronch...
Paired Lungs <ul><li>Situated in _________ </li></ul><ul><li>Subdivided into lobes (each    supplied by   2   bronchus) <...
Alveolar Organization <ul><li>Alveoli are site of gas exchange  </li></ul><ul><li>Close association with capillaries </li>...
Respiratory Membrane <ul><li>Different from respiratory epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Super thin. Made up of 4 layers: </li...
Emphysema <ul><ul><li>Chronic progressive  enlargement of alveoli accompanied by destruction of their wall </li></ul></ul>...
 
Pleural Cavities and Membranes <ul><li>Two cavities separated by mediastinum </li></ul><ul><li>Lining of cavities? </li></...
Pulmonary Embolism <ul><li>Causes for development of emboli in veins of legs:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immobilization </li><...
Respiratory Muscles <ul><li>Diaphragm:  depresses    inhalation </li></ul><ul><li>External intercostals:  elevate ribs  ...
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The Respiratory System

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  • Conchae moistening by large surface area of conchae
  • The Respiratory System

    1. 1. Explain the gross anatomy and functions of the respiratory system. Discuss the structure and functions of the upper and lower respiratory tracts in detail, including a description of the histology in each region. Identify the pleural cavities, its membranes and the muscles of ventilation. The Respiratory System
    2. 2. Respiratory System Function <ul><li>Major Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Upper respiratory system: </li></ul><ul><li>Air conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Defense against pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Lower respiratory system: </li></ul><ul><li>Speech & other respiratory sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of homeostasis, e.g. pH </li></ul>Fig 24-1
    3. 3. Respiratory Epithelium <ul><li>Structure? </li></ul><ul><li>Mucus produced by ________ </li></ul>Mucus escalator <ul><li>Defense by means of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>filtering hairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ciliary escalator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sticky mucous </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Nasal Conchae <ul><li>Superior, middle and inferior </li></ul><ul><li>Other name: “Turbinate bones” because they create ______ </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage ? </li></ul><ul><li>! Respirator breathing ! </li></ul>Fig 24.3
    5. 5. Upper Respiratory System <ul><li>1) Nose </li></ul><ul><li>external and internal nares </li></ul><ul><li>turbinates or conchae (superior, middle, and inferior) </li></ul><ul><li>nasal septum </li></ul><ul><li>hard palate </li></ul><ul><li>2) Pharynx - shared passageway for respiratory and digestive systems </li></ul><ul><li>nasopharynx - part above uvula and posterior to internal nares </li></ul><ul><li>oropharynx – portion visible in mirror when mouth is wide open </li></ul><ul><ul><li>uvula - posterior edge of soft palate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>laryngopharynx – between the hyoid bone & the esophagus </li></ul>Fig 24.3c
    6. 6. Lower Respiratory System <ul><li>Anything below Pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Larynx: Cartilaginous cylinder (from C 4 - C 7 )  </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of 9 cartilages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>–  3 large unpaired (know these!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>–  3 small paired (involved in construction of voice box </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stabilized by ?? </li></ul>C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 Fig 24.4
    7. 7. Trachea <ul><li>Passageway to lungs (attached via ligament to ?) </li></ul><ul><li>Lining ? </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete cartilage rings (C-shaped) - completed by trachealis muscle. Significance? </li></ul><ul><li>Annular ligament </li></ul>Fig 24-7
    8. 8. Tracheal Blockage or Heimlich Maneuver or abdominal thrust Tracheostomy
    9. 9. From Bronchi to Lungs <ul><li>1  bronchi ( enter lungs at hilus, complete cartilage rings) </li></ul><ul><li>2  bronchi (from now on cartilage plates) </li></ul><ul><li>3  bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchioles </li></ul><ul><li>Terminal bronchioles </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory bronchioles </li></ul><ul><li>Alveolar ducts </li></ul><ul><li>Alveolar sacs </li></ul>Conducting portion Respiratory portion Fig 24.9 Fig 24.11
    10. 10. Paired Lungs <ul><li>Situated in _________ </li></ul><ul><li>Subdivided into lobes (each supplied by 2  bronchus) </li></ul><ul><li>Right lung: 3 lobes (rel. broad and short) </li></ul><ul><li>Left lung: 2 lobes (long and narrow) </li></ul><ul><li>Right and left lung separated by __________ </li></ul><ul><li>Lung hilus </li></ul>Why? Fig 24-8 Fig 24-8
    11. 11. Alveolar Organization <ul><li>Alveoli are site of gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Close association with capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of elastic fibers in alveolar wall </li></ul><ul><li>Alveolar cells </li></ul><ul><li>Type I cells – respiratory epitheliocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Type II cells – septal cells – produce surfactant </li></ul><ul><li>Alveolar Macrophages – dust cells – phagocytic </li></ul>Fig 24-11 Fig 24-12
    12. 12. Respiratory Membrane <ul><li>Different from respiratory epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Super thin. Made up of 4 layers: </li></ul><ul><li>epithelium of alveolus </li></ul><ul><li>its basement membrane back to back and fused to the </li></ul><ul><li>basement membrane of capillary endothelium </li></ul><ul><li>endothelium of capillary </li></ul>
    13. 13. Emphysema <ul><ul><li>Chronic progressive enlargement of alveoli accompanied by destruction of their wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to prolonged exposure to respiratory irritants (??) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. Pleural Cavities and Membranes <ul><li>Two cavities separated by mediastinum </li></ul><ul><li>Lining of cavities? </li></ul><ul><li>pleurisy </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumothorax </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting blood supply to the lungs via bronchial arteries. Venous return to pulmonary veins (consequence ?) </li></ul>Fig 24-13
    15. 16. Pulmonary Embolism <ul><li>Causes for development of emboli in veins of legs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immobilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trauma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long surgeries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral contraceptives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cigarette smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul></ul>See p. 805
    16. 17. Respiratory Muscles <ul><li>Diaphragm: depresses  inhalation </li></ul><ul><li>External intercostals: elevate ribs  inhalation </li></ul><ul><li>Internal intercostals: depress ribs  active exhalation </li></ul><ul><li>Accessory muscles - serratus anterior, scalenes, pectoralis minor, sternocleidomastoid, internal and external obliques, transverse abdominus, rectus abdominus </li></ul>Fig 24-14
    17. 18. the end

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