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The Lymphatic System


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The Lymphatic System

  1. 1. CH 23: The Lymphatic System <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the organization of the lymphatic system, including the vessels, principal lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the relationship between the lymphatic and circulatory systems, and the role of lymphoid tissue structures and lymphocytes in the body’s defense </li></ul>Accessory to cardiovascular system  there are two drainage systems
  2. 2. Overview of the Lymphatic System <ul><li>Includes, vessels, fluid, and nodes or nonsecreting &quot;glands&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic vessels convey fluid from the periphery to the veins. </li></ul><ul><li>The fluid, lymph (=clear spring water), is what seeps out of the blood at the peripheral capillaries. Composition is similar to plasma without the proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic organs or tissues (&quot;glands&quot;) are filtering areas and arenas of lymphocyte maturation and competency. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Major Functions of Lymphatic System <ul><li>Filtration of lymph </li></ul><ul><li>Return of seeped fluid to c.v. system </li></ul><ul><li>“ Education” and production of immune system lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Transport of digested lipids from small intestinal lacteals </li></ul>
  4. 4. Lymph Capillaries <ul><li>Thin walled endothelium (no BM) with periodic one way valves. In general they parallel veins. </li></ul><ul><li>Closed ends allow fluid flow inward only </li></ul><ul><li>Pick up and recycle extra tissue fluid </li></ul>Lymph circulation due to ? Compare to Fig. 23.2
  5. 5. Location of Lymph Capillaries <ul><li>Everywhere, except for CNS and bone marrow, as well as cornea and cartilage. </li></ul><ul><li>Special set of lymph capillaries in villi of small intestine = Lacteals </li></ul>
  6. 6. Lymphatic vessels <ul><li>comparable in structure to veins </li></ul>Damaged valves or blocked lymph vessels ???
  7. 7. Lymph capillaries converge to become collecting vessels and end up as either Thoracic duct or right lymphatic duct Thoracic (left lymphatic) duct Left subclavian vein Right lymphatic duct Right subclavian vein Cysterna Chyli Fig 23.4
  8. 8. largest
  9. 9. Lymphocytes <ul><li>Agranulocytes - large nuclei and small amount of cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Function in identification and inactivation/destruction of pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T Cells - cellular immunity - specific for previously identified pathogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T Helper, T Killer, T Suppressor, and memory cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B Cells - humoral immunity - plasma cells produce antibodies specific to the antigen or pathogen; memory cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NK cells - non-specific, provide immunological surveillance </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Bone Marrow: Lymphopoiesis Lymphocytes are later also produced in thymus, spleen and tonsils Fig 23.7
  11. 11. <ul><li>C.t. loaded with Lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphoid nodules are unencapsulated clusters of lymphocytes (  ~ 1mm). Found beneath epithelial lining of respiratory, digestive & urinary tracts </li></ul><ul><li>Mucosa associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) in GI tract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 tonsils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aggregate lymphoid nodules in small intestine (= Peyers patches ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>appendix - walls contain lymphoid tissue </li></ul></ul>Lymphoid Tissue 1 2 2 = adenoids
  12. 12. Lymph Nodes <ul><li>~ 500 (  1mm to 25 mm) </li></ul><ul><li>Bean-shaped with hilus </li></ul><ul><li>several afferent vessels, one efferent vessel </li></ul><ul><li>Function? </li></ul><ul><li>Popular term “lymph gland” is misnomer. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Contain lots of lymphocytes & Macrophages </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical application: Swollen lymph nodes </li></ul>Fig 23.9
  13. 13. Distribution of LNs <ul><li>Cervical lymph nodes - drain head and neck </li></ul><ul><li>Axillary lymph nodes - drain arms and breasts </li></ul><ul><li>Popliteal lymph nodes - drain legs, drain into </li></ul><ul><li>Inguinal lymph nodes - drain lower limb </li></ul><ul><li>Thoracic lymph nodes - drain thoracic viscera </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal lymph nodes - drain pelvic region </li></ul><ul><li>Intestinal and mesenteric lymph nodes - drain abdominal viscera </li></ul>
  14. 14. Thymus <ul><li>Location above heart, posterior to sternum </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into lobules </li></ul><ul><li>Only lymphoid organ that does NOT fight antigens, it functions as “T-cell academy” </li></ul><ul><li>Blood thymus barrier prevents premature stimulation of developing T-cells </li></ul><ul><li>Involution after puberty </li></ul><ul><li>Epithelial cells produce thymic hormones </li></ul>
  15. 15. Spleen <ul><li>Largest lymphoid organ </li></ul><ul><li>Soft and very blood rich </li></ul><ul><li>Red pulp sinusoids containing RBCs </li></ul><ul><li>white pulp lymphoid tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Major Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Initiation of Immune response to antigens in blood </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of aged and defective RBCs </li></ul><ul><li>Repository for new RBCs </li></ul><ul><li>Fe salvaging, storage and recycling </li></ul>Fig 23-17 Surfaces named for contacts: diaphragmatic, visceral, gastric, renal the end