~Sensory Integration Dysfunction - Ricca Klein.ppt

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~Sensory Integration Dysfunction - Ricca Klein.ppt

  1. 1. Sensory Integration Dysfunction By Ricca Klein
  2. 2. Sensory Integration <ul><li>Normal Sensory Integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurological process of organizing info from body and environment for use in daily life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of nervous system involves processing sensory info </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Sensory Integration Dysfunction <ul><li>Inability to process sensations efficiently </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take in too much or too little information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypersensitive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hyposensitive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurological disorganization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inefficient motor, language, or emotional output </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Senses <ul><li>Far Senses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing, sight, smell, taste, touch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Near Senses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tactile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vestibular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprioceptive </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The CNS <ul><li>Neurons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impulses from receptors in eyes, ears, skin, muscles, joints, organs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Spinal Cord </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interprets sensory messages, sends motor messages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Brain </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Brain and Sensory Integration <ul><li>4 Important Parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebellum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diencephalon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebrum </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Brain Stem <ul><li>Receives messages from skin and muscles in head and neck </li></ul><ul><li>Sensations switch to appropriate hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>Processes vestibular sensations </li></ul><ul><li>Processes sensations from internal organs </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cerebellum <ul><li>Processes proprioceptive and vestibular sensations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle tone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine motor skills </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Diencephalon <ul><li>Basal ganglia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate vestibular sensations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hippocampus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compares old and new stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amygdala </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects impulses from olfactory system </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Diencephalon <ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key relay station </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All sensory data except smell pass through en route to cerebrum </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Cerebrum <ul><li>Occipital lobe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual images </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parietal lobe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprioceptive messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tactile messages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temporal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refining vestibular sensations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frontal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary body movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefrontal </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Who it effects <ul><li>12-30% of all children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some type </li></ul></ul><ul><li>70% of children with learning disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADHD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Premature infants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head trauma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commonly seen in boys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Signs of SID <ul><li>Can be seen in early infancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low self esteem seen as young as 8 months due to SID </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More noticeable in toddlers/school aged children </li></ul>
  14. 14. Patterns of Dysfunction <ul><li>Bilateral Integration and Sequencing difficulties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor postural mechanisms, balance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developmental Apraxia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor motor planning skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Form and Space Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Tactile defensiveness </li></ul>
  15. 15. Possible Causes <ul><li>Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Prenatal circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Prematurity </li></ul><ul><li>Birth trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Postnatal circumstances </li></ul>
  16. 16. Treatments <ul><li>Occupational Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Speech and Language Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory Integration Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Vision Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deal with effects of SID, not causes </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusion <ul><li>Since early 70’s much has been learned, relatively new </li></ul><ul><li>Still studying causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exact causes not known, no one causes seen in all cases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New therapies and treatments </li></ul>

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