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  1. 1. Human Anatomy (BIOL 1010) E. Goffe [email_address] Office 1132F (Providence)
  2. 2. What is Anatomy? <ul><li>Anatomy (= morphology): study of body’s structure </li></ul><ul><li>Physiology: study of body’s function </li></ul><ul><li>Structure reflects Function!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Branches of Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gross: Large structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface: Landmarks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Histology: Cells and Tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental: Structures change through life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryology: Structures form and develop before birth </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Hierarchy of the Body <ul><li>Molecules  made of chemicals (4 macromolecules in body) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cells  made of molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cells and organelles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tissue  made of cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organs  made of tissues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>made of >1 type of tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systems  made of organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11 systems in human body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organisms  made of systems </li></ul>Pg 3
  4. 4. Anatomical Directions <ul><li>Anatomical position </li></ul><ul><li>Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Axial vs. Appendicular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anatomical Directions-It’s all Relative! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior (ventral) vs. Posterior (dorsal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medial vs. Lateral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior (cranial) vs. Inferior (caudal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial vs. Deep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximal vs. Distal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anatomical Planes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal = Coronal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transverse = Horizontal = Cross Section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sagittal </li></ul></ul>Pg 6
  5. 5. Embryology: growth and development of the body before birth <ul><li>38 weeks from conception to birth </li></ul><ul><li>Prenatal period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryonic : weeks 1-8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal : weeks 9-38 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic adult body plan shows by 2 nd month </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin = epidermis, dermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer body wall=muscle, vertebral column and spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body cavity and digestive tubes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney and gonads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limbs=skin, muscle, bone </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Weeks 5-8 and Fetal Period <ul><li>Second month, tadpole  person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tail disappears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head enlarges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremities form ( day 28, limb buds appear ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eyes, nose, ears form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organs in place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fetal Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid growth and maturation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organs grow and increase in complexity & competence </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 4 Types of Tissue <ul><li>Epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Connective </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous </li></ul>
  8. 8. Tissues: groups of cells closely associated that have a similar structure and perform a related function <ul><li>Four types of tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epithelial = covering/lining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connective = support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle = movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous = control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most organs contain all 4 types </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue has non-living extracellular material between its cells </li></ul>
  9. 9. EPITHELIAL TISSUE: sheets of cells cover a surface or line a cavity (tissue type #1) <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ion Transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slippery Surface </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Characteristics of Epithelium <ul><li>Cellularity </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized Contacts </li></ul><ul><li>Polarity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apical vs. Basal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supported by Connective Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Avascular </li></ul><ul><li>Innervated </li></ul><ul><li>Regenerative </li></ul>
  11. 11. Classification of Epithelium- based on number of layers and cell shape <ul><li>Layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psuedostratified </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stratified layers characterized by shape of apical layer </li></ul><ul><li>Shapes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squamous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuboidal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Columnar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitional </li></ul></ul>Pg 71
  12. 12. Can You Identify the Classes of Epithelium? A B C D E Quiz!!
  13. 13. Features of Apical Surface of Epithelium <ul><li>Microvilli: (ex) in small intestine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finger-like extensions of the plasma membrane of apical epithelial cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase surface area for absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cilia : (ex) respiratory tubes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whip-like, motile extension of plasma membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moves mucus, etc. over epithelial surface 1-way </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flagella: (ex) spermatoza </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra long cilia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moves cell </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Features of Lateral Surface of Epithelium <ul><li>Cells are connected to neighboring cells via: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins -link cells together, interdigitate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contour of cells -wavy contour fits together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Junctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desmosomes -adhesive spots on lateral sides linked by </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> proteins/filaments, holds tissues together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tight Junctions -at apical area, plasma membrane of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adjacent cells fuse, nothing passes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gap junction - spot-like junction occurring anywhere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>made of hollow cylinders of protein, lets small molecules pass </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Pg 80 Desomosomes
  16. 16. Features of the Basal Surface of Epithelium <ul><li>Basement membrane = Sheet between the epithelial and connective tissue layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attaches epithelium to connective tissue below </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basal lamina: thin, non-cellular, supportive sheet Made of proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acts as a selective filter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assists epithelial cell regeneration by moving new cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reticular fiber layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deeper layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Name that Epithelial Feature! (name and location on cell) <ul><li>Cilia </li></ul><ul><li>Tight junction </li></ul><ul><li>Microvilli </li></ul><ul><li>Basement membrane </li></ul>2 3 4 1  3  1  2  4
  18. 18. Glands: epithelial cells that make and secrete a water-based substance w/proteins <ul><li>Exocrine Glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secrete substance onto body surface or into body cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have ducts (simple vs. compound) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular ( goblet cells ) or Multicellular (tubular, alveolar, tubuloalveolar) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(ex) salivary, mammary, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pancreas, liver </li></ul></ul>Goblet cell in small intestine
  19. 19. Glands: epithelial cells that make and secrete a water-based substance w/proteins <ul><li>Endocrine Glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secrete product into blood stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Either stored in secretory cells or in follicle surrounded by secretory cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones travel to target organ to increase response (excitatory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No ducts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(ex) pancreas, adrenal, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> pituitary, thyroid </li></ul></ul>Thyroid gland: hormone in follicles (F) released into capillaries (C)
  20. 20. 4 Types of Connective Tissue <ul><li>Connective Tissue Proper </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Bone Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul>
  21. 21. Connective Tissue (CT): most abundant and diverse tissue (tissue type #2) <ul><li>Four Classes </li></ul><ul><li>Functions include connecting, storing & carrying nutrients, protection, fight infection </li></ul><ul><li>CT contains large amounts of non-living extracellular matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Some types vascularized </li></ul><ul><li>All CT originates from mesenchyme </li></ul>
  22. 22. 1) Connective Tissue Proper <ul><li>Two kinds: Loose CT & Dense CT </li></ul><ul><li>Prototype: Loose Areolar Tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Underneath epithelial tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support and bind to other tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hold body fluids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defends against infection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stores nutrients as fat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each function performed by different kind of fiber in tissue </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Fibers in Connective Tissue <ul><li>Fibers For Support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reticular: form networks for structure & support (ex) cover capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collagen: strongest, most numerous, provide tensile strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(ex) dominant fiber in ligaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elastic : long + thin, stretch and retain shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(ex) dominant fiber in elastic cartilage </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. In Connective Tissue Proper <ul><li>Fibroblasts: cells that produce all fibers in CT, produce + secrete protein subunits to make them, produce ground matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Interstitial (Tissue) Fluid : derived from blood in CT proper; medium for nutrients, waste + oxygen to travel to cells; found in ground matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Ground Matrix (substance): part of extra-cellular material that holds and absorbs interstitial fluid, jelly-like with sugar & protein molecules </li></ul>
  25. 25. Defense from Infection <ul><li>Areolar tissue below epithelium is body’s first defense </li></ul><ul><li>Cells travel to CT in blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macrophages -eat foreign particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma cells -secrete antibodies, mark molecules for destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mast cells -contain chemical mediators for inflammation response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White Blood Cells = neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils-fight infection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ground substance + cell fibers-slow invading microorganisms </li></ul>
  26. 26. Areolar Connective Tissue Model Pg 85 Histological slide
  27. 27. Specialized Loose CT Proper <ul><li>Adipose tissue -loaded with adipocytes, highly vascularized, high metabolic activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulates, produces energy, supports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(eg) in hypodermis under skin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Reticular CT -contains only reticular fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms caverns to hold free cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(eg) bone marrow, holds blood cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms internal “skeleton” of some organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(eg) lymph nodes, spleen </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Dense/Fibrous Connective Tissue <ul><li>Contains more collagen </li></ul><ul><li>Can resist extremely strong pulling forces </li></ul><ul><li>Regular vs. Irregular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular-fibers run same direction, parallel to pull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(eg) fascia, tendons, ligaments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irregular-fibers thicker, run in different directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(eg) dermis, fibrous capsules at ends of bones </li></ul></ul></ul>Dense regular Dense irregular
  29. 29. Components of CT Proper Summarized Cells Matrix Fibroblasts Gel-like ground substance Defense cells -macrophages -white blood cells Collagen fibers Reticular fibers Elastic fibers Adipocytes
  30. 30. 2) Cartilage <ul><li>Chondroblasts produce cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Chondrocytes mature cartilage cells </li></ul><ul><li>More abundant in embryo than adult </li></ul><ul><li>Firm, Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Resists compression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(eg) trachea, meniscus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>80% water </li></ul><ul><li>Avascular (chondrocytes can function w/low oxygen) </li></ul><ul><li>NOT Innervated </li></ul><ul><li>Perichondrium -dense, irregular connective tissue around cartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>growth/repair of cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resists expansion during compression of cartilage </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Cartilage in the Body <ul><li>Three types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyaline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most abundant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fibrils in matrix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>support via flexibility/resilience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(eg) at limb joints, ribs, nose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>many elastic fibers in matrix too </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>great flexibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(eg) external ear, epiglottis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrocartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>resists both compression and tension </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(eg) meniscus, annulus fibrosus </li></ul></ul></ul>Pg 125
  32. 32. Histology of Cartilage <ul><li>Hyaline Cartilage </li></ul>
  33. 33. Histology of Cartilage <ul><li>Elastic Cartilage </li></ul>
  34. 34. Histology of Cartilage <ul><li>Fibrocartilage </li></ul>
  35. 35. Components of Cartilage Summarized Cells Matrix Chondrocytes Gel-like ground substance Chondroblasts (in growing cartilage) Lots of water Some have collagen and elastic fibers
  36. 36. 3) Bone Tissue: (a bone is an organ) <ul><li>Well-vascularized </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>support (eg) pelvic bowl, legs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protect (eg) skull, vertebrae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mineral storage (eg) calcium, phosphate (inorganic component) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>movement (eg) walk, grasp objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blood-cell formation (eg) red bone marrow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Osteoblasts : secrete organic part of bone matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Osteocytes : mature bone cells, maintain bone matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Periosteum: external layer of CT surrounds bone </li></ul><ul><li>Endosteum : internal layer of CT lines cavities and covers trabeculae </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Compact bone: dense, external layer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Haversian system = osteon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>long, cylindrical structures run parallel to long axis of bone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>within each osteon, groups of concentric tubes (lamella) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lamella : layer of bone matrix all fibers run in same direction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fibers on each lamella runs in opposite directions to one near it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Haversian canal -runs through center of osteon, contain blood vessels and nerves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interstitial Lamella- pieces of bone matrix between osteon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Osteocytes between osteons </li></ul></ul></ul>Bone Anatomy: Compact bone Pg 128
  38. 38. Haversian System = Osteon lamella osteon Pg 131 Pg 132 lamella
  39. 39. <ul><li>Spongy bone (cancellous bone): internal layer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trabeculae : small, needle-like pieces of bone form honeycomb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>each made of several layers of lamellae + osteocytes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no canal for vessels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>space filled with bone marrow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>not as dense, no direct stress at bone’s center </li></ul></ul></ul>Bone Anatomy: Spongy bone Pg 130
  40. 40. 1 2 3 4 Spongy Bone Compact Bone Lamella Haversian canal  2  1  3  4
  41. 41. Histology of Bone <ul><li>“ Ground” Compact Bone </li></ul>
  42. 42. Components of Bone Tissue Summarized Cells Matrix Osteocytes Gel-like ground substance calcified with inorganic salts Osteoblasts Collagen fibers
  43. 43. 4) Blood: Atypical Connective Tissue <ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transports waste, gases, nutrients, hormones through cardiovascular system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps regulate body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects body by fighting infection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Derived from mesenchyme </li></ul><ul><li>Hematopoiesis : production of blood cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in red bone marrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In adults, axial skeleton, girdles, proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Blood Cells <ul><li>Erythrocytes: (RBC) small, oxygen-transporting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most abundant in blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no organelles, filled w/hemoglobin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pick up O 2 at lungs, transport to rest of body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Platelets = Thrombocytes : fragments of cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>plug small tears in vessel walls, initiates clotting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leukocytes: (WBC) complete cells , 5 types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fight against infectious microorganisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stored in bone marrow for emergencies </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Histology of Blood and Vessel <ul><li>Blood Smear </li></ul>
  46. 46. Histology of Blood Vessels Artery Vein
  47. 47. Components of Blood Summarized Cells Matrix Erythrocytes (red blood cells) Plasma (liquid matrix) Leukocytes (white blood cells) NO fibers Platelets
  48. 48. Muscle Tissue (tissue type #3) <ul><li>Muscle cells/fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elongated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain many myofilaments: Actin & Myosin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of posture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint Stabilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat Generation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three types: Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth </li></ul>
  49. 49. Skeletal Muscle Tissue (each skeletal muscle is an organ) <ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long and cylindrical, in bundles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multinucleate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obvious Striations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skeletal Muscles-Voluntary </li></ul><ul><li>Connective Tissue Components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endomysium -surrounds fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perimysium -surrounds bundles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epimysium -surrounds the muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attached to bones, fascia, skin </li></ul><ul><li>Origin & Insertion </li></ul>pg 235
  50. 50. Cardiac Muscle <ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Branching, chains of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single or Binucleated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Striations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected by Intercalated discs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cardiac Muscle-Involuntary </li></ul><ul><li>Myocardium-heart muscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pumps blood through vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connective Tissue Component </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endomysium: surrounding cells </li></ul></ul>Pg 244
  51. 51. Smooth Muscle Tissue <ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single cells, uninucleate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No striations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smooth Muscle-Involuntary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 layers-opposite orientation (peristalsis) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lines hollow organs, blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Connective Tissue Component </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endomysium: surrounds cells </li></ul></ul>Pg 246
  52. 52. Histology of Muscle Tissue SMOOTH CARDIAC SKELETAL
  53. 53. Nervous Tissue <ul><li>Neurons : specialized nerve cells conduct impulses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell body, dendrite, axon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interneuron: between motor & sensory neuron in CNS </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No mitosis (cell replication) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longevity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High metabolic rate </li></ul></ul>pg 322
  54. 54. Nervous Tissue: control <ul><li>Support cells (= Glial) : nourishment, insulation, protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite cells -surround cell bodies within ganglia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schwann cells -surround axons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microglia -phagocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oligodendrocytes -produce myelin sheaths around axons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ependymal cells -line brain/spinal cord, ciliated,help circulate CSF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brain, spinal cord, nerves </li></ul>
  55. 55. Neuronal Anatomy <ul><li>Synapse: cell junction where neurons communicate </li></ul><ul><li>One direction: presynaptic neuron, postsynaptic neuron </li></ul><ul><li>Presynaptic neuron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synaptic vesicles fuses w/presynaptic membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitters released, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diffuse across </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>synaptic cleft, bind to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>postsynaptic membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ٠ Creates impulse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(action potential) in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that neuron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ٠ Cycle repeats </li></ul></ul>pg 325
  56. 56. Histology of Neuron
  57. 57. Integumentary System <ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epidermis = epithelium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dermis = connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypodermis = connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Skin Appendages = outgrowths of epidermis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hair follicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweat and Sebaceous glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nails </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Integumentary System <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical, thermal, chemical, UV </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cushions & insulates deeper organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention of water loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermoregulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salts, urea, water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory reception </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Layers of the Epidermis <ul><li>Stratum corneum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dead keratinocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stratum lucidum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dead keratinocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stratum granulosum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keratinocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tonofilaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lamellated & keratohyaline granules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stratum spinosum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keratinocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tonofilaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Langerhans cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stratum basale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keratinocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melanocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merkel receptors </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Dermis <ul><li>Highly innervated </li></ul><ul><li>Highly vascularized </li></ul><ul><li>Collagen & Elastic fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Many cell types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibroblasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macrophages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mast cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Papillary layer (20%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areolar CT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hair follicles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reticular layer (80%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense Irregular CT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sebaceous glands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sweat glands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle fibers </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Hypodermis <ul><li>Also called superficial fascia </li></ul><ul><li>Areolar & Adipose Connective Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchor skin to muscle, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. “ May I please be excused? My brain is full!!”