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Domantas Stukas MSc Urbanism thesis report


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In the master thesis ‘A Project for Valencia’ I observed the strategic spatial planning changes and a vast development of Valencian large urban projects in the last 20 years. Subsequently I estimated the effects of such processes in the current times of economy recession and real estate development stagnation and from my findings and observations I identified two main problems, which I have researched in my thesis:
- Unequal distribution of public gains from the large urban projects in Valencia.
- Emerging spatial problems of social vulnerability.
In order to cope with the mentioned main problems, I developed a strategy which reveals the possibilities of stimulating the stagnant real estate development and proposes intervention projects in order to capture the synergy of the existing and future large urban projects. In addition, these interventions improve the spatial conditions of socially vulnerable areas and directly benefit the locals and their living quality. Two key intervention projects were studied in more detail and a design proposal for them was proposed. This made it possible to open up a discussion of the actual development possibilities even in the times of the economic scarcity and real estate market stagnation. Participation and cooperation of the local public authorities, third party investors and local inhabitants was engaged towards the processes of urban growth.

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Domantas Stukas MSc Urbanism thesis report

  2. 2. Contacts:Domantas mentor:Roberto Rocco, R.CAssistant ProfessorUrbanismChair of Spatial Planning & StrategyBouwkunde; TU (0)15 27 8127 42nd mentor:Willem Hermans, Ir. W.J.A.UrbanismAssistant ProfessorChair of Urban (0)6 22422181External Committee Member:Martijn Stellingwerff, Dr. ir.ArchitectureForm & Modelling (0)15 27 84683
  3. 3. MSc Urbanism Thesis Report June 2012 A Project For ValenciaSTRATEGY FOR REVITALIZING SOCIALLY VULNERABLE AREAS, CAPTURING THE BENEFITS OF LARGE URBAN PROJECTS DOMANTAS STUKAS 4116267 Delft University of Technology, Department of Urbanism, Chair of Spatial Planning & Strategy, Studio Complex Cities
  4. 4. AcknowledgmentsThis is a report of the graduation thesis project in the study track of MSc Urbanism. It has been carried out at the TUDelft University, faculty of architecture, department of urbanism together with a Complex Cities studio.I would like to thank my main mentor Roberto Rocco, second mentor Willem Hermans and the external committeemember Martijn Stellingwerf for the supervision, critique, advices and encouragement which guided me a lotthroughout my graduation year and which I really appreciate.My exceptional gratitude goes to my loving family, mother Vaida, father Albertas and brother Dovydas. Thank youvery much for the support you gave me through the study years. Thank you for celebrating together the moments ofsuccess and cheering me up in the times of difficulty. Ačiū!I would also like to thank people outside the university of TU Delft who provided me with the data, information andcontacts to carry out my project work:Dr. Fernando Gaja i Díaz Professor at Polytechnic University of Valencia, Department of UrbanismMª Luisa Peydro Aznar Centre of Strategy and Development of ValenciaJose Ricardo Martinez Alzamora Department of Urban Planning, Municipality of ValenciaMª José García Parreño Public Relations, Association ‘Valencia Parque Central Alta Velocidad‘J. Salvador Martínez Ciscar CEO of the association ‘Valencia Parque Central Alta Velocidad’Agustín Hernández Aja Director of the department of Urbanism and Spatial planning, Superior Technical School of Architecture of MadridBelén Miravalles Pérez Institute of Economic Investigations of ValenciaJuan Miralles General Directorate of Strategic Projects, Regional Government of ValenciaCésar Jiménez Alcañiz Office of Integral Rehabilitation of ValenciaM. Jesús Felipe Research and Planning Department, Municipality of ValenciaSusana Babiloni Alumni of Politecnic University of Valencia
  5. 5. Introduction Problem Statement 11 Research Question 15 Methodology17Project Context General info about Valencia 23 Urban Planning model of Valencia 27 Strategic Planning in Valencia 33Theoretical Framework Large Urban Project integration 41 Urban Vulnerability 45Project site Context Analysis The choice of intervention area surrounding LUPs 51 Social Analysis 63 Economic Analysis 65 Spatial conditions 67 Sections of main site typologies 69 Infrastructure analysis 73
  6. 6. Table of ContentsStrategy Evaluation of planned city existing situation 77 Identification of stagnating development 79 Approach aims of the strategy 81 Redevelopment Strategic layer 87 Employment Strategic layer 91 Green Strategic Layer 97 Secondary Strategic projects 103 Project references 105 Stakeholder analysis Project trade-off study 109Design Calmed traffic areas 121 Young Entrepreneur Centre 123 Project New Market 129Conclusions Proposed development strategy 145 Predictable area vocation Strategy in the existing context 146 Strategy in the municipality planned context 147 Bibliography149
  7. 7. IntroductionProblem Statement / Research Questions / Methodology
  8. 8. A picture on the right illustrates a moment from the Even though some of the projects and mega events have Formula 1 Grand Prix of Europe mega event in Valencia generated revenues at the end and they were used to (Fig. 1). The newly renovated marina with Norman. Foster finance infrastructure projects such as regional highways designed venue is full of yachts, beach is occupied by a to Spanish biggest cities and high speed train connection crowd of people, waterfront luxurious hotels and spas are to Madrid, practically very little amount of project income full of tourists. City of Arts and Science complex towers was dedicated to benefit the locals. Therefore a series of in the skyline as the new modern symbol of the city (Fig. urban conflicts emerged due to municipality’s or regional 2). It looks as if Valencia is thriving and experiencing government’s favouring the interests of isolated interest its golden age. However, people living right behind this groups rather than distributing the public gains from the luxurious waterfront development are barely a part of projects to improve local societies (Renau Trudelle these seasonal festivities (Fig. 3). 2011). Therefore, two main problems of Valencia can be Social Vulnerability identified: -- Unequal distribution of public gains from large Central Spanish Government has conducted a research urban projects (abbreviation - LUP) throughout the county on urban vulnerability to identify problematic areas in the biggest cities of Spain. Using -- Social vulnerability a set of criteria a national database of vulnerability was created showing neighbourhoods suffering from the Integration of large urban projects into relatively highest levels of unemployment, bad physical the local societies housing condition and illiteracy of people. Analysis shows a growing number of these vulnerable areas in the During the last 25 years the city of Valencia has city of Valencia since the year 1991. However the local undergone spatial and economic changes which municipality has neither concise plan nor strategy on how completely transformed the city. Formerly industry and to tackle this issue (Martinez 2011). agriculture oriented capital of the Valencian province shifted towards culture and tourism oriented economy. Project aims In order to leave the period of stagnation and turn to tertiary economy, regional and municipal government After considering the previously described main problems proposed a strategy implemented a set of large urban of the city I derived the following aims of this graduation projects and mega events. One of the main goals of the thesis project: strategy was ‘to put Valencia on the map’ (Gaja i Díaz 2011). Architectural landmarks, museum complexes and -- Improve the conditions of socially vulnerable areas huge investments to transform post industrial harbour in Valencia sites has certainly attracted a lot of visitors, global events -- Use the Potentials of LUPs in order to make the and publicity. However such public money expenditure neighbouring areas more successful has two sides of the coin.10
  9. 9. Problem Statement Fig. 1: Valencia during the Formula 1 Grand Prix of Europe 2011Source: : Rafa Cartagena 11
  10. 10. Fig. 2: Architect S. Calatrava and resigned president of the regional government F. Camps12 Source:
  11. 11. Clash of the interests Fig. 3: Local citizens living in the nearby neighbourhood of CabanyalSource: 13
  12. 12. 14
  13. 13. Research QuestionMain Research QuestionsI derived two main research questions in order to copewith the emerging problems of social vulnerability andthe lack of LUP benefit distribution: -- What are the possible and necessary strategic spatial interventions in order to deal with the problems of socially vulnerable areas in Valencia? -- What are the existing possibilities of strategic spatial planning to improve the benefits of LUPs for local communities in Valencia?Sub-research questionsBased on these two main research questions I formulateda series of sub research question which helped me toaddress the problem in a more thorough and broad way: -- What is social vulnerability? What indicators define it? -- What is the given socio-economic condition in the country, the city and the local intervention area? -- What is the current municipal strategy to cope with social vulnerability? -- What are the effects of the existing Large Urban Projects in Valencia and what are the predictable outcomes of the future ones? -- How successful are the LUPs in Valencia? On what criteria is this success measured? -- What conditions make LUPs more beneficial and integrative into local communities? 15
  14. 14. In order to critically answer main research questions and tools were used: mapping, statistics, municipal document to tackle the emerging problems of Valencia, analysis overview and interviews with staff from municipality’s was done in three main categories: urban planning department and coordinators of the central park large urban project. Such analysis helped better -- Spanish / Valencian strategic and spatial planning understand generic and specific data of Valencia. Such as: model and history urban typologies, connectivity to functions and facilities, -- Spatial and social and economic analysis depicting concentration of economies and identification of their the current conditions of the city types, social composition of residents, physical condition of living environment, situation of real estate market -- Theoretical framework on benefit distribution of and level of integration of large urban projects to local large urban projects and social vulnerability societies. The conclusions of this data were then used to answer the research questions. To get acquainted with the Spanish and Valencian strategic and spatial planning models and history, a Study of neighbourhood association websites, their series of literature study and interviews was done. declarations of needs for better living environment and It includes a number of academic articles, municipal personal interviews gave a more precise insight upon the documents and interviews with professors of Valencia’s needs and wishes of local society. Polytechnic University, staff from municipality’s planning department and department of strategy and development of Valencia. This step is very important to understand the A site visit provided a quick exploratory overview of local processes of urban planning and to get familiar with the existing project area conditions and its strong parts the available planning tools. and weaknesses. A design proposal was then made according to the information about the context. Theoretical framework upon Large urban Project public gain distribution and social vulnerability problems was Case studies provided a quick compare and overlook of built using professional academic articles and documents similar projects revealing the strong and successful parts from the national ministry of development, observatory of of taken decisions and gives critics on the problematic urban vulnerability. This study helped to get familiar with solutions. the existing body of knowledge on the theme which is relevant for the thesis and provided an insight to build up Evaluating the outcomes of each method used for the a set of recommendations for the project. analysis lead to an argumented and critical strategy aimed to tackle the identified problems. Consequently To get familiar with the spatial and socio-economic a design proposal was made to test the strategy on a conditions of the site, a series of research methods and particular site of the project and it gave conditions to evaluate possible impacts and effects that the proposal16
  15. 15. Methodology PROBLEM Undistributed gains of LUPs Social vulnerability DESIGNRESEARCHQUESTIONSWhat are the possibilitiesto tackle the outcomes of STRATEGYLUP benefit inequity andsocial vulnerability viaspatial planning? THEORETICAL FRAMEROWKRESEARCH ANALYSIS LUP integration Social vulnerabilityCurrent economic contextUrban planning model of Valencia and SpainStrategic spatial planning of ValenciaEffects of the exsiting and future LUPs of the citySocial spatial local conditionsReal estate market analysisStakeholder collaboration analysisSite visit interviews Fig. 4: The methodology scheme of the master thesis 17
  16. 16. 18
  17. 17. RelevanceACADEMIC RELEVANCE SOCIAL RELEVANCELarge Urban Projects and Mega Events are widely used as Difficult local and national economic situation placesspin off effect generators in urban planning. Such strategy Valencia into state full of financial cuts and austerity.does not always guarantee a successful redistribution of Such situation even more highlights the issues of socialeconomic resources and spatial opportunities. Only a few vulnerability of the local citizens who are already affecteddecades ago an example of combining strategic spatial by huge spenditure of public money on particular interestplanning with a big event (Barcelona 1992 Olympic group benefiting turned out as a worldwide recognised example.After this a number of Spanish cities tried following a so The proposed strategy of the this project highlights thecalled Barcelona Model to generate urban development. still existing and requisite possibilities of developmentSome cases were successful some were less. in the times of real estate overproduction, economy and development stagnation. Such highlighted possibilitiesIn the last two decades the city of Valencia followed of interventions are directly aimed to benefit the locala strategy to become a globally known city and boost society and tackle the emerging social, economic andstagnating economy. As a driving force for such a plan, spatial problems.a number of mega-events and large Urban Projectshave been used. However, as time has showed, these ETHICSdecisions did not turn out to be a complete success.These relatively isolationist projects brought a series In this graduation project I will try to look critically atof economic and spatial troubles for the city. To make the issues of large urban project development andmatters worse, these difficulties are now highlighted by a consecutive problems of elite power seek for privatecurrent national economic recession and brings the city gains versus equal distribution of public benefits toof Valencia to a near bankruptcy state. local societies. Thesis end product is not a solution to all the economic and spatial problems of the city, butIn this master thesis I propose a strategy which draws an indication of possibilities which creates space for aattention to an academic body of knowledge about discussion about a possible city development aimed atpossible ways to redistribute private gains of large urban the local society and not at a private group of interests.project and contribute them to a neighbouring localcommunities. 19
  18. 18. Project ContextGeneral Information / Urban Planning Model / Strategic Planning
  19. 19. FROM INDUSTRIAL TO CULTURE / KNOWLEDGE ORIENTED CITY Valencia is a third largest city in Spain. It is situated on the coast of the Mediterranean sea, 400km east from Madrid (Fig. 5). It is originally not a coastal town, originating as a Roman empire settlement at the former banks of the river Turia. In time City expanded towards its port which is now the most busy logistic port of Spain. As a city in a very fertile soil area of the river delta, Valencia has a very strong agricultural background with its typical irrigated agricultural landscape called Huerta. Barcelona 4h Madrid 4h VALENCIA Malaga 6h Alicante 2h Barcelona Zaragoza 4,5h 4h Madrid 1,5h VALENCIA Alicante 2h Fig. 5: Main transportation links to Valencia22
  20. 20. General info about Valencia Municipal Population 810 000 Municipal Area 134.65km² Density 6 010/km² Old town Main Rods Railway Former River Bed New River Bed Fig. 6: Aerial view of ValenciaSource: 23
  21. 21. Unique Valencian Huerta landscape, which produces materials reaching the peak of its production in the post crops 3 times a year, is the reason behind agriculture WWII industrial period. And during the last two decades economy based history of the region. It was the service economy, logistics and construction became the dominating source of export till the beginning of the XXth driving force of economy (Fig. 8). Yet agriculture is still century, when later in time it gave the leading position a considerable source of exports in the region which for the production of ceramics, furniture and metal highlights the value of the local landscape type. Autonomous Community of Valencia The Netherlands 23 255 km² / 5 111 700 inhabitants / 220 inh/km² 41 543 km² / 16,847,007 inhabitants / 404 inh/km² Castellon Amsterdam The Hague Valencia Rotterdam Alicante 100 Fig. 7: 0 Comparison of Valencia’s100 Autonomous Community Raandstaad, The Netherlands 0 10024
  22. 22. Agriculture Region’s main economy Period Silk Rice CitrusIndustrial period Ceramics Furniture MetalService economy period Logistics Construction Service Tourism Fig. 8: Changes in the economy of Valencia Source: : DonaLG, Oselfa Faber,, Brisky Fingers, Feria Habitat Valencia, Manyez, John Burke, Metro Centric; 25
  23. 23. Decentralization Emergence of Urban economic planning, legislation on forced expropriation, planning property rights, registry system, etc. (González 2007). In general, master plans drafted by municipalities in the During practically the entire 20th century the central 1980s and 1990s became more participative, democratic government regulated urban planning in Spain. However and sensitive to the rehabilitation of historic centres prior since the constitution of 1978, the country have tended to the expansionist zoning plans of totalitarian regime to lean towards decentralization and distributing powers based on predicted population growth (Fig. 9). between regions (basic spatial planning guidelines) and municipalities (physical municipal planning). This The hierarchy of urban planning devolution of power to 17 autonomous communities instruments lead to a quasi-federal country model which gives municipalities more authority in the area of urban planning Democratization and decentralization in the Spanish than in any other area of governance (González 2007). governance has also considerably affected its urban planning system. As the decentralized model of Spanish The very first general plan of Valencia was made in government works on 3 levels: national, regional and 1946. However at that time it was merely a vision for local each of these levels have a specific regulatory the expansion of the city and it was never implemented power, consequently creating a hierarchy of urban because that plan did not have any legislative planning instruments. National government bears the power; there was no urban law in the country then. responsibility of the national land use law, according Nevertheless, the situation changed in 1956 when the to which all the regional and municipal plans have to first national land use legislation was established. The classify land into urban, developable or not developable Land Use and Urban Planning Act of 1956 (Ley sobre land. Regional government forms a regional strategy Régimen del Suelo y Ordenación Urbana) became the and a directional framework for provinces. Local basis of current national regulation defining 3 types of government takes regional strategy into an account but land use: urban land (Suelo Urbano), developable land independently creates General Development Plans on (Suelo Urbanizable) and land not developable land municipal or in some cases supra-municipal level. This (Suelo no Urbanizable) (Burns 2010). Creation of this General Development Plan (Plan General de Ordenación act had a purpose to fight real estate speculations and Urbana – PGOU) is the most important and complex create a planning instrument which did not allow any local planning instrument in Spain. This plan is usually unregulated space (González 2007). However the true accompanied with certain development plans: Urban democratic changes happened in 1978 when the 148.1.3 Development Action Programs and Partial Plans which article of new constitution transferred the authority of delimit and control the developable land. These special territorial regulations, urban planning and housing to the plans directly influence the spatial form of cities as they set respective governments of 17 autonomous communities. the conditions for new development or transformations in These changes consolidated with the 1992 Spanish land the consolidated city centres and for the land designated use legislation letting autonomous communities to have for development (González 2007). Special Plans, which exclusive planning authority with some of the planning in some occasions not corresponding to the General powers left for central government such as general26
  24. 24. Urban Planning model of Valencia Fig. 9: General Plans of Valencia 1946/1966/1988/2010 Source: 27
  25. 25. Development Plan, delimit and act upon not-developable The MODEL OF LRAU `94 and developed land. This is a brief summary how the Valencian planning act INTRODUCTION OF 1994 VALENCIA’S PLANNING of 1994 works: ACT -- Urbanizing agents have to propose a public works plan (new infrastructure, sewage, gas, water and The case of private land ownership and development in electricity installations, new greeneries) with the total the early 1990`s is also quite noteworthy. Up until 1994 urbanization cost to municipality including an offer of landlords or a joint group of land owners were the ones some public facilities. who could develop their property. Only the municipality could intervene in the case of building new infrastructure or -- The land owner has a period of one month to reject other public facilities via a compulsory property purchase the proposal and provide an alternative. method. However it was not a common case because the -- If there is no proposal of alternative plan or government had to pay a fixed price for the land already objection, then the land owner is obliged to pay including the increased land value even if before it was the price (fixed by the urbanizing agent) of the just an abandoned agricultural area. According to Gielen conducted public works in his land or sell an amount Korthals this juridical context created a condition when of property for the urbanizing agent (for a fixed ‘Landowners did not organise themselves immediately, priced designated by the same urbanizing agent) to being more inclined to speculate on higher future values cover the expenses of the work. of the development option’ (Gielen Korthals 2007, p. 74). However the innovations of 1994 Valencia’s Planning -- After legally obtaining an amount of private land Act (Ley Reguladora de la Actividad Urbanística - LRAU) due to the process of urbanization the agent then brought changes. Firstly, all developable land (defined by usually starts a real estate project at the plan the land use law and delimited by municipality) became location. a subject of this new planning act (Fig. 10). Secondly, in -- At the end municipality benefits from a developed addition to the land owner and municipality a third party infrastructure and public buildings with a zero (so called Urbanizing Agent – Agente Urbanizador) financial investment of its own. was introduced for a competition to develop the private land. Civil engineering, real estate companies and some consultancy firms entered the field of urban development as there was no need to own property in the plan area (Gielen Korthals 2007). Generally speaking development rights were disassociated from the ownership rights with an intention to tackle speculation and stagnation in the development processes (Muñoz 2010).28
  26. 26. Valencia’s Planning act Fig. 10: Land use plan 2010Source: 29
  27. 27. 30
  28. 28. THE RESULTS OF the MODEL LRAU `94 As the designated developable land was in the rural peripheral areas of Valencia, eventually such uncontrolledThe ‘LRAU `94’ scheme proved to be very successful to housing growth attracted inhabitants to move away fromremove stagnant urban processes in the city of Valencia the city centre. What is more, the real estate boom leftand was widely accepted in all other autonomous a vast number of people unemployed in the sector ofcommunities of Spain except Basque Country and the construction due to the bursting of the real estate bubble.Balearic Islands (Sánchez 2005). However this lead to This is felt most in the case of Valencia region as it showedthe manipulation of real estate property as experienced rates of urbanization 50% above Spain‘s average (Burrieldevelopers acted upon land owners with no practise in de Orueta 2009). In the period of 1996-2006 amount ofthis field (Gaja i Díaz 2011). An amount of housing new housing and new city inhabitants increased with aprojects in Valencia skyrocketed because the increasing ratio of 0.85 (National Bureau of Statistics 2011). Thatproperty prices made real estate developments means that almost one new house per one new personvery profitable (Fig. 11). However such an increase in was built which after the real estate bubble burst resulteddevelopment was not controlled by the municipality and in an approximate of 13% vacant new houses (Nationalwas mostly driven by a developers seek of profit and Bureau of Statistics 2011).only slightly obeyed the effects of the real estate market.Therefore new housing projects kept on appearing untilthe real estate crisis of Spain (Burriel de Orueta 2009).Number of newConstructions LRAU `94 250 242 221 200 165 150 100 59 37 40 35 42 50 0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Fig. 11: Increase in the new real estate project in Valencia Source: based on Gielen 2007, p. 70 31
  29. 29. The effects of strategic Spatial planning Because of that, new global enterprises started setting at Valencia, tourism has sky-rocketed, abandoned The strategy of Valencia during the previous 20 years and degrading industrial neighbourhoods have been was based on a series of large urban projects and transformed attracting facilities based on luxury leisure mega events which were used by the regional and local and tourism (Renau Trudelle 2011). As a result, government as a tool to put new strategic plans in action this attracted huge amounts of external investment (Prytherch Boira 2009). The aim was to tackle the generating revenue which was later used to finance other problems of stagnant post-industrial city and turn it into large urban projects or to improve the regional highway the tourism and culture thriving capital of the east Iberian connection to the biggest cities of Spain and to establish Peninsula (Fig. 12). These changes became evident a 20 years promoted high speed train connection Madrid when a city once referred as a ‘provincial capital of anti- - Valencia in 2011. tourism’(Yapp 1983, p. 776) turned into a leader of Spain in the tertiary economy and tourism growth and taking Together with these projects processes of gentrification the lead of new real estate projects in the country around became evident. The premises around new LUPs the year 2000. became luxurious apartments, offices, expensive hotels, spas, restaurants and world-class brand shops. Due to local and regional government strategic spatial planning the lower part of former turia river bed park was Future Strategic Aims completed with now Valencia’s signature architecture complex of City of Arts and Sciences by Santiago After the large urban projects, conferences and mega Calatrava. Major shipping sports event of America’s Cup events oriented city development Current strategy of was held in the city in 2007 transforming the old industrial Valencia aims for development consolidation and a shift harbour into luxurious yacht marina with a VIP venue for city orientation towards knowledge, culture and high shipping event observations by David Chipperfield. One technology. However this is quite difficult to achieve year later, redevelopment of an abandoned industrial site when the city is in the state of near bankruptcy and there next to the harbour was turned into a Formula 1 grand are echoes of government corruption, inadequate public prix city circuit (Fig. 13). money expenditure on the pre-settled LUP developments.32
  30. 30. Strategic Planning in Valencia 1995 1998 2002 2007 ‘Start the progress in Valencia’ ‘Develop a leading city’ ‘Benefit the most from the ‘High technology, culture and America’s cup mega event’ knowledge oriented city’ Start the process of change! City of congresses and meetings High-speed train Improve regional connection Culture and Tourism oriented America’s Cup sailing mega-event Open the city to the sea Raise global Identity Culture, high-tech and knowledge orientedPromote Public-private Evaluate last strategic plan Focus on Branding and marketing Valencia as a RD city. culture,Cooperation (45/50 successful projects) of Valencia high technology and knowledge oriented developmentImprove Living Environment quality Focus development on education, Promote Valencia as a city of knowledge and culture culture and congresses Consolidate global recognitionStrengthen Cities Regional andNational connectivity Promote Valencia as a City of Focus investments into tourism: Incorporate participatory planning(AVE to Madrid, motorways to Congresses and Meetings hotels, restaurants, service processesBarcelona, Madrid, Sevilla) (construction of a new convention centre) Attract high-tech companies Promote a stronger nationalEstablish a better City Centre - connectivityWaterfront accessibility Develop the port high speed train to Barcelona and its premisses. Promote foreign and local and South-east France investmentComplete the former river bed ofTuria Garden Finish the second automobile city Put Forward Knowledge economy ringFocus on the promoted 50strategic projects Generate funds for high-speed Expand the #1 logistics port of train to Madrid Spain Fig. 12: Overview of Valencia’s strategic planning Source: 33
  31. 31. Polarized LUP DEVELOPMENT Turia Garden (1988) City’s green backbone 1 Summarising the effects of the strategic planning of Valencia, it could be said that such transformations Local citizen oriented have greatly improved the overall image of Valencia Sports leisure activities and provided a number of externalities which stimulate Increase in living quality further city development. However these ‘project-focused market-led initiatives’ (Swyngedouw et al. 2002, p. 551) are often associated with particular interest coalitions, Central Park (20??) 2 Green heart of Valencia private power groups and real estate developers. As a result, relatively little amount of revenue from these Redevelopment of rail infrastructure site LUPs are invested towards local society (Fig. 14). At Local citizen oriented this point, the issue of equal distribution of benefits Leisure, recreation educative activities becomes questionable as new facilities, public space transformations, alterations in local socio-economic models and changes in living quality are oriented City of Arts And Science (1998-2011) 3 Raise City’s identity attract tourism and gentrification towards global and regional scale or focused on the most profitable target groups, which is illustrated with Culture, education, conference and sport activities Valencia’s large urban project development in the last Expensive construction maintenance, loss making two decades (Fig. 15). Limited accessibility use Consequently such LUP developments on the fringes Wealthy class and tourist oriented of poor social class neighbourhoods started generating urban conflicts in local society (Renau Trudelle 2011). F1 city Circuit (2008) 4 For an example the former industrial site transformation Redevelopment of deteriorating industrial area into a Formula 1 track right next to the socially vulnerable Limited periodical use of isolationist facilities neighbourhoods is a case when local tax payer’s money Global sports event drawing publicity is spent for a huge facility used only a couple of times per year by a certain interest groups of people and Yearly franchise cost of ~35 million euros tourists. This conflict is even more escalated now, when Wealthy class and tourist oriented municipality has to pay a yearly franchise for holding F1 race in the city and maintaining the loss-making complex America’s Cup Port (2007) 5 of City of Arts and Science when there is not enough Redevelopment of industrial port and beach money in the budget for the local schools. Sports, tourism recreation activities Global event generating revenue Promoting nautical high-tech industry Luxury tourism and wealthy class oriented event34
  32. 32. Effects of LUPs1 5 2 4 3 Fig. 13: Large urban projects of Valencia Source: Author made, based on 35
  33. 33. Turia Garden America’s Cup waterfront Central Park Formula 1 grand Prix City of Arts And Sciences Tourism wealthy class oriented Local Citizen oriented Fig. 14: Valencia’s LUP local integration analysis36 Source:,,, : Rafa Cartagena, jmhdezhdez
  34. 34. LUP Integration1988 1998-20112014 Fig. 15: Valencia’s LUP development completion years Source: Author made, based on 37
  35. 35. Theoretical FrameworkLUP Integration / Social Vulnerability
  36. 36. Mediation of Interests Responsibilities of Public Authorities Regulation llicitudin nisl non mi tempor aliquet. Proin lacinia, sem quis volutpat tempus, odio urna aliquet risus, eget fermentum orci purus sit amet quam. Vivamus non orci ut mi volutpat malesuada. Nam semper pellentesque aliquam. Duis interdum, lacus ut iaculis consectetur, ipsum ligula ultricies mauris, a ultrices sem ligula sed ipsum. Quisque sem justo, euismod nec lobortis suscipit, porttitor vel turpis. Integer eu mattis justo. Donec felis mauris, sagittis eu iaculis in, porttitor vel justo. Fusce vitae arcu non sapien dignissim varius. Morbi non lorem justo. Proin id arcu a nibh fermentum facilisis eu sit amet metus. Donec varius aliquet est sed pulvinar. Etiam vitae mauris quam. Quisque eget purus nisl, sit amet iaculis neque. Nunc quis interdum tortor. Duis id ligula nec dolor convallis hendrerit quis sit amet arcu. Cras semper posuere ante. Aenean id nunc eget velit pellentesque congue. Nullam ut faucibus velit. Nunc risus erat, feugiat nec euismod eget, bibendum sit amet diam. Donec a pulvinar enim. Praesent ac ante ante. Donec molestie tincidunt massa vitae tincidunt. Mauris mi nibh, condimentum id varius non, ultricies eu enim. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Integer scelerisque pharetra felis at fringilla. Proin ut arcu at sem mattis eleifend. Nulla felis neque, pharetra pellentesque tempus imperdiet, porttitor non massa. Vestibulum volutpat vestibulum lacinia. Vestibulum adipiscing lobortis leo, sit amet aliquam nisi rhoncus sed. Ut ipsum orci, iaculis quis aliquam ac, luctus non ipsum. Nullam nisl sem, blandit et pharetra pharetra, lacinia sit amet ante. Aenean ac lacus ac libero tempor tincidunt quis at nisi. Pellentesque et quam ut massa mattis porta in at -- Provision of impartial institution to mediate -- Regulation of public space and architectural the interests of all stakeholders quality -- Assured inclusion of local participation -- Regulation of social mix (diverse affordability -- Transparency of authority decision processes housing) and identification of ‘the person in charge’ of -- Ensuring project flexibility and reversibility by the project involving several developers -- Authority regulated prevention of urban -- Creating legal tools to prevent authority’s conflicts favour to private interests only -- Promoting locally painless project funding approach Fig. 16: Recommendations for better LUP integration40 Source: Author, list derived from the literature (p.149)
  37. 37. Large Urban Project integrationFrom a number of academic literatures I derived a set Importance of Participationof recommendations on how to ensure the integrationof large urban projects into local societies and how to As a tradition, social acceptability of the large urban projectprevent isolationist LUP development effects driven by a is the weakest link towards the recognition and success ofcertain group of private interest (Fig. 16): the project (Lecroart 2007a). Participation thus is crucial -- Ways to mediate the interests of public and private to obsolete this issue. According to Cuenya: ‘The public needs in order to avoid isolationist LUP results and presentation of the project implies that it is subjected urban conflicts. to judgment and evaluation of agents and institutions representative of local society. Entrepreneurial logic -- Responsibilities of public authorities to ensure the supporting large urban projects will be confronted with the quality of large urban projects and the distribution of logic of neighbours. Basically, two logical approaches are public gains from such developments. confronted: the entrepreneurial and the neighbourhood views.‘ (Cuenya 2005, p. 61). Such confrontation isMediation of Interests a necessary step to prevent the emerge of isolationist projects and neighbourhood polarization because quiteAs Swyngedouw and others describe: ´Large-scale urban frequently private ‘elite power’ actors tend to bypass theprojects are often presented as project-focused market- procedure of extended participation (Gualini Majoorled initiatives, which have statutory planning as the 2007). As a matter of fact, participation of the locals doesprimary means of interventions in cities´ (Swyngedouw, not only create conditions to influence the project andMoulaert Rodriguez 2002, p. 567). This states the make people more aware of the existing transformativefact that contribution from the private sector to LUP processes, but also on a long term, participation changesdevelopment is inevitable. However it should be critically the lifestyle of inhabitants and their family, which makesregulated by public authorities in order to prevent conflicts the project deeply integrated into the lifestyle of localsbetween private and public interests (Lecroart 2007a) (Lecroart 2007a).Need of Supervisory Institution Transparency of Decision Taking ProcessThe emerging urban conflicts between global and local According to Lecroart: ‘The transparency of the processinterests occur due to different expectations of two actors; of taking decisions and of identifying the person who is inprivate or public institution standing behind LUP and local charge of implementing them and who is accountable forcitizens (Renau Trudelle 2011). It is crucial to have an them to the citizens is essential.‘ (Lecroart 2007a, p. 116).interdisciplinary institution to manage the interests of Public – private contracts which bear selected hiddenpublic and private sides (Sodupe 2007). More democratic details from the society is a direct sign of selected actorand impartial conditions are created when the dialogue interest fulfilling, which makes the process of publicitybetween opposing actors is supervised by a neutral party and idea of equality questionable. A simple yet effectivewhich seeks for a mutual better good. In this manner way to inform the citizens about the LUP developmentlarge urban projects have better chances to become processes should always be in practice as it is a neededmore incorporating and less single actor benefiting. step towards drawing local community’s attention. If it 41
  38. 38. is accurately indicated who is accountable for certain -- Taking account of the character of sites and of their processes of large urban projects it makes it possible history in the project; for society to directly react, thus more empowering local -- Limiting the ecological footprint of the project and inhabitants. of the uses that it implies; and Responsibilities of Public Authorities -- Architectural diversity and urban design that determine the image of the project, the sense of space and its integration in the metropolitan The following chapter will cover the themes of public landscapes.‘ (Lecroart 2007a, p. 117). authority’s power and influence on the large urban projects. The potential control of end-result quality, social mix, flexibility and reversibility of development processes Mix of Users and the equal distribution of public gains from the development of LUPs will be discussed. The mix of functions is without any doubt a step towards a fruitful and integrative project. Lots of new developments Criteria by Public Authorities for the Quality of LUPs around Europe show that a varied balance of function at the ground floor of buildings is desired both by promoters and by developers or the interest is even showed by Integration of the LUP into the local context highly private initiative (Lecroart 2007a). Having a single user depends on the quality which the project reaches upon and a function of the project is a true handicap for the its completion. To meet this quality a certain criteria urban vitality of the area. The mix of uses at the scale should be set by public authorities. In the processes of of urban block, plot or single building is becoming a diplomacy and negotiation, powerful legislative tools successful and common way to ensure the success of become in effect for the supervision of the large urban LUP (Lecroart 2007a). project development course. Lecroart identifies 7 points of such supervisory criteria: Public Space and Architectural Quality -- Balance, diversity, and integration of the various functions, expressed through the programme and Competently chosen places for public spaces, their through the distribution thereof; position in the context of the existing neighbouring network -- Design of the public spaces so as to determine of public spaces and the architectural quality of them how they blend into neighbouring districts, and good greatly increase the image of LUP and draws additional dimensioning of the urban blocks on which buildings users to the area. It is beneficial both for the adjacent are to be built; inhabitants as it increases their living quality and for the commerce as it draws a wide mix of customers (Lecroart -- Social and generational mix related to the diversity 2007a). As public space is a common discussion object of the types and shapes of the housing; in the processes of participatory planning, positive -- Possibility of change and reversibility of the developer’s position towards public accessibility of large development over time; urban project greatly incorporates it in the surrounding context and boosts credibility among local inhabitants.42
  39. 39. Social Mix Distribution of Public GainsIn most cases of the LUP projects, transformations happen Sometimes processes of gentrification are a part ofin the run-down areas where the existing habitants are of strategy and are not always a negative thing. Howevera lower or middle class. Therefore oftentimes there’s a particular mistakes should be avoided to prevent therisk that private developers aiming towards rich and elite increase of social segregation, polarization and unevenclasses could create conditions for gentrification merely distribution of benefits. It is crucial that the public gainsbecause of the profit chase. Public – private partnership received from private developers of LUPs should bein developing large urban projects creates conditions for distributed to support other public projects or facilitieslocal authorities to incorporate a social and generational increasing the living quality rather than investing thatmix in the areas of transformation. Private developers are revenue back to the same gentrified location supportingmost likely to orient towards high income social class as the privileged class (Cuenya 2009). In order to do soit is most profitable, whereas local government can imply there should be a greater democratic control of theconditions for the development of large urban project production and utilization of surpluses that urbanizationto include a program of mixed affordability houses. of the city generates. By creating tools to prevent theMoreover, government can also directly participate in administration’s favour to support corporate capital anddeveloping social and affordable housing (Lecroart the upper classes with bigger money power, enable2007a). conditions for benefit distribution of public revenues to all social classes, especially the most vulnerable onesFlexibility and Reversibility (Harvey 2008).Majority of LUPs are planned to function on a long term Locally Painless Project Fundingbasis. To start functioning properly those projects need tomature and pass several economic and political cycles. The most successful case of public large urban projectA single developer of the project ensures project identity funding which does not harm the local tax payers is whento mature quicker. However in the case of changes in the the project appears to be costless to the great majoritystrategic plans due to dynamic processes in the city as a of adjacent inhabitants (Altshuler Luberoff 2003). Thewhole it is more favourable if large urban project is split up easiest way to do so is to rely the funding on the higherinto several smaller-scale projects of different operators level governments and spread the cost among more taxwho can react to the changes in stages (Lecroart 2007a). suppliers. However there are also ways to attain fundsSuch conditions to attract multiple actors are directly in a more sophisticated way. Authorities can attributeavailable if the land is of the public ownership. Then the funding from future revenues of directly project relatedgovernment can restructure large singular urban lots activities. For example new airport terminal constructioninto smaller ones giving them the shape and the size to can be partly funded by increased landing fees, leasemeet the existing real estate market. This prevents the payments, etc. In such manner, equity factor of projectapproach when the city is conceived as a construction payer and user is of a huge private or public investor which directs thewhole process of transformations (Cuenya 2005). 43
  40. 40. Socio-demographic Socio-economic Housing Subjective vulnerability vulnerability vulnerability vulnerability $ $ ! #$ $! ! € € € € # #! # -- Percentage of single 64 -- Unemployment rate -- Percentage of housing of -- Percentage of inhabitants year old inhabitants less than 30m² complaining for noise -- Unemployment rate of pollution -- Rate of elderly dependency youth 16-29 years -- Average household area to the rest of population in m² per inhabitant -- Percentage of inhabitants -- Percentage of unqualified complaining for air polluted -- Percentage of immigrant workers -- Percentage of households environment to local children (0-15 years) without a bathroom and -- Level of education toilet in the house -- Percentage of inhabitants -- Percentage of immigrants (illiteracy, no education) considering to have bad to total inhabitants -- Bad quality of house infrastructure connectivity -- Number of single parent -- Percentage of houses -- Access to the green space families constructed earlier than per inhabitant 1951 -- Feel of security and delinquency Fig. 17: Criteria for urban vulnerability measurement44 Source: Author made, based on
  41. 41. Urban VulnerabilityMethodology of vulnerability research Single Parent families - specific problems of such families rise related to independency, availability to find work, dayNational ministry of development periodically conducts care, emotional vulnerability.a research on urban vulnerability and summarizes thefindings in a database which bears information per each Immigration - even though this element decreases themunicipality and examines the national census data. At aging index, however it generates problems in the areathe end, the biggest disparities between district statistical of social integration, access of housing, social servicedata and municipality’s or country’s average are indicated. help, education, etc.Such research is categorised into four groups and sub Socio-Economic vulnerabilityelements which describe the criteria in a greater detail(Fig. 17). This category forms a direct relationship with satisfactory emotional and material wellbeing of families.By knowing the methodology of the research and recurring Consequently, indicators of unemployment, availability ofindicators of vulnerability it is easier to quickly locate the long term jobs and level of education and school drop-most problematic areas of the city and investigate the outs are the primary focus points of this category.possibilities to better the situation. Residential VulnerabilityAs it is stated in the analysis document about thevulnerability (Secretary of Urban Development 2009) Physical quality of the living environment is a verysuch research is of observatory measures, it then allows strong element limiting the personal development ofto indicate the weakest areas in the city and to take the inhabitant and his social life habits. Main problemsstrategic actions to improve it. affecting the opportunities to fully enjoy the living environment are the physical state of the house, averageThe research on urban vulnerability is carried out in four size of the living area and square meter of space percategories: inhabitant, lack of basic installations inside the household (such as running water, bathroom and shower, elevator).Socio-demographic Vulnerability Subjective VulnerabilityThis group is based on a few demographic elements,which are identified as the most risky: This category evaluates a subjective inhabitant opinion about a series of elements affecting the environmentalAging - this element depicts the decrease of productive quality of the neighbourhood. Problems of noise level,population and increase in the dependant one. Therefore contamination or bad smell (due to industry or traffic),it creates problems in relation to a higher demand of social bad accessibility via means of transport, lack of greencare and services, health facilities, housing deterioration, spaces and delinquency.humble income and mobility difficulties. 45
  42. 42. Indicators used to measure vulnerability for the years 1991 and 2001 Unemployment Areas with the unemployment higher than 21% of population, which is two times bigger than national level in 2001 (10.5%) Level of Education Areas with 23% or more illiterate population or with no education, which is two times higher than the national level at 2001 (11.5%) State of housing quality Neighbourhoods having 2% or more bad quality housing, which is double the national average in 2001. Bad quality housing index consists of the homes with no running water, or no toilet, or no shower inside of the household. Indicators used to measure vulnerability for the year 2006 Immigration1* Areas with the immigrant population higher than 20% of the city average, which was 10% in 2006. 2012 urban vulnerability During the thesis project process, the latest national census data of 2011 was not available nor was the latest national report on vulnerability. Therefore, I used the data of previous studies and looked up into the local relevant most up to date data available. 1 * Only immigration indicator was used, because the national survey data of housing quality, education and unemployment is con- ducted every 10 years.46
  43. 43. Vulnerable neighbourhoods of Valencia 1991 2001 2006 2012 ?0 1 2km 0 1 2km 0 1 2km Fig. 18: Areas of social vulnerability 1991/2001/2006/2012 Source: Author made, based on 47
  44. 44. project site Context Analysis Intervention Area Choice / Surrounding LUPs / Site Analysis
  45. 45. According to the statistic data of 2012 provided by However there are 3 zones in Valencia predefined by municipality’s section of social wellbeing, there are two municipality where projects of urban regeneration are largest concentration of bad condition housing in Valencia assigned (Fig. 21). The so called program of ‘Integral (bad physical state of household, no basic installations Rehabilitation of Valencia’ (proyecto RIVA - Rehabilitación inside home (running water, toilet, shower)). Those are Integral de Valencia) aims to prevent housing deterioration the 414 indicated households in the former fisherman and improve the living conditions in the historical centres neighbourhood of Cabanyal and the 292 households of the city. (Jiménez Alcañiz 2012) at the worker class area of Quatre Carreres (Fig. 19).The amount of these bad housings has been the same for a Project Area several consecutive years (Felipe 2012). This master thesis focuses on the district of Quatre If compared the 2012 data on poor condition households Carreres. It has the second largest concentration of bad to the urban Vulnerability map of Valencia based on condition housing and has been on the list of vulnerable the 2001 national census (Fig. 20), it is visible that these areas of Valencia for two consecutive researches. What map have correlation and that problem of poor housing is more, neither urban projects of regeneration are condition has not been solved yet throughout the last assigned for the chosen location nor there is a municipal 10 years. Particularly speaking, the municipality of strategy to tackle the social vulnerability. It also has two Valencia has no specific strategy towards tackling the large urban projects on the premises: the already built central government identified areas of urban vulnerability complex of City of Arts and Science and the Central Park (Martinez Alzamora 2011). project, which is under construction.50
  46. 46. The Choice of Intervention area Fig. 19: People living in bad Fig. 20: Social condition housing vulnerability areas 39 51 54 14 16 414 14 69 31 292 33 Fig. 21: Project RIVA Fig. 22: Project site regeneration program areas Central Park Project area City of Arts0 1 2km 0 1 2km and Science Source: Author made, based on,, Felipe 2012, 51
  47. 47. The existing complex of City of Arts and Science began running up till these days (El País 2012). Whereas the as an aim to compete with the redevelopment processes Guggenheim museum in Bilbao had a total cost of 166 of Barcelona Olympic events and 1992 Sevilla World million Euros which was recovered in 6 years of operation Expo. In 1989 following the emerging strategy to time. (Plaza et al. 2009) transform Valencia into a culture and tourism oriented city, president of the Generalitat Valenciana (regional Regional Government contracted the Valencian Institute government of Valencia) Joan Lerma proposed an idea of of Economic Investigations to conduct a research on the ‘City of Science and Technology’. Consequently in 1991 feasibility of the City of Arts and Sciences. The results regional government commissioned a local born architect of the research state that by the year 2009 construction Santiago Calatrava to propose a project for the last part works for the complex have generated a 1.285 million of the Turia park, which at that time was surrounded by euros income for the region. What is more it indicates croplands and natural landscape (Fig. 23). And after 20 that the complex attracts a yearly income of 152.5 million years, the whole complex with a few alterations 1 from the euros to Valencia via tourism (Generalitat Valenciana, local government was completed (Fig. 24): 2008). -- Hemispheric - 1999 The large urban project of the City of Arts and Sciences -- Science Museum - 2000 achieved its strategic goal to attract tourism, ‘put -- Aquarium - l’Oceanografic - 2002 (designed by Valencia on the map’ and provide facilities for culture Felix Candela) and conferences. It also created new job places in the fields of construction and service and it attracted new -- Opera Hall - 2005 real estate development at the site proximity. However, -- New suspension bridge - 2008 considering the availability and quite pricy accessibility of these facilities to the locals, it becomes questionable -- Multifunction centre, Agora - 2011 whether the 1.3 billion Euros spent from the tax payers’ pocket was a provident decision of the authorities. What A noteworthy fact is that the estimated total cost of this is more, in the recent years there are an increasing complete project seeks 1,3 billion Euros which were number of news and articles about the corruption of paid by regional government of Valencia. The final cost politicians, resignation of compromised president of exceeds the preliminary project proposal estimate by regional government (one of the main project supporters), 500%. What is more, the annual balance of the complex Calatrava’s contract of 94 million euros which compared for the year 2007 is -63 million euros therefore requiring to the initial project costs has doubled in time (El País additional public fund injections to keep the facilities 2012). 1 Local conservative government of Partido Popular criticized then PSOE Socialist regional government proposal as “Pharaonic Development” and proposed an opera house (434 million euros) instead of the Communications tower (94 million Euros) (El País 2011).52
  48. 48. City of arts and science Fig. 23: Original 1991 project of the City of Arts and SciencesSource: 53
  49. 49. Hemisféric Palau de las Arts Reina Sofia -- Cinema hall -- Operas -- Souvenir shop -- Ballets -- Cinemas -- Exhibitions -- Conferences, etc. Umbracle -- Parking -- Exhibition of flora and astronomy Agora -- Sport / culture events -- Conferences -- Show venue54 Source: Author made, based on,
  50. 50. Facilities of the City of arts and sciences Science Museum -- Interactive science exposition -- Souvenir/book shop -- Restaurant Oceanografic -- Marine museum, aquarium -- Restaurants -- Souvenir shops -- Marine research Fig. 24: The City of Arts and Science 55
  51. 51. The biggest urban project under construction right now in end streets will be eliminated. Elimination of the railway the city of Valencia is the Central Park (Parque Central) infrastructure, old terminals and deteriorating industrial project (Fig. 25). It takes place at the central area of the buildings will increase the living quality of the area. A lot city where the old railway infrastructure is concentrated of new residential, tertiary, and public oriented facilities (Fig. 26). Parque Central project itself is composed of 25% are planned to be facilitated at the now unattractive area municipal, 25% regional, and 50% national investment of this LUP. and right now is the only large urban project in the city of Valencia which still has local government funding This project is done in three separate phases and the first (Martínez Ciscar 2011). phase of the project is already halfway through (Fig. 29). Temporary high speed train station has been constructed Conversion of this area into a green heart of the city and in 2011 a link between Madrid and Valencia has has been already proposed by the 1988 general plan been opened shortening the travelling time twice, making of Valencia. It took 20 years for the project to show the it a 95 minute ride. Private property is being purchased first signs of transformation. However, it is very difficult to and reparcelated according to the project proposal. predict how many decades it will take to reach the final Eastern park side area is undergoing processes of land image of the project. preparation for the park (García Parreño 2012). Unlike the large urban projects of the previous 20 years However it is very unclear when the stage 2 and stage in Valencia, the aim of this one is primarily to benefit 3 works will be initiated, because nowadays state of the citizens and the neighbours living next to it. A vast municipal and national economy cannot afford creating amount of green public space will be created. New a 9 km tunnelled railway running through the old town of educational and recreational facilities are planned on the of the city (Martínez Ciscar 2011). Which leaves the the site (Martínez Ciscar 2011) (Fig. 27). According to premises of the train tacks unattractive to the planned the project, railway separated neighbourhoods will be development. As a result, neighbouring undeveloped linked due to a tunnelling of the existing train tracks (Fig. land and open spaces are abandoned, deteriorating and 28). As a result, this will improve the local economy of inaccessible (Fig. 30), (Fig. 31). the now separated neighbourhoods as a lot of dead-56
  52. 52. Project Central Park Fig. 25: Kathryn Gustafson winning design for the Central ParkSource: 57
  53. 53. Fig. 26: Existing Situation Fig. 27: Project Proposal58
  54. 54. Provisioned transformations and phasing -- Phase 1 covers private land and railways land immediately available for reparcelization and development -- Phase 2 corresponds to the land where the tunnelling works will be carried out. -- Phase 3 is the site of the temporary high speed train station Joaquín Sorolla and the provisional railway access.Fig. 28: Planned railway infrastructure transformations Fig. 29: Project Phasing Source: 59
  55. 55. 60 Source: Author
  56. 56. Areas around the Railway Fig. 30: View towards provisioned central park area Fig. 31: View towards future real estate development 61
  57. 57. According to the data of the statistics and interviews with Average neighbourhood data local people it is possible to describe an average person living in the project area as a middle class worker living in a slightly cheaper household with his 2.61 person family. 14 000 hab/km² This person lives in the area with a density almost twice *(8200 hab/km²) as dense as Valencia’s average where 24% of active Land Price 240€/m² neighbours are unemployed. To make matters more *(Land Price 260€/m²) complicated, half of young population are jobless and there are around 18% immigrants from non-EU countries 2.61 Persons/family (National Statistics Bureau 2011). *(2.45 person/family) 20% Unemployed Mapping available specific social information (Fig. 32) made it possible to better evaluate the current local 50% Youth Unemployed social conditions and propose adequate interventions. 72.6% Families Without Kids Data layers were chosen according to the previously *(29.9% families without kids) described indicators on vulnerability. 18% Immigrants *(13% Immigrants) Such data is important because it particularly shows which areas in the selected site have the biggest concentration of specific problematic groups of people and it allows proposing more argumented next steps for the strategy based on this information. For example proposing a *Valencia’s average household regeneration project at the south-western site luxurious housing neighbourhood would not be the most adequate decision. However, such intervention would be more welcome at the previous historical nucleus of the site.62 Source:,
  58. 58. Social AnalysisOlder 64 living alone UnemploymentYouth 16-30 Unemployment ImmigrantsBad Housing Condition Density Fig. 32: Social indicators of the area Source: Author made, based on 63