Recording Classroom Observations


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a presentation on the use of recording techniques to document classroom observations and other forms of formative assessment. most relevant to primary school teachers and student teachers.

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Recording Classroom Observations

  1. 1. Recording Techniques Ways of Documenting Observations
  2. 2. Anecdotal Records
  3. 3. Anecdotal Records <ul><li>“ An anecdotal record is &quot;a written record kept in a positive tone of a child's progress based on milestones particular to that child's social, emotional, physical, aesthetic, and cognitive development,&quot; notes the American Association of School Administrators (1992, p. 21).” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  4. 4. Anecdotal records <ul><li>are objective observations, not interpretations or judgments </li></ul><ul><li>are positive </li></ul><ul><li>account for significant events or behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>give information that cannot be obtained using other methods of assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Airasian (2000) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  5. 5. Anecdotal Records <ul><li>Usually include the date, time, event, setting, student’s name, and teacher’s name </li></ul><ul><li>“ Some teachers use notebooks for keeping track of such notes, others use sticky pads to write things down and have a system of keeping track of these notes. Sometimes the notes end up in a child's file at the end of a school year, other times, they stay with a teacher's records or end up in the trash.  There is not a single system utilized by all teachers, nor do all teachers keep anecdotal records.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  6. 6. Anecdotal Record Format - Example Anecdotal Record Student’s Name: Teacher: Date: Time: Activity     Observations              
  7. 7. Here’s an example of when anecdotal records are needed from Hall-Paulson, A. <ul><li>With Student Y, the anecdotal records are especially helpful in helping to address the behaviors because these are usually not graded (although a student's behavior and work habits affect their grades). A teacher should provide examples with dates and times explaining how a child lost control of him or herself, how he or she was uncooperative and how that student was disrespectful.  In these cases, it's also good to document what the response was to the behavior and whether or not the parents were contacted.  </li></ul>
  8. 8. And another one… <ul><li>With Student X, a teacher should have both writing and math samples to support the highlighted comments. As for diplomacy, the teacher should have a list of specific cases where Student X was not diplomatic and how he or she needs to be alter or improve this area of communication! </li></ul>
  9. 9. Checklists
  10. 10. Checklists <ul><li>are written lists of criteria used while a product or a student’s behavior is being assessed </li></ul><ul><li>involve the use of a checkmark next to the criterion that is represented by the observed behavior </li></ul><ul><li>can be used for diagnostic purposes and for tracking change </li></ul>
  11. 11. Disadvantages of Checklists <ul><li>Only two choices: criterion is performed or not, goal is met or not. There is no middle ground for scoring and no representation of extent. </li></ul><ul><li>Time and organizational issues </li></ul><ul><li>Example from Airasian (2000) p. 161-162 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Checklist Example <ul><li>The teacher stamps, initials, or checks every time the student demonstrates a required behavior such as uses English in class with peers, stays on task when asked to, makes an entry in the reading log, shares resources, etc. </li></ul><ul><li> s 1 s 2 </li></ul>  Uses English with peers          Stays on task         Weekly entry in the reading log              Shares resources        
  13. 13. Self-Evaluation Checklist <ul><li>Checked and completed by the student and verified by the teacher </li></ul>Student’s Name: Unit: Skills Date Teacher’s Comments I can list the steps of planting a seed       I can ask questions about plants       I can draw and label the parts of a plant      
  14. 14. Group Work Self-Assessment <ul><li>Completed by members of groups to assess their own contribution to the group as well as that of other members. </li></ul>Group Members: Student’s Name: Date: I encouraged other members in the group. YES NO I shared information and ideas with other members in the group. YES NO The other members of the groups have encouraged me. YES NO
  15. 15. <ul><li>Teacher’s assessment checklist of group members </li></ul>Students’ Names       Observations 1 st 2 nd 3 rd 1 st 2 nd 3 rd Criteria               Suggests ideas                       Reacts positively to the ideas of other members                 Uses English to communicate with other members               Uses language presented in the unit in communication with other members              
  16. 16. Rating Scales
  17. 17. Rating Scales <ul><li>Are similar to checklists but differ in that they allow the observer to judge performance along a continuum rather than as a dichotomy (Airasian, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>Come in three types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples on page 163-165 of Airasian (2000) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Improving the Use of Rating Scales <ul><li>Limit the number of rating categories to no more than 5 </li></ul><ul><li>More categories might result in reduced reliability (Airasian, 2000,2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Use 3-5 rating scale points (Airasian, 2000,2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Use the same rating scale for each criterion in numerical and graphic rating scales </li></ul><ul><li>Read the section on numeric summarization (from Airasian, 2000, p. 166) in relation to the scoring of rating scales </li></ul>
  19. 19. Checklist/Rating Scale <ul><li>1=unsatisfactory </li></ul><ul><li>2=satisfactory </li></ul><ul><li>3=good </li></ul><ul><li>4=excellent </li></ul><ul><li>N/A=not applicable </li></ul>Période de l'évaluation:  __________________________   Criteria Based on Goals OR Class Activities Comments Students’ Names         1         2 3 4 N/A              
  20. 20. Rubrics
  21. 21. <ul><li>Rubrics are clear sets of expectations or criteria used to help teachers and students focus on what is valued in a subject, activity, topic… </li></ul><ul><li>A category describes a student’s performance as closely as possible, but not completely describes overall performance because criteria are not separated. </li></ul>
  22. 22. An example of a rubric! <ul><li> Complete work, very neat, has everything it needs. </li></ul><ul><li> Almost complete work, neat, missing a few things. </li></ul><ul><li>     Not complete work, messy, missing many things. </li></ul><ul><li>  Oh no! Missing everything, very messy. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Letter writing rubric example from: Letter Writing Excellent Satisfactory Needs Improvement Form: Date, Heading, Body, Closure Complete Complete Incomplete Topic: Shows Learning Shows Learning, Writes About Topic Mentions Topic Briefly No Discussion of Topic Sentence Structure Complete, Complex Simple Fragmented Grammar Proper Adequate Improper Proper Use of Paragraph Indents at New Topic Indents No Form Spelling Correct Mixed Inventive Typing Skills No Errors Few Errors, Less Than 5 Many Errors Deadline Completed By Completed By Late/Incomplete
  24. 24. Comparison <ul><li>Checklists & Rating Scales: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide specific diagnostic information about strengths and weaknesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic and formative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rubrics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize overall performance in a general way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Airasian, 2000, p. 167-168. </li></ul></ul>