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Environmental issues and problems in nigeria


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Highlights of environmental challenges in Nigeria and how to address them through appropriate educational curricular

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Environmental issues and problems in nigeria

  1. 1. Environmental Issues and Problems in Nigeria Dogara Bashir Kaduna State Water Services Regulatory Commission Lead presentation at the Capacity Building Workshop on Green Teacher Programme held at National Teachers Institute, Kaduna, Nigeria on 19-23 June 2017
  2. 2. 2 Outline of Presentation 1. Characteristics a) Physical Features and Economy b) Climate c) Hydrology and Drainage d) Geology and Groundwater e) Relief f) Vegetation and Land Use g) Mineral Resources 2. Environmental Issues and Challenges a) Population and Human Settlement b) Human Health c) Land Degradation d) Water Resources Management e) Biodiversity Depletion f) Climate Change 3. Conclusion
  3. 3.  Located in West Africa (3°N - 14°N & 3°E - 15°E)  Total area - 923,768km2  Land area - 910,768km2  Water area - 13,000km2  Water ways - 8,600 km  Population - 140m (2006 census) - 160m (2011 est.)  Population growth - 3.2% (2011)  Nominal GDP (2011) - N37.4t (US$240b)  GDP per capita - US$1,470  GDP growth rate - 3.5%  GDP composition of sector (2011) o agriculture: 31% o oil & gas: 41% o manufacturing: 2% o services: 26%  Oil and gas (2011) o 41% of GDP o 95% of foreign exchange, o 65% of budgetary revenue  Population below poverty line - 58% Physical Features and Economy 3
  4. 4. Nigeria is characterized by the tropical wet and dry climate type Nigeria’s climate is majorly affected by two air masses:  Tropical maritime air masses (south-west trade wind) blowing over the Atlantic ocean towards the coast and is responsible for rainy season  Tropical continental (north-east trade wind) blowing across the Sahara desert and is responsible for dry season  Where the two air masses meet is called inter- tropical convergence zone and dictates the rainfall amount and length of the rainy season Amount of annual rainfall decreases inland from about 3,000 mm in the extreme south- south to less than 500 mm in the extreme north-east of the country Warm desert climateWarm semi-arid climate Tropical savanna climate Monsoon climate Climate: Rainfall 4
  5. 5. Like most tropical countries, Nigeria is a hot climate country except for few areas at higher altitudes such as the Jos, Mambila and obudu plateaus The diurnal and seasonal temperature ranges generally increase inland from the coast Climate: Temperature 5
  6. 6. Hydrology and Drainage The Nigerian river systems are hydrologically divided into four drainage systems that are subdivided into eight hydrological areas (HA) as follows: 1. Niger-Benue drainage system; a) Niger North (HA-1) b) Niger Central (HA-2) c) Upper Benue (HA-3) d) Lower Benue (HA-4) e) Niger South (HA-5) 2. Western Littoral drainage system (HA-6); 3. Eastern Littoral drainage system (HA-7); 4. Lake Chad drainage system (HA-8) 6
  7. 7. Hydrological Area Area (103km2) Rainfall (mm/year) Related RBDAs Related States Population (106) (2010) (2030) HA-1 Niger North 135.1 767 Sokoto-Rima Katsina, Zamfara, Sokoto, Kebbi 17.1 27.2 HA-2 Niger Central 154.6 1,170 Upper Niger, Lower Niger Niger, Kwara, Kaduna, Kogi, FCT 17.0 31.5 HA-3 Upper Benue 156.5 1,055 Upper Benue Adamawa, Taraba, Gombe, Bauchi 12.2 19.4 HA-4 Lower Benue 74.5 1,341 Lower Benue Plateau, Nassarawa, Benue, Kogi 8.3 13.9 HA-5 Niger South 53.9 2,132 Anambra-Imo, Niger-Delta Bayelsa, Delta, Edo, Kogi, Anambra, Rivers 19.6 31.1 HA-6 Western Littoral l 99.3 1,541 Ogun-Osun, Benin-Owena Lagos, Ogun, Oyo, Osun, Ondo, Edo, Ekiti 35.9 57.8 HA-7 Eastern Littoral 57.4 2,106 Cross River Abia, Anambra, Imo, Enugu, Ebonyi, Cross River, Akwa Ibom, Rivers 20.8 32.6 HA-8 Lake Chad 178.5 610 Hadejia-Jama'are, Chad Kano, Jigawa, Yobe, Borno, Bauchi, Plateau, Adamawa 27.4 44.4 Hydrology and Drainage 7
  8. 8. There about 155 dams of various sizes constructed around the country with a total reservoir capacity of about 37BCM of water for various uses that include: irrigation, hydropower generation, water supply, flood control, acquaculture, and recreation. 8 Hydrology and Drainage Most of these dams are not optimally utilized. The utilization of large dams constructed principally for irrigation and/or water supply range from less than 5% to 10%.
  9. 9. Geology and Groundwater Groundwater is used for water supply, private irrigation, livestock and aquaculture throughout the country About 58,000 boreholes, both motorized and handpump, are used for public water supply, pumping amount of 460 m3/day Average depth of boreholes in the basement complex area is 50 m with yields ranging from 10 to 150 m3/day in sedimentary rock areas, depth of boreholes range from 50 to 400 m, with yields ranging from 10 to 500 m3/day Operation rate of boreholes in Nigeria is about 60% due to frequent breakdown of pumps. The geology of Nigeria comprises of sedimentary and basement complex rocks of approximately equal surface areas with varying ages and water resources potentials 9
  10. 10. HA Groundwater Potential (MCM/yr) Groundwater Demand (MCM/yr) 2010 2030 HA-1 6,217 297 872 HA-2 19,802 309 907 HA-3 14,182 185 639 HA-4 14,051 148 410 HA-5 32,145 408 1,194 HA-6 22,304 1,183 1,937 HA-7 27,906 357 996 HA-8 5,634 624 1,453 Nigeria 142,241 3,512 8,407 Geology and Groundwater 10
  11. 11. Altitude wise, Nigeria is characterized by two major reliefs: 1) Highland/Plateau: These are areas above 300 m above mean sea level and such areas in the country are grouped as follows: a) the north-central highlands that cover high plains of Hausaland and Jos Plateau b) the Western uplands that cover most of the highlands of south-western States c) the eastern highlands – Nigeria’s highest zone that cover Adamawa and Mandara mountains, Biu plateau and Obudu and Oban hill d) the eastern scarpland that covers the eastern region including the Nsukka/Udi plateau Relief: Highlands/Plateaux 11
  12. 12. 2) Lowlands: These are areas below 300 m above mean sea level covering areas along sea coasts and valleys of major rivers. Such areas include: a) Sokoto plains in the north-west; b) Niger-Benue trough in the north- central; c) Chad Basin plains in the north-east; d) Coastal lowlands in the south-west; e) Cross River lowlands; and f) Lower Niger-Delta Relief: Lowlands 12
  13. 13. From the extreme south to the extreme north, Nigeria is covered by seven different vegetation zones that are categorized into three major groups as follows: 1. Forest vegetation a) Lowland rainforest b) Freshwater swamp forest c) Mangrove forest and coastal vegetation 2. Savanna (grassland vegetation) a) Northern guinea savanna b) Sudan savanna c) Sahel savanna 3. Montane vegetation From these and the rainfall regimes, six agro- ecological zones are delineated in Nigeria: humid forest, mid altitude, derived savanna, southern guinea, northern guinea and arid semi-arid Vegetation and Land Use 13
  14. 14. The thickness of the vegetation cover decrease progressively northward from mangrove swamp forest in the south to desert conditions in the extreme north-east Vegetation and Land Use 14
  15. 15. Type Description Mangrove, Freshwater/ seawater Wetland, Tropical Rain Forest These cover areas with more than1,500 mm/year in precipitation. The mangrove areas are mostly along the coastal line of the Gulf of Guinea gulf. The freshwater/tropical rain forests exist toward the inland areas which are covered by dense evergreen trees. Guinea Savanna Guinea Savanna cover areas in which the rainy season lasts from 6 to 8 months with annual rainfall of 1,000 -1,500 mm. It covers areas from the southern to middle belt of the Nigeria, which is the most typical vegetation type in Nigeria. Due to extensive and intensive agricultural and other human activities, most of the Guinea Savanna has secondary vegetation. Sudan Savanna Sudan Savanna cover areas in which the rainy season lasts from 4 to 6 months with annual rainfall of 600-1,000 mm. This is the dominant vegetation in northern Nigeria and is characterized by grassland of 1- 2 m in height. Typical tree species are Acacia and baobab. Sahel Savanna Currently, Sahel Savanna is found only in the extreme north-east of Nigeria, around Lake Chad area where rainy season does not last more than 4 months with annual rainfall of less than 600 mm. This area exhibits desert like conditions and the typical tree species is Acacia. Vegetation and Land Use 15
  16. 16. Vegetation and Land Use Area (km2) Ratio (%) Forest 46,038 5.1 Grassland/Shrub 197,164 21.7 Agriculture 586,516 64.5 Wetland 37,449 4.1 Water body 10,555 1.2 Urban Area 5,344 0.6 Others 26,891 3.0 Total 909,958 100 The dominant land uses in Nigeria are: o Agricultural land (60%); o Grassland and shrub (22%); o Forest (5%); and o Wetland (4%) Source: NWRMP 2013 16
  17. 17. Nigeria is blessed with a variety of mineral resources; the major ones are: a) Coal mostly found in Enugu, Benue, Kogi and Gombe States; b) Tin mostly found in Plateau, Benue, Bauchi and Kaduna States; c) Iron Ore mostly found in Kogi and Osun States; d) Oil and Gas mostly found in Akwa Ibom, Rivers, Delta, Bayelsa, Abia and Imo States, and off-shore; e) Limestone mostly found in Sokoto, Kogi, Benue, Enugu, Cross River and Ogun States; and f) Gold mostly found in Niger, Osun, Kaduna, Ekiti and Sokoto Mineral Resources 17
  18. 18. 18 Nigeria is blessed with abundant human and material resources However, most of the environmental issues and challenges facing the country arise in the processes of exploitation and utilization of these rich resources The major environmental challenges include: • Population, Human Settlements and Environmental Health • Land Degradation • Water Resources Management • Biodiversity Depletion • Climate Change Environmental Issues and Challenges
  19. 19. 19 Population and Human Settlement  Nigeria’s population is increasing rapidly reaching an estimated 180 million in 2016  Poverty, exacerbated by high unemployment rate, manifests in low per capita income resulting to up to 60% of the population living below poverty line
  20. 20. 20 Population and Human Settlement  Population density has increased tremendously in the urban areas putting increasing pressure on the limited resources, infrastructure and amenities  Environmental pollution due to inefficient waste disposal systems Cities kg/cap/ Day Tonnage/ month Yearly Tonnage Abuja 0.281 14,684 176,213 Yenagoa 0.23 14,246 170,952 Kaduna 0.23 44,433 533,199 Kano 0.56 156,676 1,880,112 Katsina 0.32 18,452 221,424 Ilorin 0.25 34,560 414,720 Lagos 0.73 255,556 3,066,672 P/Harcourt 0.7 117,825 1,413,900 Sokoto 0.281 15,255 183,024 Aba 0.31 64,347 772,164 Onitsha 0.7 84,137 1,009,644
  21. 21. 21 Human Health Due to unplanned and increasing population and poverty, Nigeria is highly prone to a number of environment related diseases and infections including: o Malaria o CSM o Cholera o Diarrhea o Guinea-worm o River Blindness o Schistosomiasis o Tuberculosis o HIV/AIDS
  22. 22. 22 Land Degradation There are a variety of natural and human induced activities that result in land degradation. These include: o Deforestation o Drought and desertification o Erosion o Flood o Oil pollution
  23. 23. 23 Land Degradation: Deforestation  The need for farmland, timber, fuel wood and urbanization are the major cause of the unprecedented deforestation in Nigeria  Most of the primary forest in Nigeria has disappeared  This result in increasing the other land degradation factors such as desertification, erosion and flooding
  24. 24. 24 Land Degradation: Desertification  38% of Nigeria’s total land area  1/3 national population (53,333,311)  50% - 75% of the DFS’s threatened  260,000 km2 facing serious desertification problems  rate of desertification ≈ 0.6 km/yr  critically affected States: Borno, Yobe, Jigawa, Katsina and Sokoto, Desertification Frontline States (DFS)
  25. 25. 25 Land Degradation: Desertification… Causes of Desertification:  Deforestation: mainly due to increasing demands for agricultural lands and fuel wood.  Overgrazing: Most of the facilities in the grazing reserves have deteriorated, encroachment on reserves and livestock routes – farmers/herders conflicts  Annual Bush Fires: land clearing in preparation for agricultural activities, and trapping of games  Soils erosion: absence of vegetation exposes the land to serious water and wind erosion.  Poverty: Both a cause and a consequence of desertification  Climate Change: increasing and reoccurring drought as a result of decreasing rainfall
  26. 26. 26 Land Degradation: Erosion  About 10% of the country’s land mass is under severe erosion problems with more than 50% of the affected areas concentrated in the southeastern Nigeria  There is also wind erosion in the extreme north and coastal erosion in the extreme south.
  27. 27. 27  According to credible reports, Anambra, Abia, Imo, Enugu and Ebonyi States have over 750, 650, 500, 400 and 250 major erosion sites respectively. This gully census is conservative and incomplete since smaller and young gullies were not enumerated. These younger gullies shall ultimately mature within next year and pose as serious a hazard as older ones" – Egboka (2006) Land Degradation: Erosion…
  28. 28. 28 Land Degradation: Flood Every year floods in various parts of Nigeria have been reported to cause the death of many people, forced thousands of people from their homes, and destroyed scores of houses and many social and economic infrastructures such as farmlands, industries, schools, roads and bridges Nguru-Hadejia Federal Highway - August 2004
  29. 29. 29 Water Resources Management  The dismal performances of the large and capital intensive dams and irrigation schemes have clearly shown that the necessary competence and willingness to effectively operate and manage such schemes are lacking in Nigeria.  Furthermore, these large dams have been shown to promote the desertification processes as their impacts on their downstream ecology have resulted in the desiccation of extensive floodplains and destruction of fishery resources and wildlife habitats; as well as reduction of ground water recharge.  These have resulted in loss of unique biodiversity and livelihoods thereby exacerbating poverty
  30. 30. 30 Water Resources Management… KANO NGURU GASHUA KATAGUM HADEJIA BAUCHI JOS KANO STATE JIGAWA STATE BAUCHI STATE YOBE STATE DUTSE BORNO STATE GOMBE STATE R.Yobe R.Fakate R. Gau R. Gulka R. Gari Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands Challawa Gorge Dam Tiga Dam KRIP HVIP Proposed Kafin Zaki Dam  Hadejia-Jama’are-Komadugu-Yobe Basin
  31. 31. 31 Biodiversity Depletion  The habitats for the various and flora and fauna (biodiversity) in Nigeria are increasingly destroyed through the following human induced activities:  Deforestation  Construction and operation of dams  Excessive and unregulated use of agricultural chemicals  Bush burning  Urbanisation  Oil pollution  Gas flaring
  32. 32. 32 Climate Change  Climate Change impacts on the environment are basically linked to “too much or too little”  The IPCC concluded that: o climate change is projected to impact on the frequency and magnitude of both floods and droughts o flood hazards will increase over more than half of the globe, including tropical Africa o Meteorological droughts (less rainfall) and agricultural droughts (drier soil) are projected to become longer, or more frequent, or both, because of reduced rainfall or increased evaporation or both o In wetter regions, more intense seasonal droughts can be managed by current water supply systems and by adaptation o Coastal areas are increasingly susceptible to erosion and submergence due to increasing threat of sea rise (IPCC, AR5 WGII, Chapter 3, October 2014)
  33. 33. 33 Climate Change… Climate Change Higher rainfall more pressure on sewerage systems Increased overflows Increased risk of diseases spread Climate Change Higher temperatures stimulate spread of diseases Increased incidence of waterborne diseases Climate Change Higher temperatures Introduction of new diseases Increased incidence of diseases Climate Change Lower stream flows Increased salinity Use of contaminated surface waters Drying up of groundwater
  34. 34. 34 Climate Change… Contribution of agriculture to climate change o Agriculture is estimated to be directly responsible for about 14% of the total greenhouse gas emissions o Deforestation accounts for 18% of greenhouse gas emissions o In the last 150 years, 476 billion tonnes of carbon has been emitted from farmland soils due to inappropriate farming & grazing practices such as: • deforestation • biodiversity loss • accelerated soil erosion • loss of soil organic matter • salinisation of soils • costal water pollution and • acidification of the oceans
  35. 35. 35 Climate Change…  Food and Fiber Production  Provision of Clean and Sufficient Water  Maintenance of Biodiversity  Maintenance of Human Health  Storage and cycling of Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus Agricultural Lands Coastal Zones Forest Lands Freshwater Systems Arid Lands & Grasslands Climate change will affect the ability of ecological systems to provide a range of essential ecological goods and services Source: Robert Watson (2008). IPCC Synthesis Report, Part I
  36. 36. 36 CONCLUSION o Nigeria is blessed with abundant human and material resources o However, most of the environmental issues and challenges facing the country arise in the processes of exploitation and utilization of these rich resources o The country is operating a federal system of government with three tiers of government that are mostly autonomous o Constitutionally, environmental management is on the concurrent list.; meaning all the 3 tiers of Government manage the environment o Environmental management is a cross-cutting issue affecting and being affected by the activities of the various sectors of the economy o Consequently, there is need for effective coordination mechanisms for synergy and for sustainable environmental management