DogNostics Career College
Module # 202 Canine and
Feline Health and
Handling

Copyright DogNostics 2012
2

Your
DogNostics
Webinar
Presenter
today is
Niki Tudge

A little about me:
Business Degrees, Oxford University England.
...
The Goals For Today's Webinar
 Provide a basic understanding of common infectious







diseases of dogs and cats
Ou...
The Webinar Scope
What is included

What is not included

 Common canine diseases
 Recommended canine

 Emergency and F...
Key Canine and Feline Diseases

Copyright DogNostics 2012
Canine And Feline Diseases
 Rabies
 Very serious, fatal virus
 Can affect any warm blooded animal
 Transmission:



...
Canine Diseases
 CanineDistemper Contagious, often fatal, multisystemic viral disease.




Secondary Mycoplasma

Clini...
Canine Diseases

 Canine Distemper:
 Fatal to 75% of dogs infected
 Especially

juvenile and geriatric

May suffer perm...
Canine Diseases
 Parvovirus




Gastrointestinal viral disease in dogs
Contributions to severity:





Clinical sign...
Canine Diseases
 Parvo Virus

The virus is shed in large quantities in the feces
for up to 14 days post infection.
 Disi...
Canine Diseases
 Coronavirus

Virus of small intestine
 Puppies under six weeks of age
 Clinical Signs:







Trea...
Canine Diseases
 Leptospirosis




Gram negative spirochete bacteria
Over 250 different serovars (subtypes)
Increased ...
Canine Diseases
 Lyme Disease



Borreliosis
Tick-borne bacterial disease



lone star and
brown dog ticks



Bacter...
Canine Diseases
 Canine upper respiratory Complex
 Kennel Cough


Infection of the cells lining the interior of the tra...
Canine Diseases
 Kennel Cough
 Bacterial and Viral Component
Bordetella bronchiseptica- Bacterial component
 Small Gram...
Key Feline Diseases

Copyright DogNostics 2012
Feline Diseases
 Feline Distemper or Panleukopenia



“All white blood cells are abnormally low”
Severely depresses all ...
Feline Diseases
 Upper Respiratory Complex
 Rhinotracheitis



Also known as feline herpes virus
Clinical Signs:



...
Feline Diseases
Immunosuppressive Viral Diseases


Feline Leukemia Virus
(FeLV)



Retrovirus










Cannot live...
Vaccines and Antibodies: The Goal

Copyright DogNostics 2012
The Myth of the Booster Shot
This is not what happens….

Level
Of
Immunity

Many people believe that a booster vaccine wil...
Maternal Antibodies: Fact

Copyright DogNostics 2012
Copyright DogNostics 2012
Recommended Vaccination
Protocols
RECOMMENDED BY:
THE AMERICAN ANIMAL HOSPITAL
ASSOCIATION (AAHA)
THE AMERICAN VETERINARY ...
Recommended Vaccination Protocols

Copyright DogNostics 2012
Canine Core Vaccines
Core Vaccines

Non- Core Vaccines

 Rabies

 Bordetella

 Distemper

 Leptospirosis

 Parvo

 C...
Canine Vaccine Protocol
 Rabies








Killed vaccine
First administered at 12-16 weeks old.
First annual booster ...
Canine Vaccine Protocol
 DA2PP or similar

Protects against canine distemper, adenovirus type 2, parinfluenza, and
parvov...
Canine Vaccine Protocol
 Bordatella or Kennel Cough
 2 types:


Live version
 Given intranasally
 No booster necessar...
Canine Vaccine Protocol
 Leptospirosis
 At risk dogs only–







Standing water
Wildlife

Some combination vaccines...
Recommended Feline Vaccination
Protocols

Copyright DogNostics 2012
Feline Core Vaccines
Core

Non-Core

 Rabies

 Feline Leukemia

 Panleukopenia

 Rhinotracheitis (herpes)

 FIV
 Fal...
Feline Vaccine Protocol
 Rabies
 Increased sensitivity to adjuvant








Three year rabies not available
specific...
Feline Vaccine Protocol
 Feline Leukemia
 Testing is recommended before
administering vaccine.
 First administration no...
Vaccines: Viewpoints may be
Changing

COURTESY OF
DR. JEAN DODDS, DVM

Copyright DogNostics 2012
Potential Vaccination Risks
 Autoimmune Diseases
 Develops in genetically susceptible individuals





Sum of genetic...
Potential Vaccination Risks
 What triggers predisposed animals to have an

immune mediated response:







Virus (...
Potential Vaccination Risks
 Vaccinosis
 Adverse reaction to vaccine
 May be serious, chronically debilitating, or fata...
Potential Vaccination Risks
Factors contributing to vaccinosis

 Dogs:
 Repeated exposure
 Young age
 Small breed size...
Special Considerations
 Non- Responders
 Animal can never develop immunity
Modified Live Parvo
 1:1000 dogs will never ...
Special Considerations
 Measure Benefit : Risk ratio
 Never vaccinate 30 days before estrus, in estrus, during
pregnancy...
Alternatives to Vaccination
 Check Titers
 Blood test that checks for total antibody production from
vaccination and nat...
Alternatives to Vaccination
Available Titers:

 Dogs:
 Distemper (routine)
 Parvo (routine)
 Adenovirus 2 (hepatitis)
...
Parasites

Copyright DogNostics 2012
Intestinal Parasites
 Hookworms:
 Commonly found in dogs and cats
 Clinical Signs:
Coughing
 Anemia
 Blood in stool
...
Intestinal Parasites
 Roundworms:



Commonly found in dogs and cats
Clinical Signs:










Distended abdomen,...
Intestinal Parasites
 Tapeworm:

Copyright DogNostics 2012
Intestinal Parasites
 Whipworm:







Uncommon in cats
Infective larvae develop within the egg
Once ingested the lar...
Intestinal Parasites
 Coccidia:
 Protozoan parasite very
common in shelter puppies
 Causes severe intestinal
infection ...
Intestinal Parasites

 Giardia
 Protozoan Parasite
 Consists of 2 forms
Trophozoite
 Cyst (infective stage)




Atta...
External Parasites
Mites

 Demodex
 Hereditary, not infectious
 Naturally lives in hair follicle
 Immunosupression

Co...
 Fleas
Attaches to skin

and feeds on host
blood
Can cause

anemia
If you do not see

the flea you will
see the flea d...


Ticks



external
parasites that
feed on the
blood of the host



Can Transmit
disease including
Lyme,
Anaplasmosis,
...
External Parasites
 Ear Mites
 Infests the ear canal of small animals
 Clinical signs:
Extreme pruritis (itchy)
 Black...
Heartworms:
Disease, Testing and Treatment

Copyright DogNostics 2012
Heartworms: Life Cycle
 Canine:
 Mosquito bites heartworm
positive dog with circulating
microfilaria.
 Larva advance in...
Heartworms: Development
 Heartworm positive does

not mean HW Disease!
 Progressed Stage
 Heart cannot circulate
fluids...
Heartworms: Testing
 Snap Tests
 Antigen test
 Only the female heartworm
has the antigen.
 Positive is positive!
Stron...
Heartworms: Treatment
 Two options:
1) Adulticidal Ivermectin therapy.
Administer heartgard once weekly or every two
week...
Treatment Complications: Immiticide
 PTE or Pulmonary Thromboembolism
 A clot may be thrown to one or both lungs




E...
Heartworms: Wolbachia
 Dirofilarial Wolbachia




Rickettsial bacteria that lives within heartworms.
Released upon dea...
Heartworms: Prevention
 The best treatment is

prevention

Administer year round in
warmer climates
 Because different
p...
Module # 202
Part Two
CANINE AND FELINE HEALTH
AND HANDLING

Copyright DogNostics 2013
Potential health concerns while
caring for someone else’s pet

Copyright DogNostics 2013
Feline
Odontoclastic
Resorptive
Lesions
(FORL)

Feline
Stomatitis

Dentistry - What to watch out for

Copyright DogNostics...
Skeletal - What to watch out for
 Potential problems:


Large Breeds:
Joint dysplasia
 Elbow or hip
 Long bone does no...
Skeletal- What to watch out for

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Skeletal - What to watch out for
 Arthritis

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Obesity

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Obesity

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Copyright DogNostics 2013
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Dermatology - What to watch out for

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Dermatology
 Hypersensitivity disorders
 Abnormally severe inflammatory responses mediated by the
immune system
 Caused...
Dermatology
 Flea Allergy Dermatitis (FAD)
 Most common skin disease of dogs and cats
 Antigen (allergen)




Specifi...
Dermatology
 Bacterial Skin infections
 Overgrowth of naturally occurring bacteria
 Potential causes:
Poor nutrition
 ...
Dermatology
 Bacterial Skin infections
 Skin Fold dermatitis
Dogs with excessive skin folds
 Areas are dark/ chronicall...
Dermatology
 Yeast Skin infections (Malasseziasis)
 Yeast normally found in low numbers around the mouth, anus,
and skin...
Dermatology
 Fungal Skin diseases (ringworm)

Copyright DogNostics 2013
Dermatology
1.

Acral Lick Granuloma, Also called acral lick
dermatitis, this is a frustrating skin condition
caused by co...
The Skin – What to watch for
1.

Hot Spots, also called Focal traumatic pyoderma,
are small areas that appear red, irritat...
The Skin – What to watch for
 Alopecia- Hair loss

Copyright DogNostics 2013
The Skin – What to watch for
 Seborrhea- Dull dry and lusterless with excessive

scaling and oily/greasy patches occompan...
The Skin – What to watch for
 Nodules- masses caused by inflammation or

neoplasia(cancer)

Copyright DogNostics 2013
The Skin – What to watch for
1.

Dry Flaky Skin can be an indication of many things,
allergies, mange and other disorders
...
The Skin - Things to watch for
1.

Changes in skin color can indicate chronicity or
other problem

Copyright DogNostics 20...
The Skin – What to watch for
1.

Immune Disorders - in rare cases, skin lesions or
infections that won’t heal can indicate...
Anal Sacs – What to watch for
 Reservoir for secretions

produced by anal glands
 ―If it’s not broke, don’t fix it‖
 Im...
The Skin – What to watch for
 Refer You Clients to a Veterinarian if you notice any

skin problems or suspect the anal gl...
Zoonotic Diseases
THERE ARE MANY
DISEASES AND
PARASITES THAT
CAN BE SPREAD
FROM THE FAMILY
PET TO HUMANS.

Copyright DogNo...
Zoonotic diseases
 Rabies can be

transmitted in saliva
either by direct contact
or residue left on surface
 Leptospiros...
Zoonotic diseases
 Parasites
 Hookworms




Roundworms




Creeping eruptions

Ocular migrans

You cannot get parasi...
Zoonotic Diseases
 Giardia
 Giardia lamblia is the
most commonly diagnosed
intestinal parasite in public
health laborato...
Zoonotic Diseases

 Coccidia
 Transmitted similar to
Giardia via contaminated
food or water

Copyright DogNostics 2013
Zoonotic Diseases
 Pasteurella


Carried in dog/cat mouths



Results in cellulitis
progression to septicemia possible
...
Zoonotic Diseases
 Bartonella or ―Cat Scratch Fever‖
 May result from a scratch
 Results in ―flu‖ like symptoms with
en...
Animal Handling

Copyright DogNostics 2013
Handling & Dog and Cat for Medical Aid
 Much of animal restraint is choosing the

appropriate method based upon the diffe...
Animal Handling
 One of the safest ways to pick up a

grown cat or a kitten, is to
approach the animal from the
side. Tak...
Removing a Cat From Cage
 If in an enclosed area:
 Open the door and allow the cat a few
minutes to walk out on their ow...
Restraining a Cat using Gloves

Copyright DogNostics 2013
Catching A Cat
 An escaped cat can be a formidable opponent. Cats

can squeeze into small spaces and may attack when
appr...
Animal Handling
 To pick up a dog, put one arm in

front of the of the animals chest
and the other either behind the
rear...
Removing A Dog From A Cage
 Partially open the cage door and put a slip leash

around the dog’s neck. The leash prevents ...
The Muzzle
 A muzzle is a form of restraint, some dogs will need

to wear a muzzle if they are having their nails
trimmed...
Administering Medications

Copyright DogNostics 2013
Administering Medications- Cats
Tablets








Many cats respond better to minimal restraint .
hold the cat's head i...
Administering Medications- Cats
LIQUIDS
 Hold the cat's head this time holding both
top and bottom jaw.
 Using an eye dr...
Administering Medications- Dogs
 Liquids
 If a large dog, put them into a sit. You may
need to stand behind them to proh...
Administering Medications- Dogs
 Tablets
 Use easiest methods first! Try
inserting the tablet into pill pockets,
peanut ...
Administering Medications- Aural
 The ear canal:
 Very different in dogs than humans
 Travels down the head (vertical
c...
Administering Medications- Aural
 Ears may need to be flushed prior to medicating
 While holding up on the pinna or ear ...
Administering medications: Ocular
 With the dog in a sitting position,






stand behind them
With one hand, hold th...
Administering medications:
Sub Q injections/fluids
 ONLY if directed by a Veterinarian!
 May be required to administer I...
Administering Sub Q Injections

Video 2
Copyright DogNostics 2013
The Nail Anatomy

Copyright DogNostics 2013
The Correct Tools
 Cut at a right angle to the nail
 You will need scissor type cutters for long nails

that curve

Copy...
Trimming Nails & Nail Safety
 Light colored nails are easier to trim as you can see

the nail quick
 Cut the nail to wit...
Nail Trimming – Dark Nails
 Cut dark colored nails a little

amount at a time. You cannot see
the quick – TAKE CARE
 As ...
Nail Trimming – Dark Nails
 As you cut the nail deeper, you will see a

homogeneous gray to pink oval (3) starting to app...
Nail Trimming – Long Nails
 Trim a little bit at a time
 On the first cut you cannot cut

too short as the quick is long...
Metric Abbreviations

Copyright DogNostics 2013
Conversion chart

 1 cup= 8 fl. ounces= 237ml
 1 tablespoon= 15ml= 3 teaspoons
 1 teaspoon= 5ml
 1 ounce= 30ml
 Note:...
DogNostics Career College
Experts in Providing Education for Pet Industry Professionals
Affordable, Effective, Professiona...
Thank You For Joining Us Today.
We Hope You Enjoyed This Presentation

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DogNostics Career College.Module # 202 Canine and Feline Health & Handling

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DogNostics Tool-Kit #202. Canine & Feline Health and Handling - Learn about canine and feline common health issues, vaccination protocols and important daily and emergency handling skills - Faculty Member NikiTudge & Bethany Jordan

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DogNostics Career College.Module # 202 Canine and Feline Health & Handling

  1. 1. DogNostics Career College Module # 202 Canine and Feline Health and Handling Copyright DogNostics 2012
  2. 2. 2 Your DogNostics Webinar Presenter today is Niki Tudge A little about me: Business Degrees, Oxford University England.  Six Sigma Certified Black Belt  CPDT-KA  NADOI- Certified  AABP – Professional Dog Trainer  AABP – Professional Dog Behavior Consultant  AKC ―Canine Good Citizen‖ Trainer and Evaluator  Dip, ABT. Diploma. Animal Behavior Technology  Dip, CBST. Diploma Canine Behavior Science and Technology  American Kennel Club ―Canine Good Citizen‖™ Evaluator  Pet Care Services Association CPCT CAPCT  Copyright DogNostics 2012  The International Training Board, Certified People Trainer. TS1, TS2 &TS3
  3. 3. The Goals For Today's Webinar  Provide a basic understanding of common infectious     diseases of dogs and cats Outline Recommended vaccine protocols from the American Animal Hospital Association and American Association of Feline Practitioners Provide an understanding of potential risks associated with unnecessary vaccination from Dr. Jean Dodds Provide a basic understanding of external and internal parasites Provide a basic understanding of Heartworm infection, disease, diagnosis, and treatment Copyright DogNostics 2012
  4. 4. The Webinar Scope What is included What is not included  Common canine diseases  Recommended canine  Emergency and First         vaccination protocols Heartworm testing, infection, and disease Common feline diseases Recommended feline vaccination protocols Potential vaccine risks Common Parasites Animal restraint Administering medications Zoonotic diseases Copyright DogNostics 2012 Aid Procedures  Infection Control Protocols
  5. 5. Key Canine and Feline Diseases Copyright DogNostics 2012
  6. 6. Canine And Feline Diseases  Rabies  Very serious, fatal virus  Can affect any warm blooded animal  Transmission:   Contact with an infected animals saliva  Bite wounds  Contact with mucus membranes Neurotropic   Invades and destroys the central nervous system. Moves nerve by nerve to the brain No treatment  Zoonotic  Copyright DogNostics 2012
  7. 7. Canine Diseases  CanineDistemper Contagious, often fatal, multisystemic viral disease.   Secondary Mycoplasma Clinical signs:  Affect the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems  Transmission:  Airborne  Body secretions Copyright DogNostics 2012
  8. 8. Canine Diseases  Canine Distemper:  Fatal to 75% of dogs infected  Especially juvenile and geriatric May suffer permanent damage to vision or nervous system  Puppies can have severely mottled teeth due to abnormalities of the developing enamel  Virus will shed for up to 3 months  Copyright DogNostics 2012
  9. 9. Canine Diseases  Parvovirus   Gastrointestinal viral disease in dogs Contributions to severity:    Clinical signs:   Age, vaccination status, and breed predisposition Most common in puppies less than 20 weeks of age with inadequate or incomplete vaccination– a puppy is not fully protected until the full vaccination series is complete at 14-16 weeks of age. Bloody diarrhea, vomiting, lethargy, depression, and anorexia. Transmission:  EASILY transmitted via fomites!    Environmental contamination with fecal material Food/water bowls, bedding, toys, shoes, clothing, hair Direct contact Copyright DogNostics 2012
  10. 10. Canine Diseases  Parvo Virus The virus is shed in large quantities in the feces for up to 14 days post infection.  Disinfection:  Very stable in the environment  Very resistant to most disinfectants  Can persist in organic material in the environment for over one year  A 10 % bleach solution, Trifectant   New strain within last 5 years possibly more virulent and endemic Copyright DogNostics 2012
  11. 11. Canine Diseases  Coronavirus Virus of small intestine  Puppies under six weeks of age  Clinical Signs:     Treatment   Affect surface (epithelial) cells of villi Mild to moderately severe diarrhea, lethargy, and anorexia in infected puppies. Supportive care with IV fluids for dehydration Transmission:  Shed in stool Copyright DogNostics 2012
  12. 12. Canine Diseases  Leptospirosis    Gram negative spirochete bacteria Over 250 different serovars (subtypes) Increased prevalence since 1983   Clinical Signs:    Kidney failure Inflammation:  liver, blood vessels causing hemorrhage, muscle tissue, eyes causing blindness, and Central nervous system Transmission:    Increasing contact between dogs and wildlife Urine of wildlife or other infected animal Standing water Zoonotic Copyright DogNostics 2012
  13. 13. Canine Diseases  Lyme Disease   Borreliosis Tick-borne bacterial disease   lone star and brown dog ticks  Bacterium is transferred to the blood of the host animal during bite  Clinical signs:  joint pain and lameness, lethargy, loss of appetite, depression, and fever. Treatment:   Long term antibiotics and supportive care Copyright DogNostics 2012
  14. 14. Canine Diseases  Canine upper respiratory Complex  Kennel Cough  Infection of the cells lining the interior of the trachea and bronchi  Symptoms:     A harsh, dry cough often followed by gagging white foam Develop within one week of exposure Basic form not accompanied by fever Transmission:    Highly contagious Airborn, Nose-nose contact High concentration, stress Copyright DogNostics 2012
  15. 15. Canine Diseases  Kennel Cough  Bacterial and Viral Component Bordetella bronchiseptica- Bacterial component  Small Gram-negative rod shaped bacterium  Adenovirus type 2 – viral component  Related to Hepatitis virus  Causes Respiratory and Enteric diseases  Fever  Parinfluenza- Viral component  One of the most common pathogens  Influenza- Viral Component  Relatively new  Copyright DogNostics 2012
  16. 16. Key Feline Diseases Copyright DogNostics 2012
  17. 17. Feline Diseases  Feline Distemper or Panleukopenia  “All white blood cells are abnormally low” Severely depresses all white blood cell production Parvo  Clinical Signs:      Bloody, liquid stool, high fever, depression, anorexia, and vomiting Secondary bacteria can greatly alter symptoms Virus can live up to one year outside of host Copyright DogNostics 2012
  18. 18. Feline Diseases  Upper Respiratory Complex  Rhinotracheitis   Also known as feline herpes virus Clinical Signs:     Inflammation of the conjunctiva Discharge from the eyes and nose. Highly contagious Calicivirus   Clinical Signs:  ulcers and blisters in the mouth and tongue Widespread and highly contagious Copyright DogNostics 2012
  19. 19. Feline Diseases Immunosuppressive Viral Diseases  Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV)  Retrovirus      Cannot live more than a few hours outside the body Clinal Signs:   Often upper-respiratory Varies with systemic Infection   Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) Similar to human acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Cannot be passed to humans Clinical Signs:  Transmission:     Saliva and respiratory secretions Repeated Contact Moist environment Saliva Blood contact Copyright DogNostics 2012  Chronic nonresponding infections, respiratory problems, anorexia, persistent diarrhea, and severe oral infections Transmission  Saliva Blood contact
  20. 20. Vaccines and Antibodies: The Goal Copyright DogNostics 2012
  21. 21. The Myth of the Booster Shot This is not what happens…. Level Of Immunity Many people believe that a booster vaccine will heighten the level of protective antibodies - Untrue Antibodies from the previous vaccine will block efficacy of the next vaccine if given prematurely. Copyright DogNostics 2012
  22. 22. Maternal Antibodies: Fact Copyright DogNostics 2012
  23. 23. Copyright DogNostics 2012
  24. 24. Recommended Vaccination Protocols RECOMMENDED BY: THE AMERICAN ANIMAL HOSPITAL ASSOCIATION (AAHA) THE AMERICAN VETERINARY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION (AVMA) THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF FELINE PRACTITIONERS (AAFP) Copyright DogNostics 2012
  25. 25. Recommended Vaccination Protocols Copyright DogNostics 2012
  26. 26. Canine Core Vaccines Core Vaccines Non- Core Vaccines  Rabies  Bordetella  Distemper  Leptospirosis  Parvo  Canine Influenza  Adenovirus Type 2  Corona  Lyme  Giardia  No longer available Copyright DogNostics 2012
  27. 27. Canine Vaccine Protocol  Rabies       Killed vaccine First administered at 12-16 weeks old. First annual booster required There is a 3 year vaccine, but each county has different regulations.. Check first! Administered Sub Q in Right Rear leg to monitor for reactions. Copyright DogNostics 2012
  28. 28. Canine Vaccine Protocol  DA2PP or similar Protects against canine distemper, adenovirus type 2, parinfluenza, and parvovirus.  Multvalient combination  Monovalient Series  First vaccine recommended at 6-8 weeks of age and readministered every 14-21 days until 16 weeks old for puppies.  First Annual Booster required  Booster every 3 years  Administered SQ in Right Front leg to monitor reactions o Distemper will immediately provide protection o Parvo does not protect for 48-72 hrs post vaccination but shed in the stool 3-14 days post vaccination  Copyright DogNostics 2012
  29. 29. Canine Vaccine Protocol  Bordatella or Kennel Cough  2 types:  Live version  Given intranasally  No booster necessary  Also includes interferon  Impaires growth of other viral infections  Provides cross protection for Adenovirus type 2 , Influenza     parinfluenza, Canine Killed version Injectable Booster required 14-21 days after first administration General recommendation is annually, however some kennels require vaccination every six months. Copyright DogNostics 2012
  30. 30. Canine Vaccine Protocol  Leptospirosis  At risk dogs only–     Standing water Wildlife Some combination vaccines have lepto included. Vaccine should be boostered 14-21 days after first administration, then annually thereafter. Copyright DogNostics 2012
  31. 31. Recommended Feline Vaccination Protocols Copyright DogNostics 2012
  32. 32. Feline Core Vaccines Core Non-Core  Rabies  Feline Leukemia  Panleukopenia  Rhinotracheitis (herpes)  FIV  False + Test  Calicivirus  Feline Bordetella  Chlamydophila felis (chlamydia) Copyright DogNostics 2012
  33. 33. Feline Vaccine Protocol  Rabies  Increased sensitivity to adjuvant      Three year rabies not available specifically for cats Purvax First vaccine administered at 12-16 weeks of age, Annually after Administered SQ as low as possible in right rear leg in case of Fibro sarcoma or other reaction Copyright DogNostics 2012  FVRCP or similar  Protects against Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis, (RVF), Calicivirus (C), Panleukemia (P), and sometimes feline chlamydia (-C).      Multvalient combo Monovalient series In kittens vaccine should be given 6-8 weeks of age Boosters required every 14-21 days until 16 weeks old Annual booster or 3 yrs thereafter
  34. 34. Feline Vaccine Protocol  Feline Leukemia  Testing is recommended before administering vaccine.  First administration no sooner than 12 weeks of age  Booster required 14-21 days later  Recommended annually for at risk cats who may come in contact with any other cat  Recommended for ALL kittens Copyright DogNostics 2012
  35. 35. Vaccines: Viewpoints may be Changing COURTESY OF DR. JEAN DODDS, DVM Copyright DogNostics 2012
  36. 36. Potential Vaccination Risks  Autoimmune Diseases  Develops in genetically susceptible individuals    Sum of genetic and environmental factors that override normal mechanics of self tolerance   % of population can be genetically predisposed 3-5 genes involved Essentially body attacks itself Can impact any major body system Copyright DogNostics 2012
  37. 37. Potential Vaccination Risks  What triggers predisposed animals to have an immune mediated response:       Virus (vaccine) Change in Sex Hormones in Intact animals Thyroid hormone Adrenal Hormone Stress Poor Nutrition Copyright DogNostics 2012
  38. 38. Potential Vaccination Risks  Vaccinosis  Adverse reaction to vaccine  May be serious, chronically debilitating, or fatal  Combination Vaccines: Adenovirus combined with Parvo and Distemper  Immunosuppressant in young puppies up to 10 days  Modified Live Distemper  Post vaccine encephalitis in young puppies  Can cause blindness, death  Will affect 1:500,000 puppies  Copyright DogNostics 2012
  39. 39. Potential Vaccination Risks Factors contributing to vaccinosis  Dogs:  Repeated exposure  Young age  Small breed size  Neutering  Multiple vaccines/visit Copyright DogNostics 2012  Cats  Small breed size  Neutering  Multiple vaccines/visit
  40. 40. Special Considerations  Non- Responders  Animal can never develop immunity Modified Live Parvo  1:1000 dogs will never develop immunity  Black Labs, Akitas  Distemper virus  1:5000 will be non-responder  Adenovirus  None  Cats  Unknown  Copyright DogNostics 2012
  41. 41. Special Considerations  Measure Benefit : Risk ratio  Never vaccinate 30 days before estrus, in estrus, during pregnancy, or lactation  Never vaccinate an animal who is febrile or ADR  Vaccinate the geriatric with caution  Avoid unnecessary vaccination Check with local health department to assess which non-core vaccines are absolutely necessary  Many vaccines have been approved for 3 year booster  Give puppy boosters 3-4 weeks apart for max. effect  If adult dog will be less than 12lbs puppies can safely be vaccinated with half dose   Do Not revaccinate if history of previous adverse reaction Copyright DogNostics 2012
  42. 42. Alternatives to Vaccination  Check Titers  Blood test that checks for total antibody production from vaccination and natural exposure  Determines if animal is protected  Determines if animal is non-responder  Determine if vaccine is effective in immunizing animals  Recommended every 3 years Copyright DogNostics 2012
  43. 43. Alternatives to Vaccination Available Titers:  Dogs:  Distemper (routine)  Parvo (routine)  Adenovirus 2 (hepatitis)  Leptospirosis  Lyme Disease  Corona (not recommended)  Rabies Virus (at request ony- non-export) Copyright DogNostics 2012  Cats:  Panleukopenia Virus (common)  Herpies Virus (Rhino)  Calicivirus  Rabies (non-export)
  44. 44. Parasites Copyright DogNostics 2012
  45. 45. Intestinal Parasites  Hookworms:  Commonly found in dogs and cats  Clinical Signs: Coughing  Anemia  Blood in stool  Vomiting Transmission:     Ingest eggs from contaminated environment Skin penetration- most common    Larvae penetrate the skin, make their way to the circulatory system going ultimately to the lungs where they are coughed up, ingested, and enter the small intestine to mature Mature worm attaches to intestinal wall and thrives on host blood. Canine version has also developed modes of transplacental and transmammary infection. Copyright DogNostics 2012
  46. 46. Intestinal Parasites  Roundworms:   Commonly found in dogs and cats Clinical Signs:       Distended abdomen, vomiting, diarrhea Transmission: Eggs ingested directly from contaminated environment and hatch in small intestine Larva penetrate mucosa, migrate through liver and heart to the lungs where they are coughed up and swallowed to mature in small intestine. Some mature larvae return to the lumen to thrive on the hosts nutrients, but most leave the circulation and are stored in somatic organs until pregnancy. At 42-56 days of gestation larva cross the placenta, migrate to fetal lungs and remain there until birth to repeat the cycle Copyright DogNostics 2012
  47. 47. Intestinal Parasites  Tapeworm: Copyright DogNostics 2012
  48. 48. Intestinal Parasites  Whipworm:     Uncommon in cats Infective larvae develop within the egg Once ingested the larvae are released into the intestine migrate to cecum and attach Female worms lay about 2,000 eggs per day which are passed in feces. Eggs are very resistant to harsh conditions and can persist in the environment for several years. Copyright DogNostics 2012
  49. 49. Intestinal Parasites  Coccidia:  Protozoan parasite very common in shelter puppies  Causes severe intestinal infection in dogs and cats  Can result in death due to dehydration and protein loss Copyright DogNostics 2012
  50. 50. Intestinal Parasites  Giardia  Protozoan Parasite  Consists of 2 forms Trophozoite  Cyst (infective stage)   Attach to small intestine epithelium Copyright DogNostics 2012
  51. 51. External Parasites Mites  Demodex  Hereditary, not infectious  Naturally lives in hair follicle  Immunosupression Copyright DogNostics 2012  Sarcoptic  Infectious  Zoonotic
  52. 52.  Fleas Attaches to skin and feeds on host blood Can cause anemia If you do not see the flea you will see the flea dirt (excrement) External Parasites Copyright DogNostics 2012
  53. 53.  Ticks  external parasites that feed on the blood of the host  Can Transmit disease including Lyme, Anaplasmosis, Ehrlichiosis, Rocky mountain spotted fever, Babesiosis  Neurotoxin in saliva can cause temporary paralysis Copyright DogNostics 2012 External Parasites
  54. 54. External Parasites  Ear Mites  Infests the ear canal of small animals  Clinical signs: Extreme pruritis (itchy)  Black exudate (discharge)  Inflammation, redness, and swelling of ear canal   Transmission:  Easily transmitted through passive contact with other animals Copyright DogNostics 2012
  55. 55. Heartworms: Disease, Testing and Treatment Copyright DogNostics 2012
  56. 56. Heartworms: Life Cycle  Canine:  Mosquito bites heartworm positive dog with circulating microfilaria.  Larva advance in life stage INSIDE mosquito.  Larva are then injected into another dog where they migrate through the tissues to the pulmonary artery in Cats are “Dead End” hosts the heart.
  57. 57. Heartworms: Development  Heartworm positive does not mean HW Disease!  Progressed Stage  Heart cannot circulate fluids efficiently due to arterial congestion.
  58. 58. Heartworms: Testing  Snap Tests  Antigen test  Only the female heartworm has the antigen.  Positive is positive! Strong or Weak is irrelevant  Blood Smear  Circulating microfilaria
  59. 59. Heartworms: Treatment  Two options: 1) Adulticidal Ivermectin therapy. Administer heartgard once weekly or every two weeks  Could require up to 36 months  Lower risk of complications  Dissolves protective coating and destroys tissue  Down side: heart damage 2) Immiticide • Arsenic based compound • Series of scheduled injections to completely eradicate adult heartworms in a short period of time. 
  60. 60. Treatment Complications: Immiticide  PTE or Pulmonary Thromboembolism  A clot may be thrown to one or both lungs   Elevated blood pressure due to exercise Dyspnea or shortness of breath due to severe inflammation  Muscle soreness at injection site.  This treatment must be injected in the muscle along the spine because it is the largest muscle in the body.  If injected too close to the spinal cord inflammation could cause a temporary state of paralysis
  61. 61. Heartworms: Wolbachia  Dirofilarial Wolbachia    Rickettsial bacteria that lives within heartworms. Released upon death of the adult heartworm Spreads to the lungs resulting in severe inflammation and coughing or dyspnea  Doxycycline  Prevents the spread of the bacteria and resulting inflammation.
  62. 62. Heartworms: Prevention  The best treatment is prevention Administer year round in warmer climates  Because different preventatives kill at different points of the heartworm lifecycle, not all are safe without prior testing 
  63. 63. Module # 202 Part Two CANINE AND FELINE HEALTH AND HANDLING Copyright DogNostics 2013
  64. 64. Potential health concerns while caring for someone else’s pet Copyright DogNostics 2013
  65. 65. Feline Odontoclastic Resorptive Lesions (FORL) Feline Stomatitis Dentistry - What to watch out for Copyright DogNostics 2013
  66. 66. Skeletal - What to watch out for  Potential problems:  Large Breeds: Joint dysplasia  Elbow or hip  Long bone does not fully enter joint socket  Pre-mature arthritis   Small Breeds  Luxating Patella  Trochlear groove is too shallow  Allows patella to ―pop out‖  Over time tendon becomes strained Copyright DogNostics 2013
  67. 67. Skeletal- What to watch out for Copyright DogNostics 2013
  68. 68. Skeletal - What to watch out for  Arthritis Copyright DogNostics 2013
  69. 69. Obesity Copyright DogNostics 2013
  70. 70. Obesity Copyright DogNostics 2013
  71. 71. Copyright DogNostics 2013
  72. 72. Copyright DogNostics 2013
  73. 73. Dermatology - What to watch out for Copyright DogNostics 2013
  74. 74. Dermatology  Hypersensitivity disorders  Abnormally severe inflammatory responses mediated by the immune system  Caused by Antigens  Some reactions can happen within minutes of exposure  Can be exposed via direct contact  inhalation  ingestion  insect bites/stings  Injection   Flea and food allergy most common Copyright DogNostics 2013
  75. 75. Dermatology  Flea Allergy Dermatitis (FAD)  Most common skin disease of dogs and cats  Antigen (allergen)   Specific proteins found in saliva of flea Clinical signs Self inflicted trauma  Secondary bacterial infection   Food Allergy Dermatitis  Repeated exposure to food or food additive  Non-seasonal itchiness  Self trauma  Secondary bacterial infection Copyright DogNostics 2013
  76. 76. Dermatology  Bacterial Skin infections  Overgrowth of naturally occurring bacteria  Potential causes: Poor nutrition  Lack of immunocompetence  Hypersensitivity  Self Trauma   Pyoderma Pus in the skin  May involve the follicle  Copyright DogNostics 2013
  77. 77. Dermatology  Bacterial Skin infections  Skin Fold dermatitis Dogs with excessive skin folds  Areas are dark/ chronically moist  Make perfect medium for growing bacteria  Facial folds of brachycephalic breeds  Corkscrew tail folds  Large lip flaps  Other body folds  Copyright DogNostics 2013
  78. 78. Dermatology  Yeast Skin infections (Malasseziasis)  Yeast normally found in low numbers around the mouth, anus, and skin folds  Disease occurs: Hypersensitivity  Continuous overgrowth  Copyright DogNostics 2013
  79. 79. Dermatology  Fungal Skin diseases (ringworm) Copyright DogNostics 2013
  80. 80. Dermatology 1. Acral Lick Granuloma, Also called acral lick dermatitis, this is a frustrating skin condition caused by compulsive, relentless licking of a single area - most often on the front of the lower leg. Copyright DogNostics 2013
  81. 81. The Skin – What to watch for 1. Hot Spots, also called Focal traumatic pyoderma, are small areas that appear red, irritated, and inflamed. They are most commonly found on the tail head Copyright DogNostics 2013
  82. 82. The Skin – What to watch for  Alopecia- Hair loss Copyright DogNostics 2013
  83. 83. The Skin – What to watch for  Seborrhea- Dull dry and lusterless with excessive scaling and oily/greasy patches occompanied by a foul odor. Copyright DogNostics 2013
  84. 84. The Skin – What to watch for  Nodules- masses caused by inflammation or neoplasia(cancer) Copyright DogNostics 2013
  85. 85. The Skin – What to watch for 1. Dry Flaky Skin can be an indication of many things, allergies, mange and other disorders Copyright DogNostics 2013
  86. 86. The Skin - Things to watch for 1. Changes in skin color can indicate chronicity or other problem Copyright DogNostics 2013
  87. 87. The Skin – What to watch for 1. Immune Disorders - in rare cases, skin lesions or infections that won’t heal can indicate an immune disorder Copyright DogNostics 2013
  88. 88. Anal Sacs – What to watch for  Reservoir for secretions produced by anal glands  ―If it’s not broke, don’t fix it‖  Impaction  Scooting, licking or biting around the rear end.  See a Vet!  Manual expression is risky Copyright DogNostics 2013
  89. 89. The Skin – What to watch for  Refer You Clients to a Veterinarian if you notice any skin problems or suspect the anal glands need cleaning Copyright DogNostics 2013
  90. 90. Zoonotic Diseases THERE ARE MANY DISEASES AND PARASITES THAT CAN BE SPREAD FROM THE FAMILY PET TO HUMANS. Copyright DogNostics 2013
  91. 91. Zoonotic diseases  Rabies can be transmitted in saliva either by direct contact or residue left on surface  Leptospirosis can be transmitted by any contact with urine from an infected animal.  Lyme disease can be transmitted to humans from ticks. Copyright DogNostics 2013
  92. 92. Zoonotic diseases  Parasites  Hookworms   Roundworms   Creeping eruptions Ocular migrans You cannot get parasites from your dog’s saliva—strictly from feces or contaminated soil. Copyright DogNostics 2013
  93. 93. Zoonotic Diseases  Giardia  Giardia lamblia is the most commonly diagnosed intestinal parasite in public health laboratories in the United States, and is diagnosed by finding cysts or trophozoites in the feces of humans or animals. Copyright DogNostics 2013
  94. 94. Zoonotic Diseases  Coccidia  Transmitted similar to Giardia via contaminated food or water Copyright DogNostics 2013
  95. 95. Zoonotic Diseases  Pasteurella  Carried in dog/cat mouths  Results in cellulitis progression to septicemia possible Septic Arthritis may develop if bitten on a knuckle of the hand 50% of infections of the hand result in permanent damage Get to a Dr. ASAP!     Copyright DogNostics 2013
  96. 96. Zoonotic Diseases  Bartonella or ―Cat Scratch Fever‖  May result from a scratch  Results in ―flu‖ like symptoms with enlarged lymph nodes  Usually self-limiting Copyright DogNostics 2013
  97. 97. Animal Handling Copyright DogNostics 2013
  98. 98. Handling & Dog and Cat for Medical Aid  Much of animal restraint is choosing the appropriate method based upon the different behaviors and anatomies of different animals.  Restraint may be as simple as holding the animal while you give it some medications.  You may also need to restrain an animal while you muzzle it or administer first aid in an emergency.  There are two kinds of animal restraint, manual restraint and chemical restraint. Copyright DogNostics 2013
  99. 99. Animal Handling  One of the safest ways to pick up a grown cat or a kitten, is to approach the animal from the side. Take one hand and isolate the scapula (see video). Then place your other hand palm down, along the back around the neck and shoulder area.  This way you can quickly scruff if necessary.  Hold the whole cat close to your body. This gives the cat support and provides security.  To carry, place hindquarters under arm and isolate the scapula while Placing other hand on back of neck. Copyright DogNostics 2013 Video 1
  100. 100. Removing a Cat From Cage  If in an enclosed area:  Open the door and allow the cat a few minutes to walk out on their own  If not in an enclosed space or if the cat will not come out:  It is best to take the crate apart and slowly remove the top while gently grabbing the scruff. Move Slow!
  101. 101. Restraining a Cat using Gloves Copyright DogNostics 2013
  102. 102. Catching A Cat  An escaped cat can be a formidable opponent. Cats can squeeze into small spaces and may attack when approached.  You’ll usually need a net or blanket to retrieve a cat from its hiding place.  Live traps can also be used to catch cats  NEVER put a slip leash on a cat! Copyright DogNostics 2013
  103. 103. Animal Handling  To pick up a dog, put one arm in front of the of the animals chest and the other either behind the rear legs, at the level of the stifles or under the abdomen and lift in a "scooping" motion. May require more than one person if it’s a large dog.  To restrain place arms in ―forklift‖ position with one arm under the neck and along abdomen in front of rear legs. Copyright DogNostics 2013
  104. 104. Removing A Dog From A Cage  Partially open the cage door and put a slip leash around the dog’s neck. The leash prevents the dog from escaping once the cage door is fully opened and it also permits some control should the dog become aggressive.  To slide a slip leash over the dog’s neck without fully opening the cage door, wait at the front of the cage and let the dog approach you.  Slowly place the slip leash around the neck while the dog is waiting to be let out. If the dog is small but aggressive, place a blanket or towel around it before lifting. Copyright DogNostics 2013
  105. 105. The Muzzle  A muzzle is a form of restraint, some dogs will need to wear a muzzle if they are having their nails trimmed, for safety during some behavior change programs, or in an emergency situation. Copyright DogNostics 2013
  106. 106. Administering Medications Copyright DogNostics 2013
  107. 107. Administering Medications- Cats Tablets      Many cats respond better to minimal restraint . hold the cat's head in the palm of your hand and gently tilt the cat's head back. Most cats reflexively relax their jaw and the mouth will open slightly. In the opposite hand hold the pill between the thumb and index finger. With your middle or ring finger, gentle lever the jaw open and then place the tablet onto the back of the tongue. Push the tablet over the back of the tongue with a finger. Quickly close the mouth. Blowing on the nose may induce swallowing. Copyright DogNostics 2013
  108. 108. Administering Medications- Cats LIQUIDS  Hold the cat's head this time holding both top and bottom jaw.  Using an eye dropper or syringe slowly place the medication into your cat's mouth. The tip of the dropper can be inserted just behind the canine (fang or eye) tooth where the jaw does not completely close.  Unless the dose is small give the medication slowly allowing your cat to swallow and to lick the medication from its mouth before giving more. Copyright DogNostics 2013
  109. 109. Administering Medications- Dogs  Liquids  If a large dog, put them into a sit. You may need to stand behind them to prohibit backing up.  Place on hand along the upper muzzle to limit movement of the head and lift the upper lip- be sure to keep your fingers clear of the teeth.  Place the syringe just behind the canines and slowly administer the medication.  Be sure that the dog is swallowing as you administer to prevent accidental aspiration or waste of the medication.
  110. 110. Administering Medications- Dogs  Tablets  Use easiest methods first! Try inserting the tablet into pill pockets, peanut butter or cream cheese.  If necessary to manually administer:     Place on hand along the upper muzzle to limit movement of the head and lift the upper lip- be sure to keep your fingers clear of the teeth. Have the pill between your thumb and forefinger of the other hand and use the middle finger against the incisors to open the bottom jaw. Toss the pill in the back of the throat and quickly close the mouth and blow into the nose to induce swallowing- DO NOT place your hand into the dog’s mouth. When the dog licks it’s nose you know the pill has been swallowed.
  111. 111. Administering Medications- Aural  The ear canal:  Very different in dogs than humans  Travels down the head (vertical canal) and then in to the ear drum (horizontal canal)  Medication:  Apply a few drops into the ear and massage the ear canal to distribute
  112. 112. Administering Medications- Aural  Ears may need to be flushed prior to medicating  While holding up on the pinna or ear flap, apply the flush solution into the ear canal  One of the best solutions is actually homemade- 50% white vinegar, 50% water, and one cap full of alcohol  Gently massage the ear canal to break up and flush out any debris  You  should hear a ―squishing‖ sound Using a cotton ball, remove debris from the pinna  DO NOT USE Q-TIPS!!!
  113. 113. Administering medications: Ocular  With the dog in a sitting position,     stand behind them With one hand, hold the eye open while holding the head against you to restrict movement Apply either sterile saline eye flush or medication Use cotton ball to swab excess discharge Be careful not to touch the surface of the eye with applicator
  114. 114. Administering medications: Sub Q injections/fluids  ONLY if directed by a Veterinarian!  May be required to administer Insulin to a diabetic animal or Sub Q fluids  See video for single injections  To administer SQ fluids:        Needle will be attached to a line The bag has measurements marked- each number represents 100 mls- note the amount in the bag before you start Insert needle under the skin in the same method as injection Open the valve and check the drip chamber to be sure the fluids are running Watch the level in the bag to administer the proper amount Turn off the valve and remove the needle May need to hold pressure on the site for a few seconds as the fluid may seep back out. Fluid bag with measurements Needle Drip Chamber Valves Fluid Valve
  115. 115. Administering Sub Q Injections Video 2 Copyright DogNostics 2013
  116. 116. The Nail Anatomy Copyright DogNostics 2013
  117. 117. The Correct Tools  Cut at a right angle to the nail  You will need scissor type cutters for long nails that curve Copyright DogNostics 2013
  118. 118. Trimming Nails & Nail Safety  Light colored nails are easier to trim as you can see the nail quick  Cut the nail to within 2 mm of the quick Copyright DogNostics 2013
  119. 119. Nail Trimming – Dark Nails  Cut dark colored nails a little amount at a time. You cannot see the quick – TAKE CARE  As you cut off small pieces of the nail, look at the cut edge of the nail. The light tissue (1) is the curved bottom part of the nail. The mottled light and dark tissue (2) is the top part of the nail. Copyright DogNostics 2013
  120. 120. Nail Trimming – Dark Nails  As you cut the nail deeper, you will see a homogeneous gray to pink oval (3) starting to appear at the top of the cut surface of the nail. Stop cutting the nail at this point as additional cutting will cut into the quick Copyright DogNostics 2013
  121. 121. Nail Trimming – Long Nails  Trim a little bit at a time  On the first cut you cannot cut too short as the quick is long  As you trim nails, over a period of time the quick recedes  This allows you each time to cut the nails a little bit shorter  You will need to communicate this to clients who’s dogs have very long nails as they may expect a shorter result when finished Copyright DogNostics 2013
  122. 122. Metric Abbreviations Copyright DogNostics 2013
  123. 123. Conversion chart  1 cup= 8 fl. ounces= 237ml  1 tablespoon= 15ml= 3 teaspoons  1 teaspoon= 5ml  1 ounce= 30ml  Note: 1cc is the same as 1ml Copyright DogNostics 2013
  124. 124. DogNostics Career College Experts in Providing Education for Pet Industry Professionals Affordable, Effective, Professional & Fun Education Achieving pet industry professional certificates and diplomas inform your clients and the professional community that you have enrolled in and passed a formal educational program. Pet industry credentials are the sign of a serious professional. Ongoing learning and teaching are integral to the growth and development of our industry. DogNostics Career College ensures our students receive leading-edge academic and technical training as well as skill-building programs and practical experiences Copyright DogNostics 2012
  125. 125. Thank You For Joining Us Today. We Hope You Enjoyed This Presentation www.DogNosticsCareerCollege.com Copyright DogNostics 2013

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