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Docker, Containers, and the
Future of Application
Delivery
In the four months since we launched
• >50,000 pulls
• >4,000 github stars
• >100 significant contributors
• >150 projects built on top of docker
• UIs, mini-PaaS, Remote Desktop….
• 1000’s of Dockerized applications
• Memcached, Redis, Node.js…
• Integration in Jenkins, Travis, Chef,
Puppet, Vagrant and OpenStack
• Meetups arranged around the
world…with organizations like Ebay,
Uber, Mozilla, Cloudflare, and
Rackspace presenting on their use of
Docker
Why all the excitement?
Contents
• The challenge
• The solution
• Why Docker and Containers Matter?
• How They Work?
• Alternative/Complementary Approaches
Market View: Evolution of IT
1995 2015
Running on any
available set of
physical resources
(public/private/
virtualized)
Assembled by
developers using
best available
services
Thin app on mobile,
tabletThick, client-server app
on thick client
Well-defined stack:
- O/S
- Runtime
- Middleware
Monolithic
Physical
Infrastructure
Challenges
2015
How to ensure services
interact consistently,
avoid dependency hell
How to migrate & scale
quickly, ensure
compatibility
How to avoid n X n
different configs
Running on any
available set of
physical resources
(public/private/
virtualized)
Assembled by
developers using
best available
services
Thin app on mobile,
tablet
Static website
Web frontend
User DB
Queue Analytics DB
Background workers
API endpoint
nginx 1.5 + modsecurity + openssl + bootstrap 2
postgresql + pgv8 + v8
hadoop + hive + thrift + OpenJDK
Ruby + Rails + sass + Unicorn
Redis + redis-sentinel
Python 3.0 + celery + pyredis + libcurl + ffmpeg + libopencv + nodejs +
phantomjs
Python 2.7 + Flask + pyredis + celery + psycopg + postgresql-client
Development VM
QA server
Public Cloud
Disaster recovery
Contributor’s laptop
Production Servers
The ChallengeMultiplicityofStacks
Multiplicityof
hardware
environments
Production Cluster
Customer Data Center
Doservicesandapps
interact
appropriately?
CanImigrate
smoothlyand
quickly?
Results in N X N compatibility nightmare
Static website
Web frontend
Background workers
User DB
Analytics DB
Queue
Development
VM
QA Server
Single Prod
Server
Onsite
Cluster
Public Cloud
Contributor’s
laptop
Customer
Servers
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
A useful analogy…
MultiplicityofGoods
Multipilicityof
methodsfor
transporting/storing
DoIworryabout
howgoodsinteract
(e.g.coffeebeans
nexttospices)
CanItransportquickly
andsmoothly
(e.g.fromboattotrain
totruck)
Cargo Transport Pre-1960
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Also an NxN Matrix
Contents
• The challenge
• The solution
• Why Docker and Containers Matter?
• How They Work?
• Alternative/Complementary Approaches
MultiplicityofGoods
Multiplicityof
methodsfor
transporting/storing
DoIworryabout
howgoodsinteract
(e.g.coffeebeans
nexttospices)
CanItransport
quicklyandsmoothly
(e.g.fromboatto
traintotruck)
Solution: Intermodal Shipping Container
…in between, can be loaded and
unloaded, stacked, transported
efficiently over long distances,
and transferred from one mode
of transport to another
A standard container that is
loaded with virtually any
goods, and stays sealed until
it reaches final delivery.
This eliminated the NXN problem…
and spawned an Intermodal Shipping Container Ecosystem
• 90% of all cargo now shipped in a standard container
• Order of magnitude reduction in cost and time to load and unload ships
• Massive reduction in losses due to theft or damage
• Huge reduction in freight cost as percent of final goods (from >25% to <3%)
 massive globalizations
• 5000 ships deliver 200M containers per year
Static website Web frontendUser DB Queue Analytics DB
Development
VM
QA server Public Cloud Contributor’s
laptop
Docker is a shipping container system for
code
MultiplicityofStacks
Multiplicityof
hardware
environments
Production
Cluster
Customer Data
Center
Doservicesandapps
interact
appropriately?
CanImigrate
smoothlyandquickly
…that can be manipulated using
standard operations and run
consistently on virtually any
hardware platform
An engine that enables any
payload to be encapsulated
as a lightweight, portable,
self-sufficient container…
Static website Web frontendUser DB Queue Analytics DB
Development
VM
QA server Public Cloud Contributor’s
laptop
Or…put more simplyMultiplicityofStacks
Multiplicityof
hardware
environments
Production
Cluster
Customer Data
Center
Doservicesandapps
interact
appropriately?
CanImigrate
smoothlyandquickly
Operator: Configure Once, Run
Anything
Developer: Build Once, Run
Anywhere (Finally)
Static website
Web frontend
Background workers
User DB
Analytics DB
Queue
Development
VM
QA Server
Single Prod
Server
Onsite
Cluster
Public Cloud
Contributor’s
laptop
Customer
Servers
Docker solves the NXN problem
Contents
• The challenge
• The solution
• Why Docker and Containers Matter?
• How They Work?
• Alternative/Complementary Approaches
Why containers matter
Physical Containers Docker
Content Agnostic The same container can hold almost any
type of cargo
Can encapsulate any payload and its
dependencies
Hardware Agnostic Standard shape and interface allow same
container to move from ship to train to
semi-truck to warehouse to crane
without being modified or opened
Using operating system primitives (e.g. LXC)
can run consistently on virtually any
hardware—VMs, bare metal, openstack,
public IAAS, etc.—without modification
Content Isolation and
Interaction
No worry about anvils crushing bananas.
Containers can be stacked and shipped
together
Resource, network, and content isolation.
Avoids dependency hell
Automation Standard interfaces make it easy to
automate loading, unloading, moving,
etc.
Standard operations to run, start, stop,
commit, search, etc. Perfect for devops: CI,
CD, autoscaling, hybrid clouds
Highly efficient No opening or modification, quick to
move between waypoints
Lightweight, virtually no perf or start-up
penalty, quick to move and manipulate
Separation of duties Shipper worries about inside of box,
carrier worries about outside of box
Developer worries about code. Ops worries
about infrastructure.
Why Developers Care
• Build once…run anywhere
• A clean, safe, hygienic and portable runtime environment for your app.
• No worries about missing dependencies, packages and other pain points during
subsequent deployments.
• Take a snapshot of a running container and restore it again when required.
• Run each app in its own isolated container, so you can run various versions of libraries
and other dependencies for each app without worrying
• Automate testing, integration, packaging…anything you can script
• Reduce/eliminate concerns about compatibility on different platforms, either your own
or your customers.
• Cheap, zero-penalty containers to deploy services? A VM without the overhead of a VM?
Instant replay and reset of image snapshots? That’s the power of Docker
Why Developers Care
“Docker interests me because it allows simple environment
isolation and repeatability. I can create a run-time environment
once, package it up, then run it again on any other machine.
Furthermore, everything that runs in that environment is
isolated from the underlying host (much like a virtual machine).
And best of all, everything is fast and simple.”
-Gregory Szorc, Mozilla Foundation
http://gregoryszorc.com/blog/2013/05/19/using-docker-to-build-firefox/
Why Devops Cares?
• Configure once…run anything
• Make the entire lifecycle more efficient, consistent, and repeatable
• Increase the quality of code produced by developers.
• Eliminate inconsistencies between development, test, production, and customer
environments
• Support segregation of duties
• Significantly improves the speed and reliability of continuous deployment and continuous
integration systems
• Because the containers are so lightweight, address significant performance, costs,
deployment, and portability issues normally associated with VMs
Contents
• The challenge
• The solution
• Why Docker and Containers Matter?
• How They Work
• Alternative/Complementary Approaches
App
A
Containers vs. VMs
Hypervisor (Type 2)
Host OS
Server
Guest
OS
Bins/
Libs
App
A’
Guest
OS
Bins/
Libs
App
B
Guest
OS
Bins/
Libs
AppA’
Docker Engine
Host OS
Server
Bins/Libs
AppA
Bins/Libs
AppB
AppB’
AppB’
AppB’
AppB’
VM
Container
Containers are isolated,
but share OS and, where
appropriate, bins/libraries
Guest
OS
Guest
OS
Why are Docker containers lightweight?
Bins/
Libs
App
A
Original App
(No OS to take
up space, resources,
or require restart)
AppΔ
Bins/
App
A
Bins/
Libs
App
A’
Guest
OS
Bins/
Libs
Modified App
Union file system allows
us to only save the diffs
Between container A
and container
A’
VMs
Every app, every copy of an
app, and every slight modification
of the app requires a new virtual server
App
A
Guest
OS
Bins/
Libs
Copy of
App
No OS. Can
Share bins/libs
App
A
Guest
OS
Guest
OS
VMs Containers
What are the basics of the Docker system?
Source
Code
Repository
Dockerfile
For
A
Docker Engine
Docker
Container
Image
Registry
Build
Docker Engine
Host 2 OS 2 (Linux)
ContainerA
ContainerB
ContainerC
ContainerA
Push
Search
Pull
Run
Host 1 OS (Linux)
Changes and Updates
Docker Engine
Docker
Container
Image
Registry
Docker Engine
Push
Update
Bins/
Libs
App
A
AppΔ
Bins/
Base
Container
Image
Host is now running A’’
Container
Mod A’’
AppΔ
Bins/
Bins/
Libs
App
A
Bins/
Bins/
Libs
App
A’’
Host running A wants to upgrade to A’’.
Requests update. Gets only diffs
Container
Mod A’
Contents
• The challenge
• The solution
• Why Docker and Containers Matter?
• How They Work
• Alternative/Complementary Approaches
Alternatives/Complementary Approaches
• Policy
Reduce Rows
• Configuration Management
Reduce Columns
• Traditional HW
Virtualization
• Packaging Automation
Alternative 1: Impose Consistent Dev Environment
Description:
• Try to impose a consistent
development environment
Challenges:
• Goes against 20 years of
development trends
• Can’t predict what will be
needed for next app
• Doesn’t work outside confines
of the enterprise (e.g. at
customer sites)
Reduce#rowsviapolicy
Alternative 2: Configuration Mgt/Automation
Description:
• Automate creation of
consistent runtime
environment for different
machines
Challenges:
• Chef/Puppet etc. are
extremely useful for creating
more consistent machine
configuration
• But…has to be redone for
each new application or
version
• Brittle
• Doesn’t work easily outside
confines of the enterprise
(e.g. at customer sites)
Reduce # Columns via Chef/Puppet/etc.
Alternative 3: Hardware Virtualization
Description:
• Create a virtual server for
each app
Challenges:
• HW Virtualization great for
many uses cases (e.g. server
consolidation)
• But..
heavyweight/expensive/slow
• Need different VM for different
hypervisor environments
• Has to be completely redone
for each new application or
version
• Not good for scale out, hybrid
clouds, massive clustering,
iterative development
Alternative 4: Package Automation
Description:
• Automate creation of
different VMs for different
Challenges:
• A great solution for certain
distribution challenges, but…
• VMs are still
heavyweight/expensive
• Has to be completely redone
for each new application or
version
• Better idea: combine
containers plus automation
Use Cases—From Our Community
Use Case Examples Link
Build your own PaaS Dokku - Docker powered mini-Heroku. The smallest PaaS implementation you’ve
ever seen
http://bit.ly/191Tgsx
Web Based
Environment for
Instruction
JiffyLab – web based environment for the instruction, or lightweight use of,
Python and UNIX shell
http://bit.ly/12oaj2K
Easy Application
Deployment
Deploy Java Apps With Docker = Awesome http://bit.ly/11BCvvu
Running Drupal on Docker http://bit.ly/15MJS6B
Installing Redis on Docker http://bit.ly/16EWOKh
Create Secure
Sandboxes
Docker makes creating secure sandboxes easier than ever http://bit.ly/13mZGJH
Create your own SaaS Memcached as a Service http://bit.ly/11nL8vh
Automated Application
Deployment
Push-button Deployment with Docker http://bit.ly/1bTKZTo
Continuous Integration
and Deployment
Next Generation Continuous Integration & Deployment with dotCloud’s Docker and
Strider
http://bit.ly/ZwTfoy
Lightweight Desktop
Virtualization
Docker Desktop: Your Desktop Over SSH Running Inside Of A Docker Container http://bit.ly/14RYL6x
Want to learn more?
• Birds of a Feather: tonight at 8
• San Francisco Meetup: July 30
• Boston Openstack Meetup: August 14
• New York Meetup: Aug 21
• Austin Openstack Meetup: Sept 12
• Boston Docker Meetup: Sept 23
• …oh---and get your free whale stickers before you leave
www.docker.io

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Docker, Containers and the Future of Application Delivery

  • 1. Docker, Containers, and the Future of Application Delivery
  • 2. In the four months since we launched • >50,000 pulls • >4,000 github stars • >100 significant contributors • >150 projects built on top of docker • UIs, mini-PaaS, Remote Desktop…. • 1000’s of Dockerized applications • Memcached, Redis, Node.js… • Integration in Jenkins, Travis, Chef, Puppet, Vagrant and OpenStack • Meetups arranged around the world…with organizations like Ebay, Uber, Mozilla, Cloudflare, and Rackspace presenting on their use of Docker
  • 3. Why all the excitement?
  • 4. Contents • The challenge • The solution • Why Docker and Containers Matter? • How They Work? • Alternative/Complementary Approaches
  • 5. Market View: Evolution of IT 1995 2015 Running on any available set of physical resources (public/private/ virtualized) Assembled by developers using best available services Thin app on mobile, tabletThick, client-server app on thick client Well-defined stack: - O/S - Runtime - Middleware Monolithic Physical Infrastructure
  • 6. Challenges 2015 How to ensure services interact consistently, avoid dependency hell How to migrate & scale quickly, ensure compatibility How to avoid n X n different configs Running on any available set of physical resources (public/private/ virtualized) Assembled by developers using best available services Thin app on mobile, tablet
  • 7. Static website Web frontend User DB Queue Analytics DB Background workers API endpoint nginx 1.5 + modsecurity + openssl + bootstrap 2 postgresql + pgv8 + v8 hadoop + hive + thrift + OpenJDK Ruby + Rails + sass + Unicorn Redis + redis-sentinel Python 3.0 + celery + pyredis + libcurl + ffmpeg + libopencv + nodejs + phantomjs Python 2.7 + Flask + pyredis + celery + psycopg + postgresql-client Development VM QA server Public Cloud Disaster recovery Contributor’s laptop Production Servers The ChallengeMultiplicityofStacks Multiplicityof hardware environments Production Cluster Customer Data Center Doservicesandapps interact appropriately? CanImigrate smoothlyand quickly?
  • 8. Results in N X N compatibility nightmare Static website Web frontend Background workers User DB Analytics DB Queue Development VM QA Server Single Prod Server Onsite Cluster Public Cloud Contributor’s laptop Customer Servers ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  • 11. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Also an NxN Matrix
  • 12. Contents • The challenge • The solution • Why Docker and Containers Matter? • How They Work? • Alternative/Complementary Approaches
  • 13. MultiplicityofGoods Multiplicityof methodsfor transporting/storing DoIworryabout howgoodsinteract (e.g.coffeebeans nexttospices) CanItransport quicklyandsmoothly (e.g.fromboatto traintotruck) Solution: Intermodal Shipping Container …in between, can be loaded and unloaded, stacked, transported efficiently over long distances, and transferred from one mode of transport to another A standard container that is loaded with virtually any goods, and stays sealed until it reaches final delivery.
  • 14. This eliminated the NXN problem…
  • 15. and spawned an Intermodal Shipping Container Ecosystem • 90% of all cargo now shipped in a standard container • Order of magnitude reduction in cost and time to load and unload ships • Massive reduction in losses due to theft or damage • Huge reduction in freight cost as percent of final goods (from >25% to <3%)  massive globalizations • 5000 ships deliver 200M containers per year
  • 16. Static website Web frontendUser DB Queue Analytics DB Development VM QA server Public Cloud Contributor’s laptop Docker is a shipping container system for code MultiplicityofStacks Multiplicityof hardware environments Production Cluster Customer Data Center Doservicesandapps interact appropriately? CanImigrate smoothlyandquickly …that can be manipulated using standard operations and run consistently on virtually any hardware platform An engine that enables any payload to be encapsulated as a lightweight, portable, self-sufficient container…
  • 17. Static website Web frontendUser DB Queue Analytics DB Development VM QA server Public Cloud Contributor’s laptop Or…put more simplyMultiplicityofStacks Multiplicityof hardware environments Production Cluster Customer Data Center Doservicesandapps interact appropriately? CanImigrate smoothlyandquickly Operator: Configure Once, Run Anything Developer: Build Once, Run Anywhere (Finally)
  • 18. Static website Web frontend Background workers User DB Analytics DB Queue Development VM QA Server Single Prod Server Onsite Cluster Public Cloud Contributor’s laptop Customer Servers Docker solves the NXN problem
  • 19. Contents • The challenge • The solution • Why Docker and Containers Matter? • How They Work? • Alternative/Complementary Approaches
  • 20. Why containers matter Physical Containers Docker Content Agnostic The same container can hold almost any type of cargo Can encapsulate any payload and its dependencies Hardware Agnostic Standard shape and interface allow same container to move from ship to train to semi-truck to warehouse to crane without being modified or opened Using operating system primitives (e.g. LXC) can run consistently on virtually any hardware—VMs, bare metal, openstack, public IAAS, etc.—without modification Content Isolation and Interaction No worry about anvils crushing bananas. Containers can be stacked and shipped together Resource, network, and content isolation. Avoids dependency hell Automation Standard interfaces make it easy to automate loading, unloading, moving, etc. Standard operations to run, start, stop, commit, search, etc. Perfect for devops: CI, CD, autoscaling, hybrid clouds Highly efficient No opening or modification, quick to move between waypoints Lightweight, virtually no perf or start-up penalty, quick to move and manipulate Separation of duties Shipper worries about inside of box, carrier worries about outside of box Developer worries about code. Ops worries about infrastructure.
  • 21. Why Developers Care • Build once…run anywhere • A clean, safe, hygienic and portable runtime environment for your app. • No worries about missing dependencies, packages and other pain points during subsequent deployments. • Take a snapshot of a running container and restore it again when required. • Run each app in its own isolated container, so you can run various versions of libraries and other dependencies for each app without worrying • Automate testing, integration, packaging…anything you can script • Reduce/eliminate concerns about compatibility on different platforms, either your own or your customers. • Cheap, zero-penalty containers to deploy services? A VM without the overhead of a VM? Instant replay and reset of image snapshots? That’s the power of Docker
  • 22. Why Developers Care “Docker interests me because it allows simple environment isolation and repeatability. I can create a run-time environment once, package it up, then run it again on any other machine. Furthermore, everything that runs in that environment is isolated from the underlying host (much like a virtual machine). And best of all, everything is fast and simple.” -Gregory Szorc, Mozilla Foundation http://gregoryszorc.com/blog/2013/05/19/using-docker-to-build-firefox/
  • 23. Why Devops Cares? • Configure once…run anything • Make the entire lifecycle more efficient, consistent, and repeatable • Increase the quality of code produced by developers. • Eliminate inconsistencies between development, test, production, and customer environments • Support segregation of duties • Significantly improves the speed and reliability of continuous deployment and continuous integration systems • Because the containers are so lightweight, address significant performance, costs, deployment, and portability issues normally associated with VMs
  • 24. Contents • The challenge • The solution • Why Docker and Containers Matter? • How They Work • Alternative/Complementary Approaches
  • 25. App A Containers vs. VMs Hypervisor (Type 2) Host OS Server Guest OS Bins/ Libs App A’ Guest OS Bins/ Libs App B Guest OS Bins/ Libs AppA’ Docker Engine Host OS Server Bins/Libs AppA Bins/Libs AppB AppB’ AppB’ AppB’ AppB’ VM Container Containers are isolated, but share OS and, where appropriate, bins/libraries Guest OS Guest OS
  • 26. Why are Docker containers lightweight? Bins/ Libs App A Original App (No OS to take up space, resources, or require restart) AppΔ Bins/ App A Bins/ Libs App A’ Guest OS Bins/ Libs Modified App Union file system allows us to only save the diffs Between container A and container A’ VMs Every app, every copy of an app, and every slight modification of the app requires a new virtual server App A Guest OS Bins/ Libs Copy of App No OS. Can Share bins/libs App A Guest OS Guest OS VMs Containers
  • 27. What are the basics of the Docker system? Source Code Repository Dockerfile For A Docker Engine Docker Container Image Registry Build Docker Engine Host 2 OS 2 (Linux) ContainerA ContainerB ContainerC ContainerA Push Search Pull Run Host 1 OS (Linux)
  • 28. Changes and Updates Docker Engine Docker Container Image Registry Docker Engine Push Update Bins/ Libs App A AppΔ Bins/ Base Container Image Host is now running A’’ Container Mod A’’ AppΔ Bins/ Bins/ Libs App A Bins/ Bins/ Libs App A’’ Host running A wants to upgrade to A’’. Requests update. Gets only diffs Container Mod A’
  • 29. Contents • The challenge • The solution • Why Docker and Containers Matter? • How They Work • Alternative/Complementary Approaches
  • 30. Alternatives/Complementary Approaches • Policy Reduce Rows • Configuration Management Reduce Columns • Traditional HW Virtualization • Packaging Automation
  • 31. Alternative 1: Impose Consistent Dev Environment Description: • Try to impose a consistent development environment Challenges: • Goes against 20 years of development trends • Can’t predict what will be needed for next app • Doesn’t work outside confines of the enterprise (e.g. at customer sites) Reduce#rowsviapolicy
  • 32. Alternative 2: Configuration Mgt/Automation Description: • Automate creation of consistent runtime environment for different machines Challenges: • Chef/Puppet etc. are extremely useful for creating more consistent machine configuration • But…has to be redone for each new application or version • Brittle • Doesn’t work easily outside confines of the enterprise (e.g. at customer sites) Reduce # Columns via Chef/Puppet/etc.
  • 33. Alternative 3: Hardware Virtualization Description: • Create a virtual server for each app Challenges: • HW Virtualization great for many uses cases (e.g. server consolidation) • But.. heavyweight/expensive/slow • Need different VM for different hypervisor environments • Has to be completely redone for each new application or version • Not good for scale out, hybrid clouds, massive clustering, iterative development
  • 34. Alternative 4: Package Automation Description: • Automate creation of different VMs for different Challenges: • A great solution for certain distribution challenges, but… • VMs are still heavyweight/expensive • Has to be completely redone for each new application or version • Better idea: combine containers plus automation
  • 35. Use Cases—From Our Community Use Case Examples Link Build your own PaaS Dokku - Docker powered mini-Heroku. The smallest PaaS implementation you’ve ever seen http://bit.ly/191Tgsx Web Based Environment for Instruction JiffyLab – web based environment for the instruction, or lightweight use of, Python and UNIX shell http://bit.ly/12oaj2K Easy Application Deployment Deploy Java Apps With Docker = Awesome http://bit.ly/11BCvvu Running Drupal on Docker http://bit.ly/15MJS6B Installing Redis on Docker http://bit.ly/16EWOKh Create Secure Sandboxes Docker makes creating secure sandboxes easier than ever http://bit.ly/13mZGJH Create your own SaaS Memcached as a Service http://bit.ly/11nL8vh Automated Application Deployment Push-button Deployment with Docker http://bit.ly/1bTKZTo Continuous Integration and Deployment Next Generation Continuous Integration & Deployment with dotCloud’s Docker and Strider http://bit.ly/ZwTfoy Lightweight Desktop Virtualization Docker Desktop: Your Desktop Over SSH Running Inside Of A Docker Container http://bit.ly/14RYL6x
  • 36. Want to learn more? • Birds of a Feather: tonight at 8 • San Francisco Meetup: July 30 • Boston Openstack Meetup: August 14 • New York Meetup: Aug 21 • Austin Openstack Meetup: Sept 12 • Boston Docker Meetup: Sept 23 • …oh---and get your free whale stickers before you leave