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Containerd Internals
What is containerd?
• It is a runc multiplexer
• Manages container lifecycle operations
– signal
– pause/resume
– events
3
Why build it?
• Decouple container lifecycle/execution management from Docker
• Small and fast
• runc integration
4
How is it built?
5
• Lock-free Events
– start
– signal
– exit
– SIGCHLD
How is it built?
6
• Concurrency
– 200 containers + 200 workers = 54.5/s
– 200 containers + 10 workers = 71.2/s
How is it built?
7
• containerd-shim
– daemonless containers
– 1 shim per container
– report exit status
• fifos for STDIO
• reparent to system init
Docker 1.11
… and a glimpse of the future
Docker 1.11
• Relies entirely on containerd / runC for execution
– No more direct dependency on libcontainer
– Docker alone isn’t capable of running containers anymore ¯_(ツ)_/¯
• What does it mean for the user?
– Short answer: right now, nothing
– Still pretty cool!
9
Docker 1.11
10
Docker Engine
> _
containerd
runC
shim
runC
shim
runC
shim
runC
shim
Docker 1.11
• Focus on correctness
– No regressions on the runtime
– Without performance degradation
• Introduce the new binaries
• A first look at the new features this will enable
11
# ls -lah /usr/local/bin/docker*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 34M Apr 23 03:13 /usr/bin/docker
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 14M Apr 23 03:12 /usr/bin/docker-containerd
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 11M Apr 23 03:12 /usr/bin/docker-containerd-ctr
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 7.0M Apr 23 03:12 /usr/bin/docker-containerd-shim
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 9.1M Apr 23 03:11 /usr/bin/docker-runc
Choosing your execution backend
• Before: Docker had a hardcoded set of supported “execution drivers”
• Future plans
– Specify your execution backend on a per-container basis
– E.g., `docker run --exec-driver=custom redis`
• A whole ecosystem of OCI-compliant backends
– runV, a hypervisor-based runtime
– runZ, an ongoing effort from Oracle based on Solaris Zones
– Clear Containers, an Intel project based on a lightweight hypervisor
12
Choosing your execution backend
13
Docker Engine
> _
containerd
runC
shim
runX
shim
runY
shim
runZ
shim
Resilience
• Container lifecycle should be independent of the daemon
– Ultimate goal: Docker should never decide on stopping a container
• Not there yet, but we’re getting closer!
14
Resilience
15
Docker Engine
> _
containerd
runC
shim
runC
shim
runC
shim
runC
shim
Resilience
16
> _
containerd
runC
shim
runC
shim
runC
shim
runC
shim
Docker Engine
Resilience
17
Docker Engine
> _
runC
shim
runC
shim
runC
shim
runC
shim
containerd
THANK YOU

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Docker 1.11 @ Docker SF Meetup

  • 2. What is containerd? • It is a runc multiplexer • Manages container lifecycle operations – signal – pause/resume – events 3
  • 3. Why build it? • Decouple container lifecycle/execution management from Docker • Small and fast • runc integration 4
  • 4. How is it built? 5 • Lock-free Events – start – signal – exit – SIGCHLD
  • 5. How is it built? 6 • Concurrency – 200 containers + 200 workers = 54.5/s – 200 containers + 10 workers = 71.2/s
  • 6. How is it built? 7 • containerd-shim – daemonless containers – 1 shim per container – report exit status • fifos for STDIO • reparent to system init
  • 7. Docker 1.11 … and a glimpse of the future
  • 8. Docker 1.11 • Relies entirely on containerd / runC for execution – No more direct dependency on libcontainer – Docker alone isn’t capable of running containers anymore ¯_(ツ)_/¯ • What does it mean for the user? – Short answer: right now, nothing – Still pretty cool! 9
  • 9. Docker 1.11 10 Docker Engine > _ containerd runC shim runC shim runC shim runC shim
  • 10. Docker 1.11 • Focus on correctness – No regressions on the runtime – Without performance degradation • Introduce the new binaries • A first look at the new features this will enable 11 # ls -lah /usr/local/bin/docker* -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 34M Apr 23 03:13 /usr/bin/docker -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 14M Apr 23 03:12 /usr/bin/docker-containerd -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 11M Apr 23 03:12 /usr/bin/docker-containerd-ctr -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 7.0M Apr 23 03:12 /usr/bin/docker-containerd-shim -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 9.1M Apr 23 03:11 /usr/bin/docker-runc
  • 11. Choosing your execution backend • Before: Docker had a hardcoded set of supported “execution drivers” • Future plans – Specify your execution backend on a per-container basis – E.g., `docker run --exec-driver=custom redis` • A whole ecosystem of OCI-compliant backends – runV, a hypervisor-based runtime – runZ, an ongoing effort from Oracle based on Solaris Zones – Clear Containers, an Intel project based on a lightweight hypervisor 12
  • 12. Choosing your execution backend 13 Docker Engine > _ containerd runC shim runX shim runY shim runZ shim
  • 13. Resilience • Container lifecycle should be independent of the daemon – Ultimate goal: Docker should never decide on stopping a container • Not there yet, but we’re getting closer! 14