Primary Health Care


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Primary Health Care

  1. 1. Dr. Lore na C. Balacanao
  2. 2. <ul><li>Definition, concept and principles </li></ul><ul><li>Health- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A state of complete physical, mental and social well being not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. ( WHO- concept of Health) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Modern concept of health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimum level of functioning among individuals, families and communities. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Eco-system which affect this level of functioning </li></ul><ul><li>1. Political- </li></ul><ul><li>2. Behavioral- </li></ul><ul><li>3. Hereditary- </li></ul><ul><li>4. Health care delivery system </li></ul><ul><li>5. Environmental Influence </li></ul><ul><li>6. Socio-economic influence </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><li>The government has the power to promulgate, promote, implement and think of the different ways to alleviate problems regarding health. </li></ul><ul><li>Its is written in the Philippine Constitution that the government provides access for sustainable health </li></ul><ul><li>Political Issue provide People empowerment </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul><ul><li>A persons level of functioning is affected directly by Culture, habits, attitudes, mores, ethnic backgrounds and society or his environment. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Hereditary </li></ul><ul><li>There are certain diseases that is hereditary in nature, therefore individual with this circumstances doesn’t have any control of the situation. It is said therefore that inheritance plays a part in determining lifespan and health level of an individual </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Health Care Delivery system </li></ul><ul><li>PHC - in Philippine setting, it is a partnership approach of the private group and the government ; they work hand in hand to deliver effective provision of essential health services </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Environmental Influences </li></ul><ul><li>People living in urban areas are prone to hazards of health. E.g. communicable and non-communicable diseases are rampant in urban areas compare to those who are living in rural areas. Likewise those who live in solitude life is prone to depression. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Socio-Economic influence </li></ul><ul><li>In Public health centers, families from lower income brackets are the one’s mostly served </li></ul><ul><li>Families within the mid-income level can provide basic health services for their members unlike those who are at poor sector basic health services are deprived. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Public Health </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. C.E. Winslow- science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, promoting health and efficiency through organized community effort for the sanitation of the environment, control of communicable diseases, the education of the individuals personal hygiene, </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>the organization of medical and nursing services for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of the disease and the development of the social machinery to ensure everyone a standard of living adequate for the maintenance of health, so organizing these benefits as to enable every citizen to realize his birthright of health and longevity. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Categories of Health Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Health deficits </li></ul><ul><li>Health threats and </li></ul><ul><li>Foreseeable crisis or stress points </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Health deficit </li></ul><ul><li>It occurs when there is a gap between actual health status and achievable health status. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Health threats </li></ul><ul><li>These are the conditions that promote disease or injury and prevent people from realizing their health potential. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Foreseeable crisis </li></ul><ul><li>It includes stressful occurrences such as death or illness of a family member. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>As defined by the WHO as an essential health care made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community by means acceptable to them through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development in the spirit of self-determination </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Legal Basis </li></ul><ul><li>Letter of Instruction (LOI) 949 signed on October 19,1979 by then President Ferdinand E. Marcos – One year after the First International Conference on Primary Health Care which was held in Alma Ata, USSR on September 6-12 1978, sponsored by the WHO and UNICEF </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Essential components of primary health care </li></ul><ul><li>The Declaration of Alma Ata outlined the 8 essential components of primary health care such as principles of, </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>1. Equitable distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Health services must be shared equally by all people irrespective of their ability to pay and all (rich or poor, urban or rural) must have access to health services. Primary health care aims to address the current imbalance in health care by shifting the centre of gravity from cities where a majority of the health budget is spent to rural areas where a majority of people live in most countries. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>2. Community participation </li></ul><ul><li>There must be a continuing effort to secure meaningful involvement of the community in the planning, implementation and maintenance of health services, beside maximum reliance on local resources such as manpower, money and materials. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>3. Intersectoral coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Primary health care involves in addition to the health sector, all related sectors and aspects of national and community development, in particular agriculture, animal husbandry, food, industry, education, housing, public works, communication and other sectors. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Appropriate technology </li></ul><ul><li>is technology that is scientifically sound, adaptable to local needs, acceptable to those who apply it and for those for whom it is used and can be maintained by the people themselves in keeping with the principle of self reliance with the resources the community and country can afford. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Four Cornerstones/Pillars in Primary Health Care </li></ul><ul><li>1. Active community participation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Intra and inter- sectoral linkages </li></ul><ul><li>3. Use of Appropriate technology </li></ul><ul><li>4. Support mechanism made available </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Concept of PHC </li></ul><ul><li>According to DOH- PHC is characterized by partnership and empowerment of the people that shall permeate as the core strategy in the effective provision of essential health services that is community based, accessible, acceptable and sustainable at a cost which the community and the government can afford </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>the concept of primary health care (PHC) as a strategy to reach the goal of Health for All in 2000 </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Elements and Components Of phc </li></ul><ul><li>1. Environmental Sanitation- (adequate supply of water and good waste disposal) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Control of communicable disease </li></ul><ul><li>3. Immunization </li></ul><ul><li>4. Health Education </li></ul><ul><li>5. Maternal and child health and family planning </li></ul><ul><li>6. Adequate food and proper nutrition </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>7. Provision of medical care and emergency treatment </li></ul><ul><li>8. Treatment of Locally Endemic Disease </li></ul><ul><li>9. Provision of Essential Drugs </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Health care , or healthcare , is the prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of mental health through the services offered by the medical , nursing , and allied health professions . </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Health care embraces all the goods and services designed to promote health, including “preventive, curative and palliative interventions, whether directed to individuals or to populations” </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>The organised provision of such services may constitute a health care system . This can include specific governmental organizations such as, in the UK, the National Health Service or a cooperation across the National disease . </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Health Service and Social Services as in Shared Care . Before the term &quot;health care&quot; became popular, English-speakers referred to medicine or to the health sector and spoke of the treatment and prevention of illness and </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Types of Primary Health care workers </li></ul><ul><li>1. Village or the Barangay health workers- It includes trained community health worker or health auxiliary volunteer or traditional birth attendant or healer </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>2.Intermediate level health workers- These are the medical practitioner, Public health nurse, Rural sanitary inspector and midwives </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Levels of health care and referral system </li></ul><ul><li>1. Primary Level care </li></ul><ul><li>2. Secondary Level care </li></ul><ul><li>3. Tertiary level care </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Primary level care </li></ul><ul><li>This health service is provided by the physicians, nurse and Barangay health workers/ team. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Secondary level care </li></ul><ul><li>The physician and the health team are responsible for the assessment and treatment of health related problem </li></ul><ul><li>In this level the health care professional can perform minor surgery </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>TERTIARY level care </li></ul><ul><li>The care is usually given by the specialist , major surgeries are included in this level </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Philippine Health Care Delivery System </li></ul><ul><li>1. Primary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barangay Health Station </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private Practitioners/ Puericulture Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Hospitals and Health Centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural Health Unit </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Secondary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency District Hospirtals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provincial/ City Hospitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provincial/ City Health Services </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Tertiary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Health Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Medical Centers and Training hospitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Health Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical Centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching and Training Hospitals </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>The End </li></ul><ul><li>Good Luck- DRLCB </li></ul>