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R C PATEL INTITUTE OF PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH, SHIRPUR
Guided By
Dr. Savita D. Patil Ma’am
Dept of Clinical Pharmacy
RCPIPER, Shirpur
Presented By
Dnyaneshwari Mate
Dept of Clinical Pharmacy
RCPIPER, Shirpur
General Research
Methodology
1
CONTENTS
Introduction
Definition
Objective
Requirements of research
Practical difficulties
Review of literature
2
Introduction
The term ‘RESEARCH’ consist of two words:
RESEARCH= RE + SEARCH
‘RE’ means again and again and ‘SEARCH’ means to find out something
following in the process
PERSON
Observes
Again & again
Phenomena
Collection of data
Analysis of data Conclusion
3
Definitions
• Research Methods:-
All those methods/ techniques that are used for conductions of
research. Research methods or techniques, thus, refer to the
methods the researchers use in performing research operations.
• Research methodology:-
It is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be
understood as a science od studying how research is done
scientifically.
4
DEFINITION
Research:
The research defined as a logical, scientific and systematic search for
new and useful information on a specific topic.
OR
It is investigation of finding solution to specific and social problems
through systematic analysis.
OR
Any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of
knowledge.
5
Types of research
• Descriptive
• Applied
• Fundamental
• Quantitative
• Qualitative
• Conceptual
• empirical
6

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general research methodology 1.pptx

  • 1. R C PATEL INTITUTE OF PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH, SHIRPUR Guided By Dr. Savita D. Patil Ma’am Dept of Clinical Pharmacy RCPIPER, Shirpur Presented By Dnyaneshwari Mate Dept of Clinical Pharmacy RCPIPER, Shirpur General Research Methodology 1
  • 3. Introduction The term ‘RESEARCH’ consist of two words: RESEARCH= RE + SEARCH ‘RE’ means again and again and ‘SEARCH’ means to find out something following in the process PERSON Observes Again & again Phenomena Collection of data Analysis of data Conclusion 3
  • 4. Definitions • Research Methods:- All those methods/ techniques that are used for conductions of research. Research methods or techniques, thus, refer to the methods the researchers use in performing research operations. • Research methodology:- It is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science od studying how research is done scientifically. 4
  • 5. DEFINITION Research: The research defined as a logical, scientific and systematic search for new and useful information on a specific topic. OR It is investigation of finding solution to specific and social problems through systematic analysis. OR Any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge. 5
  • 6. Types of research • Descriptive • Applied • Fundamental • Quantitative • Qualitative • Conceptual • empirical 6
  • 7. 1) Descriptive Research This type of research provides accurate portrayal of characteristics of a particular individual, situation or group. Also known as statistical research. It deals with everything that can be counted and studied which have an impact on the lives of people. Advantages- 1. Less expensive, time consuming. 2. Collect a large amount of notes for detailed studying. Disadvantages- 1. Require more skills 2. Does not identify cause behind the research. 7
  • 8. 2) Applied Research It is a scientific study that seek to solve various practical problems in the day to day life. It find answers or solutions to everyday problems, cure illness, develop innovative technologies etc. For example- 1. Improve agricultural crop production 2. Treat or cure specific disease 3. Improve energy efficiency of homes, offices, modes of transportation 8
  • 9. 3) Fundamental research Fundamental, also known as basic or theoretical, research is designed to help researchers better understand certain phenomena in the world. It looks at how things work but does not seek to find how to make them work better. This research attempts to broaden your understanding and expand scientific theories and explanations. Example: A company studies how different product placements affect product sales. This study provides information and is knowledge-based. 9
  • 10. 4) Quantitative research Quantitative research depends on numerical data, such as statistics and measurements, to investigate specific questions, like who, what, where or when. The results are usually presented in tables or graphs. Types of quantitative methods include: Survey research Descriptive research Correlational research Example: A car manufacturer compares the number of sales of red sedans compared to white sedans. The research uses objective data—the sales figures for red and white sedans—to draw conclusions. 10
  • 11. 5) Qualitative research Qualitative research involves non-numerical data, such as opinions and literature. It uses descriptions to obtain the meanings and feelings involved in a situation. Businesses often use qualitative research to determine consumer opinions and reactions. Examples of qualitative research may include: • Focus groups • Surveys • Participant comments • Observations • Interviews Example: A marketing organization presents a new commercial to a focus group before airing it publicly to receive feedback. The company collects non-numerical data—the opinions of the focus group participants—to make decisions. 11
  • 12. 6) Conceptual Research Conceptual research is defined as a methodology wherein research is conducted by observing and analyzing already present information on a given topic. Conceptual research doesn’t involve conducting any practical experiments. It is related to abstract concepts or ideas. Philosophers have long used conceptual research to develop new theories or interpret existing theories in a different light. 12
  • 13. 7) Empirical Research • Empirical research is a type of research methodology that makes use of verifiable evidence in order to arrive at research outcomes. • In other words, this type of research relies solely on evidence obtained through observation or scientific data collection methods. • Empirical research can be carried out using qualitative or quantitative observation methods, depending on the data sample, that is, quantifiable data or non-numerical data. 13
  • 14. Objectives of research • To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it. • To generate new knowledge. • To gain familiarity or to develop a new insight into some phenomenon. • To investigate some existing situation or problem. • To construct or create a new procedure or system. • To explore and analyze more general issues. • To investigate some existing situations or problems. • To test a hypothesis or theory. • To identify patterns or trends related to the problems. 14
  • 15. 15
  • 16. Criteria of good research • Purpose should be clearly defined. • Research process should be described in sufficient detail. • There is a clear statement of research aims, which defines the research question. • Design should be thoroughly planned so as to yield objective results. • High ethical standards. • Limitations should be frankly revealed so that the decision maker is made aware. • Analysis of data should be adequate and methods of analysis appropriate. • Conclusions should be confined to those justified by the data of research. 16
  • 17. Requirement of research • Sources of problem • Review of literature • Formulation of hypothesis • Research design 17
  • 18. Sources of problem • Reading • Academic experience • Daily experience • Exposure to field situation • consultation 18
  • 19. 19
  • 20. 20
  • 21. Practical difficulties and Challenges in Research • The lack of a scientific training in the methodology of research • Challenges regarding funds • Lack of curiosity-driven research • LACK OF CONFIEDENCE • Copying of data (Plagiarism) • Problem of conceptualization • Problems relating to the process of data collection • Inadequate Assistance • Getting Difficulties to file a Patent in IPO 21
  • 22. REVIEW OF LITERATURE • What is a literature review? A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources on a specific topic. It provides an overview of current knowledge, allowing you to identify relevant theories, methods, and gaps in the existing research that you can later apply to your paper, thesis, or dissertation topic. 22
  • 23. 23
  • 24. Steps of literature review Step 1 – Search for relevant literature Step 2 – Evaluate and select sources Step 3 – Identify themes, debates, and gaps Step 4 – Outline your literature review’s structure Step 5 – Write your literature review 24