Andrew Goodwin Andrew Goodwin is an author of the book “Dancing in the distraction factory” where he talks about music television and cultural theory. In the book he writes about media cosmetics, critical theory and pop music.He says that each music video contains 6 things:1. Music videos demonstrate genre characteristics (e.g. stage performance in a metal video.)2. There is a relationship between lyrics and visuals (they either illustrate, amplify, contradict)3. There is a relationship between the music and visuals.4. The demands of the record label will include the need for lots of close ups of the artist and the artist may develop motifs which reoccur across their work (a visual style)5. There is frequently reference to notion of looking. (screens with screens, telescopes etc and particularly voyeuristic treatment of the female body)6. There is often intertextual reference (to films, TV programmes, other music videos)
Andrew Goodwin Goodwin came up with the idea that Thought beats are used toconstruct songs for music videos. A thought beat is singing the sound in your head and he said that these were developed in step by step processes. Step 1 – Structuring the song (Chorus, Verses, Hooks)Step 2 – Voice of the song. Identification with the voice as the singing voice is an expressive instrument. Step 3 – Mode of address. The song is the story and the artist is the storyteller.
Music videos demonstrate genre characteristics In pop music videos the shot that is most frequently used is close up shots. These shots are used for many reasons, to engage the audience with the artist, to establish who and the importance of the artist and finally so that the audience are immediately able to make reference between the artist and features of the video.Pop music videos also contain narrative and themajority of the time and there is a very deep narrativeused within this video, however it fits the genre as acommon convention of a pop narrative is to containa love interest character and which supports thestereotypical pop genre conventions. This video also appears to be a hybrid as it contains a performance feature to the music video. This is conventional for pop music videos as it showcases the artist talent and forces the audience to focus on the actual song/artist for segments of the video as well as the storyline.
Music videos demonstrate genreFasts cuts are often used in many genres of musicvideo, particularly pop, it is used for a series ofreasons which improve the viewing experiencefor the audience. Firstly the fast cuts are in timewith the music which keeps the video as lively asthe music itself. It helps to show a series ofimages which could be apart of the storyline orshow subliminal messages in a short time preventthe audience from becoming bored of one longscene. Finally it is able to increase therepeatability (which Goodwin says is keys tomaking a successful music video) of the song asthe audience will not be able to see andunderstand everything that is shown in the short characteristicsperiod of time causing them to watch it again.This music video does that successfully as the 5shots only take up a period of 4 seconds, butbecause it is also so quick it makes the musicvideo more intriguing because it causes theaudience to ask the question of „what was that?‟and „what does that mean?‟.
There is a relationship between lyrics and visuals “Standing side by side” being the lyric for this visual is very obvious however the use of the wide shot gives the lyric meaning as even though they are literally standing side by side the fact that they are in an isolated, deserted area highlights the idea of unity and partnership.“Shine a light through an open door” beingthe lyric for this visual, yet there is no directcorrelation this is because the couple arerepresentative of the light, implying thatthere relationship is full of love and positivityand the couple coming through the doorshows how this interpretation could beimplied.
There is a relationship between lyrics and visuals“But Ive gotta let it go” being the lyric for this visual is the best way topair a lyric and a visual in my opinion as not everything is obvious tothe audience straight away. So at first playing darts may appear to befairly random regarding the situation, however the dart isrepresentative of the relationship and the boyfriend which Rihanna‟scharacter has to let go of. The subtle relationship of visuals and lyricsmakes the video more appealing as the audience are forced to paydetailed attention to all aspects of the video and as well listening tothe song making them unconsciously absorbing the lyrics, comparedto if there was no relation.
There is a relationship between the music and visualsIn this video the relationshipbetween the music andvisuals play a heavy role ishow the video is as a whole.Each scene is fast cut editedin order to match the mainbeats of the music. In the firstscene these shots are usedfor the first four main beatswhich only lasts 6 seconds.This has been done to createan atmosphere with scenesas the song would make asthought it were playing in aparty. This up tempo beatand the use of fast cutsmakes the audience feelinvolved with the music andadd a lively fun element tothe music video. The visualsto a song are meant toillustrate, amplify ordisjuncture and this musicvideo is definitely amplified.
The demands of the record label will include the need for lots of close ups of the artist and the artist may develop motifs which reoccur across their work. The use of the close ups within this music video are key, because they are not used as often as typical pop music videos are used however each close up used is fairly significant as they portray the artist in a different character role and emotion where it is relevant to the song and the narrative involved with the music video. The fact that it captures Rihanna is different emotions such as misery/pain and joy, makes her seem more relatable and realistic to the audience as they perceive her to be a normal person just like them. Also the close ups create a connection between the audience and the artist making the artist more likeable.
There is frequently reference to notion of looking. The notion of looking is used within this music video in order to ultimately make the audience feel as though they are more involved. This is because the voyeurism allows the audience to see more than what they may feel is being shown to them, giving them an inside look, also this makes the audience feels as though they are getting more information towards the storyline and in a sense making the audience more understanding.
There is often intertextualThe intertextual reference within thismusic video is showing all aspects ofyoung British drug culture. This videocaptures, how it affects relationships andbehaviour, the physical acts of drugtaking and their view. This video is able tocapture the extreme passion contrastingwith the extreme hate within the musicvideo. It shows the spontaneous and wildbehaviour that is stereotypically adoptedwith people of this type. It illustrates thedifferent forms and foolish ways to take referencedrugs which is presented as fun. Mostimportantly it shows how selfish thesepeople are as the video is mainlyrevolved around the couple however itfeatures clips of real life, which implieshow little their lives are affected by othersocial factors. It think this video overdramatises the culture and presents it insuch messy way to show that it is a messyand uncontrollable lifestyle.