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  2. 2. Pressure and Winds• Pressure and surface winds.• Upper air circulation.• Western cyclonic disturbances and tropical cyclones.
  3. 3. What is jet stream? Ans. The upper air circulation in this region is dominated by a westerly flow. An important component of this flow is the jet stream.These jet stream are locatedapproximately over 27-30 degree northlatitude, therefore, they are known assub tropical westerly jet stream.
  4. 4. THE INDIAN MONSOON• The climate of India is strongly influenced by monsoon wind.• The sailors who came to India in historic times were one of the first to have noticed the phenomenon of the monsoon.• They benefited from the reversal of the wind system as they came by sailing ships at the mercy of winds.• The Arabs, who had also come to India as traders named this seasonal reversal of the wind system ‘monsoon’.
  5. 5. There are six major controls of theclimate of any place.• Latitude• Altitude• Pressure and wind system• Distance from the sea• Ocean currents, and• Relief features.
  6. 6. To understand the mechanism of themonsoon , the following fact areimportant.• The differential heating and cooling of land and water.• The shift of position of inter tropical convergence zone (ITCZ).• High pressure area, east of Madagascar.• Tibetan plateau gets intensely heated.• Movement of the westerly jet stream to the north of the Himalayas.
  7. 7. CLIMATE: Refers to the sum total ofweather conditions and variations overa large area for a long period of time.WEATHER: Refers to the state ofthe atmosphere over an area at anypoint of time .The element of weatherand climate are the same, i.e.temperature, atmospheric pressure,wind, humidity, and precipitation.