What are principles of design?The guidelines for Harmonyorganizing the Varietyelements in order tosatisfy the artist’s Balanceexpressive intent. Proportion and ScaleThey describe Dominancerelationships of Rhythm/Movementelements to oneanother. Economy
I. Harmony A related quality of visual elements of a composition. Ex: repetition, rhythm, continuity. Elements are combined to accent their similarities and create wholeness in an artwork. Andy Warhol. 200 Campbell Soup Cans.
II. Variety The use of contrasting elements in a composition to add individualism and interest.Ben Jones. BlackFace and ArmUnit. 1971.
Visual weight refers to theIII. Balance apparent “heaviness” or “lightness” of the forms arranged in a composition. Feeling of equilibrium in weight attention or Types of balance: attraction of various Symmetrical (formal) visual elements. including Relieved Means of Asymmetrical (informal) accomplishing organic unity. radial
Symmetrical Balance Implied center gravity is the vertical axis—an imaginary line down the center of the composition Forms on either side of the axis correspond to one another in size, shape, and placement Perfect symmetry is when the two sides “mirror” each other. Relieved symmetry is when the two sides nearly— but do not exactly—“mirror.” This occurs more often.
Perfect or relieved symmetry?O’Keefe. Deer Skull with Pedernal. 1936. Kahlo. The Two Fridas. 1939.
Asymmetrical Balance The two sides of the composition do not match The visual weights in the two sides are very similar The viewer perceives the relationships between the elements in the two sides—and, in turn, the composition’s balance It’s much like balancing a seesaw with differently sized people.
Asymmetrical Balance (cont.)1. A large form is visually heavier than a smaller form.2. A dark-value form is visually heavier than a light form of the same size.3. A textured form is visually heavier than a smooth form of the same size.4. A complex form is visually heavier than a simple form of the same size.5. Two or more small forms can balance a larger one.6. A small darker form can balance a larger light one.
Klimt. Deathand Life.1915.Here, thedarker,smallerform ofDeathbalancesthe lighter,larger formof Life.
Mondrian wasconcernedwith formaldesignprinciples,and hisCompositionwith Red,Yellow, andBlue is aclassicexample:What size of ablue area wasneeded tobalance thered and yellowareas?
Radial Balance Elements in a composition radiate outward from a central point.(like the sun or your tire rims) More common in architecture and the crafts. Baptism of Christ and Procession of Twelve Apostles. c.520
IV. Proportionand Scale Proportion—the comparison of elements to one another in terms of their properties of size, quantity and degree of emphasis Scale—size in relation to a standard or “normal” size.
Magritte. Delusions of Grandeur II. 1948. El Greco. Resurrection. C. 1600-1605.
V. Dominance (also called Emphasis) When some elements assume more importance than others in the same composition. Created by contrasts in size, color, value, etc. Also created by line direction Klimt. Serena Lederer. 1899.
Caravaggio. TheCalling of St.Matthew.What isemphasizedhere?How?
Goya. Executions of the Thirdof May, 1808. 1814-15. How about this one?
VI. Rhythm/Movement An illusion created by the placement and configuration of the visual parts or elements.Here, repetition creates astrong, steady rhythm.
Economy was all-important to the Minimalists. They wanted to see how many elements of art could be taken out of a piece and it still be considered art.Donald Judd. Untitled. 1969. Brass and colored fluorescent plexiglass.
Information and images for this presentation were provided by:Getlein, Mark. Gilbert’s Living with Art, 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 2002.Gilbert, Rita. Living with Art, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1995.Harden, Mark. Artchive. http://artchive.com/core.html 2005.Hext, Bob and Kristi Hext. Lecture notes 2004-2005.