MDGs and HealthStatus of PakistanZeenia AhmedBS-09-24Department of Sociology (BZU)firstname.lastname@example.org
Millennium Development Goals:MDGs Definition and Vision: “In September 2000, leaders from 189 nations agreed on a vision for the future: a world with less poverty, hunger and disease, greater survival prospects for mothers and their infants, better educated children, equal opportunities for women, and a healthier environment; a world in which developed and developing countries worked in partnership for the betterment of all.”
Millennium Development Goals:Explanation:Its basically a road map on what needs to be done by 2015.This vision took the shape of eight Millennium Development Goals,which provide a framework for development planning for countriesaround the world, and time-bound targets by which progress can bemeasured.The eight MDGs range from halving extreme poverty to halting thespread of HIV/AIDS and providing universal primary education, allby the target date of 2015.
Millennium Development Goals: What are MDGs? The MDG targets have become an integral part of Global indicators for development. The Eight Millennium Development Goals are: To Eradicate extreme poverty To Achieve universal Primary Education To Promote gender equality and empower women To Reduce child mortality
Millennium Development Goals: To Improve maternal health To Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other disease To Ensure environmental Sustainability To Develop a global partnership for development
Health, its definition and concept:Definition:“Health is a state of complete well-being: physical, mental, andemotional.”This definition emphasizes the importance of being more thandisease free, and recognizes that a healthy body depends upon ahealthy environment and a stable mind.Health status (Definition & Concept):It mainly refers to the medical condition (both physical and mental
Health, its definition and concept:illnesses), claims experience, receipt of health care, medicalhistory,genetic information, evidence of insurability (including conditionsarising out of acts of domestic violence), and disability. ORHealth status is the current state of health. It includes the status ofwellness, fitness, diseases or injuries of individuals.
MDGs and Current Health Status of Pakistan:• There are eight (8) Millennium Development Goals, in which MDG4, MDG5, and MDG6 are closely related with Health.• Actually Pakistan’s performance in achieving MDGs is poor and hence the health status of Pakistan also goes on decline.• The current health status of the nation is characterized by a high population growth rate, high incidence of low birth-weight babies and maternal mortality. While communicable, infectious, and parasitic diseases remain a severe burden, malaria and tuberculosis (TB) continue to be potential threats.
Why Pakistan’s Health Status is in poor condition? Health status of people of Pakistan is in a poor state due to various issues such as the poor performance of programs related with:• mother and child health• Maternal Neonate and Child Health (MNCH) program• Program on Immunization (EPI)• Lady Health Workers (LHW) program
Indicators of Health status in Pakistan:Health status of Pakistan can be determined by different indicators;these indicators include socio-economic and demographicindicators.More specifically Socio-economic Indicators include, Incomeand social status, social support networks, education and literacy,employment/working condition, social environments, physicalenvironments, personal health practices and coping skills,healthy child development, biology and genetics, health careservices, gender and culture.
Explanation:The main determinants of health include the social and economicenvironment, The maintenance and promotion of health is achievedthrough different combination of physical, mental, and social well-being, together sometimes referred to as the "health triangle".The health triangle represents physical, social and mental health,which needs to be balanced to achieve total health.
Health TriangleThe three equal sides of the triangle symbolizethat all three factors must be equal.
Major Health Status Indicators (Demographic) Total fertility rate Life expectancy at Birth Healthy life expectancy at birth Under 5 mortality rate Infant mortality rate (first year of life) Neo-natal mortality rate (first 28 days of life) Incidence of smear tuberculosis Number of wild polio cases reported Maternal mortality rate
Major Health Status Indicators (Demographic) Life expectancy index Percentage of children under age 5, under weight for age Prevalence of adults who are obese Mean systolic blood pressure among the adults Percentage of under height children (for age) Percentage of infants with low birth weight All the above mentioned indicators contribute to check the Health status of Pakistan.
Statistical Analysis of Health Infrastructure In Pakistan There are:• 916 Hospitals,• 4,600 Dispensaries• 5,301 Basic Health Units (BHUs) Maternity camp;• 906 Child Health Centers• 552 Rural Health Centers (RHCs)• 289 Tuberculosis (TB) Centers
Achievements of MDGs regarding Health Status, in Pakistan:• Pakistan has made considerable progress in reducing its Under-5 mortality and maternal mortality rates .• Under-5 mortality rate went down from 227 per 1,000 live births during 1960s, Currently, the Under-5 mortality rate in Pakistan stands at 109 per 1,000 live births.• The infant mortality rate (IMR) in Pakistan was 145 per 1,000 live births during the 1970s and declined to 95 per 1,000 live births by 1990s. the IMR in Pakistan seems to have increased somewhat to 101 per 1,000 live births.
Hindrances / Challenges:• Rigid cultural Patterns• Lack of awareness• Lack of adequate financial and human resources• Low literacy rate among females• Lack of facilities in health centers• Scarcity of women health professionals in Pakistan• Little participation of women in decision making• Low socio-economic status of women
Hindrances / Challenges:• Gender biasness in Health care system• Macro political environment• Less use of contraceptives
Threats:• Climate change• Sharp natural disasters• Water borne diseases (high rate)• Due to sanitation issues polio and other water borne diseases like diarrhea malaria etc are prevailing.• Low budget allocation
Suggestions:• Need of larger outlays for sustained service deliveries• EPI should increase the number of HR, and awareness campaigns should be improved• Strong implementation of the laws that empower the women• There is relationship between womens education, social status and overall child and maternal health• Enhancing women social status through education is necessary• Health care system needs to be made more gender sensitive• Training tools can be used in this respect
Conclusion:• MDGs are considered as indicators for the development in which almost 191 UN members states have agreed to achieve by 2015• The MDGs are derived from UN Millennium Declaration, and all have specific targets and indicators.• Pakistan’s economy mainly depends on agricultural sector, mostly the population lives in rural areas. Due to prevalence of strong cultural patterns, it is much difficult to achieve the MD goals so early.• In order to reduce mortality rate (infant, maternal, neonatal), awareness amongst women is necessary, and awareness comes
Conclusion: from education and unfortunately, MDG2 (universal Primary education) is also lagging behind.• Absence of gender sensitivity amongst managers.• Due to poverty, mostly people cannot afford to send their children in the high standard schools.• The schools provided by the government or any aiding agency, are not according to the mind sets of traditional people.• The business of politics is booming in Pakistan but the shops of economics have closed down.
Conclusion:• . How can a country with such a fragile (easily broken) economy aspire (direct one’s hope) to achieve the MDGs?• There are so many other reasons but the above mentioned are common hindrances while achieving all the 8 MDGs, esp. MDG4, MDG5, MDG6.