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Introduction to problem solving in C


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simply read some fundamental of C programming language............

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Introduction to problem solving in C

  1. 1. What is programming ? A set of instruction to solve the problem or the specification of the sequence of computational steps in a particular programming language is called program. The task of developing programs is called programming .
  2. 2. What is algorithm ? A logical and concise list of steps required to solve a problem is called algorithm. Languagically representation of the various steps involved in solving problem is called algorithm.
  3. 3. Points for developing algorithm Every procedure should carefully specify the input & output requirements. Meaning of variable should be clearly defined. Easy to understand and can be implemented in any program language. It should terminate after a binite number of operations.
  4. 4. Flowchart A flowchart is pictorial representations of step by step solution of a program. Symbolically representations various steps include in solving problem is called flowchart.
  5. 5. Flowchart symbols Terminal box :-include start/stop box---------------------------------------------------------------- Processing box:-straight forward computationarraignment operation .
  6. 6.  Input/output box :-Used for input data &giving result in outputmerrage.---------------------------------------------------------------------- -. Internal sub-routine:- represents predefined module .
  7. 7.  Decision box :- to chosen between two three blanching leading other part of flowchart------------------------------------------------------------------- -----Flow lines:- used to connect different boxes & indicates direction of flow.------------------------------------------------------------------- ----Connectors:- connects different parts of flowchart.
  8. 8. Benefits of usingflowcharts. Being a pictorial representations they are easier to understand . We can review our logic & debug the program with the help of flowcharts. Easy to explain a program or discuss the solution . It separates the logic development & program syntax.
  9. 9. Computer program The set of instructions that is provided to the computer to solve the problem is called as program.
  10. 10. Components of a program Comment entry:- An entry following the symbol // indicates a comment entry , and used to specify a comment it increases readability and clarity of a program for documentation purpose . Program name:- program are indicates name of the program. Decimeters:- ‘{‘&’}’ indicates beginning and ending mark of the program. Sentences:- each line of a program is a sentence. Sentence terminator:- each statement is to be terminated with a semicolon (;) which is called sentence terminator. Keywords:- words used for specific purpose in program.
  11. 11. Characteristic variable in a program The program should be able to provide accurate & variable output . The program should be variable ie it should continue to work accurately over a period of time . Program should be able to manage the resources efficiently . Structure of the program should allow further modification it required without changing the previous written code. Program should be readable .
  12. 12. Programming paradigm The systematic and organized principle of writing a program is called as programming paradigm . There are different types of programming paradigms.
  13. 13. Procedural programming In this approach , the problem is viewed as a sequence of things to be done as reading , calculating & printing . The principle of this programming is “ decide which procedure you want ; use the best algorithm you can find”.
  14. 14. General model of procedure-oriented programming depicts thefollowing characteristics . Emphases is on doing things . Global data is loosely available to all function. Data more openly around the system from function to function.
  15. 15. Drawbacks of procedure orientedapproach. It is unstructured which gives result generally in composed code , which is difficult to understand & maintain . In a large program it is very difficult to identity what data is used by which function. Due to its open availability , global data are more vulnerable . It does not encourage reusability of code.
  16. 16. Structured approach Structured programming is process in which we break the overall program into separate pieces of modules . The program will more complex when branching and looping are used then this procedures is used to make them less error and much easier to debug. Structuring a program helps to break it down into under stable chunks .
  17. 17. Advantage of structured approach Modification of enhancement in programs becomes much easier due to reduction in the main problem . It adds the concept of hierarchies and modules with single entry and exit points. Decreases debugging time . Allows several programmers to code simultaneously. Sequence , selection , iteration are basic construction of structed programming .
  18. 18. Modular approach A system or program is considered modular if it consists of direct modules so that each modules can be separately implemented . And a change in one module has minimal impact on other modules . { module is a logically separable part of a program or a set of related procedures with the data they manipulate is called module . It can be a macro , a function , a procedure , a process or a package .} . This approach is based upon this principle . “ Decide which module you want ; partition the program so that data is hidden in modules .” cont.1
  19. 19. Cont.2Under this approach a program can be logically separated into following functional module :- 1). Initialization 2). Input 3). Input data validation 4). Processing 5). Output 6). Error handling 7). Closing procedure
  20. 20. Advantage of modular approach Testing of individual modules in isolation makes easier to find errors . Modules can be kept separately In a library & used any where in the program without reverting them . A module can use other modules . The documentation of a large program is simplified by the documentation of individual modules . It save development time .
  21. 21. Top down approach A top down design approach start by identifying the major modules of the program i.e. decomposing them into their low level modules & repeating until the desired level of details is achieved first the main module is implemented & then their subroutine and so. on .
  22. 22. THANK YOU