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unit 3.pptx

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NUMBER SYSTEM.pptx
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unit 3.pptx

  1. 1. Computer software, or simply software, is a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work. There are two types of software − 1.System Software 2.Application Software
  2. 2. System Software  The system software is a collection of programs designed to operate, control, and extend the processing capabilities of the computer itself.  System software is generally prepared by the computer manufacturers.  These software products comprise of programs written in low-level languages, which interact with the hardware at a very basic level.  System software serves as the interface between the hardware and the end users.  Some examples of system software are Operating System, Compilers, Interpreter, Assemblers, etc.
  3. 3.  Close to the system  Fast in speed  Difficult to design  Difficult to understand  Less interactive  Smaller in size  Difficult to manipulate  Generally written in low-level language
  4. 4.  Application software products are designed to satisfy a particular need of a particular environment.  All software applications  It may also consist of a collection of programs, often called a software package, which work together to accomplish a task, such as a spreadsheet package
  5. 5.  Close to the user  Easy to design  More interactive  Slow in speed  Generally written in high-level language  Easy to understand  Easy to manipulate and use
  6. 6.  Operating system  Device drivers  Language translators  System utilities
  7. 7.  A program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and the computer hardware  Operating system goals: › Execute user programs and make solving user problems easier › Make the computer system convenient to use › Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner
  8. 8.  A collection of programs which control the resources of a computer system.  Written in low-level language(machine dependent)  An interface between users and hardware  When the computer is on ,OS will first load into the main memory
  9. 9.  Process Management  The process management activities handled by the OS are— 1. control access to shared resources like file, memory, I/O and CPU 2. control execution of applications 3. create, execute and delete a process (system process or user process) 4. cancel or resume a process 5. schedule a process 6. synchronization, communication and deadlock handling for processes.
  10. 10.  Memory Management  The activities of memory management handled by OS are— 1. allocate memory 2. free memory 3. re-allocate memory to a program when a used block is freed 4. keep track of memory usage  File Management  The file management tasks include — 1. create and delete both files and directories 2. provide access to files 3. allocate space for files 4. keep back-up of files 5. secure files
  11. 11.  Device Management  The device management tasks handled by OS are— 1. open, close and write device drivers 2. communicate, control and monitor the device driver  Protection and Security  OS protects the resources of system. User authentication, file attributes like read, write, encryption, and back-up of data are used by OS to provide basic protection.  User Interface or Command Interpreter  Operating system provides an interface between the computer user and the computer hardware. The user interface is a set of commands or a graphical user interface via which the user interacts with the applications and the hardware.
  12. 12.  device driver or hardware driver is a group of files that enable one or more hardware devices to communicate with the computer's operating system.  Without drivers, the computer would not be able to send and receive data correctly to hardware devices  If the appropriate driver is not installed, the device may not function properly, if at all
  13. 13.  When buying an operating system, many device drivers are built into the product.  if a user later buys a new type of device that the operating system did not anticipate, the new device driver will have to be installed.  A device driver essentially allows smooth communication between a connected hardware device and the operating system (OS).
  14. 14.  A driver acts as a translator between the device and program  Each device has its own set of specialized commands that only its driver understands  Eg: print instruction given by user/ program . Os connect that program with driver. Driver invoke corresponding set of code to print the data
  15. 15.  It is a program which is used to translate instructions that are written in the source code to object code  Translate from high-level language or assembly language into machine language.  It also detects and reports the error during translation.
  16. 16. Compiler  Compiler is a translator which is used to convert programs in high-level language to low-level language.  It translates the entire program and also reports the errors in source program encountered during the translation. Interpreter  Interpreter is a translator which is used to convert programs in high- level language to low-level language  Interpreter translates line by line and reports the error once it encountered during the translation process.  It directly executes the operations specified in the source program when the input is given by the user.  It gives better error diagnostics than a compiler. Assembler  Assembler is a translator which is used to translate the assembly language code into machine language code.
  17. 17. system utility  A utility or system utility is computer system software intended to analyze, configure, monitor, or help maintain a computer.  Operating systems typically contain the necessary tools for this, but separate utility programs can provide improved functionality  a utility is smaller than a standard program in size and may be included with an operating system or installed separately. .
  18. 18. 1.Antivirus  A virus can be defined as a malicious program that attaches itself to a host program and makes multiple copies of itself, slowing down, corrupting or destroying the system.  A software that assists the OS in providing virus free environment to the users is called antivirus.  An anti-virus scans the system for any virus and if detected, gets rid of it by deleting or isolating it
  19. 19. 2.File management tools  file management is an important function of operating systems as all data and instructions are stored in the computer in form of files.  Utility software providing regular file management tasks like browse, search, update, preview, etc. are called file management tools. 3. Disk Cleanup  Disk cleanup tools assist users in freeing up disk space. The software scans hard disks to find files that are no longer used and frees up space by deleting them.
  20. 20. 4.Compression tools  operating systems are always looking at ways to minimize amount of storage space taken by files.  Compression tools are utilities that assist operating systems in shortening files so that they take less space.  After compression files are stored in a different format and cannot be read or edited directly.  It needs to be uncompressed before it can be accessed for further use.  WinRAR, PeaZip, The Unarchiver, etc.
  21. 21. 5 . Disk Defragmenter  Disk defragmenter is a disk management utility that increases file access speeds by rearranging fragmented files on contiguous locations.  Large files are broken down into fragments and may be stores in non-contiguous locations if contiguous ones are not available.  When such files are accessed by the user, access speed is slow due to fragmentation.  Disk defragmenter utility scans the hard disk and tries to assemble file fragments so that they may be stored in contiguous locations.
  22. 22. 6. Backup  Backup utility enables backing up of files, folders, databases or complete disks.  Backups are taken so that data may be restored in case of data loss.  Backup is a service provided by all operating systems.  In stand-alone systems backup may be taken in the same or different drive.  In case of networked systems backup may be done on backup servers.
  23. 23.  Types of application software  Applications software is capable of dealing with user inputs and helps the user to complete the task.  It is also called end-user programs or only an app. It resides above system software.  Application Software are Word processing software, Spreadsheets Software, Presentation, Graphics, CAD/CAM  Types of Application Software: According to the need of users it is categorized into following types. 
  24. 24.  Presentation program is a program to show the information in the form of slides. We can add text, graphics video and images to slides to make them more informative.  The software has three components: 1) Text editor for inputting and formatting text. 2) Inserting graphics, text, video and other multimedia files. 3) Slideshow to display the information.  Presentation software helps the presenter to present their ideas with ease and visual information easy to understand.  Example of presentation software: Microsoft's PowerPoint and Apple's Keynote.
  25. 25.  Spreadsheet software is used to perform manipulation and calculations on data.  In spreadsheet software data, is stored in intersection of row and column.  The intersection of row and column is known as a cell.  The cell labelled with the row and column label like A1, A2 etc.  While entering data into the cell, we can also define the data value like text, date, time, number.  It provides many formula and function to perform calculations like arithmetic operations, logical operations, text operation etc.  It provides charts, graphs to display data graphically.  For example Microsoft Excel, lotus 1-2-3 for windows and number for MAC OS.
  26. 26.  Database is a collection of data related to any applications.  every application has some database where data regarding to the users are stored.  For this purpose, we used database software. When we operate the application data is accessed from the database, and after manipulation, it gets back stored in the database.  Database Management System (DBMS) software tool used for storing, modifying extracting and searching for information within a database.  MySQL, MS Access, Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle is the example of database application Software.
  27. 27.  Multimedia is a combination of text, graphics, audio and Multimedia software used in the editing of video, audio and text.  Multimedia software used in the growth of business, educations, information, remote system and entertainment.  Entertainment: This area deal with the general public, media and telecommunication. With the growth entertainment mode, many application is available for mobile phone as well as the system. Like Music and video entertainment app, navigation app, social networking application, news and weather application, educational apps and e-book reader’s app for preparation of any type of exams.
  28. 28.  Process of modeling a real phenomenon with a set of mathematical formulas.  A program that allows the users to observe an operation through simulation without performing that operation.  Simulation is an imitation of real world and environment.  The simulation creates a physical environment of the real world to represent the similar behavior, function and key nature of the selected topic.  Simulation is technology for education, engineering, testing, training, video games and for scientific modeling of natural systems to gain insight into their functioning.  Area of technology : flight, economics, automobiles, Robotics, weather.
  29. 29.  Word Processing software is used to manipulate, format the text, to create memos, letters, faxes and documents.  word Processing Software is used to format and beautify the text.  It provides a list of features , the option provides synonyms, antonyms and related words for chosen word or phrase.  Find and replace feature enables users to scan and replace selected words or phrases in the document.  Font option provides font colours , font style, font effect, font size to modify the txt.  Word Art option to modify or animated titles, hyphens, columns and text boxes in documents.  Grammar and Spelling check option available for checking errors. Many more option is listed here in software.  For example Microsoft Word, Lotus Word Pro, Word pad and Corel WordPerfect.
  30. 30.  Used to describe the creation of printed documents uing a desktop computer.  It is a technique of using a personal computer to design image and pages, assemble type and graphics, and then using a laser printer or image setter t ouput the assembled pages onto a paper, film, or printing plate.  Software is used for creation of magazines and books, newsletters etc.
  31. 31.  • System software gets installed when the operating system is installed on the computer while application software is installed according to the requirements of the user.  • System software includes programs such as compilers, debuggers, drivers, assemblers while application software includes media players, word processors, and spreadsheet programs.  • Generally, users do not interact with system software as it works in the background whereas users interact with application software while doing different activities.  • A computer may not require more than one type of system software while there may be a number of application software programs installed on the computer at the same time.  • System software can run independently of the application software while application software cannot run without the presence of the system software.
  32. 32.  The collection of computer programs that can solve equations or perform mathematical manipulations.  The developing of mathematical equations that describe a process is called mathematical modeling.  Once these equations are developed, they must be solved, and the solutions to the equations are then analyzed to determine what information they give about the process.
  33. 33.  Axiom and Maxima are good general purpose computer algebra systems.  DataMelt is a free Java-based math software with a lot of examples  GAP is a system for computational discrete algebra (with particular emphasis on computational group theory).  Octave is a system for numerical computations (it is close to Matlab).  Cadabra is a computer algebra system designed for the solution of the field theory problems.
  34. 34.  It is a discipline of mathematics and science both combined, that deal with Collection ,Manipulation ,Analysis and Interpretation of data  Statistics Software: There are number of Software available to manage statistical data – Statistical soft wares  These Programs – User Friendly, Menu driven, Interactive, Attractive, Self- explanatory.
  35. 35.  Packages  1)R › Is a programming language and software environment for statistical computing and graphics. › The R language is widely used among statisticians and data miners for developing statistical software and data analysis. › R was created by Ross Ithaca and Robert Gentleman. R is named partly after the first names of the first two R author
  36. 36.  Statistical Lab  The Statistical Lab is an explorative and interactive tool designed both to support education in statistics and provide a tool for the simulation and solution of statistical problems. The graphical user interface is designed to make complex statistical relations easy to understand.  It connects and displays data frames, frequency tables, random numbers or matrixes in a user-friendly statistical worksheet  allowing users to run calculations, conduct analyses and perform multiple simulations and manipulations.
  37. 37.  Weka  Weka is a collection of machine learning algorithms for data mining tasks.  The algorithms can either be applied directly to a dataset or called from your own Java code.  Weka contains tools for data pre- processing, classification, regression, clustering, association rules, and visualization.
  38. 38.  Enterprise software, also known as enterprise application software (EAS),  is computer software used to satisfy the needs of an organization rather than individual users.  Such organizations include businesses, schools, interest-based user groups, clubs, charities, and governments.  The main goal behind enterprise software is to improve enterprise productivity and efficiency through business logic support functionality.  Enterprise software performs business functions including order processing, accounting and customer relationship management.
  39. 39.  Types of Enterprise Software  Enterprise software is also a hugely broad category. To illustrate, here is a list of tools that might be included in a given enterprise software suite:  Billing  Ordering  Scheduling  Customer Information Management  Customer Relationship Management  Online Marketplace: Shopping/Payment processing/Product Catalog  Enterprise Resource Planning  Human Resource Management  Manufacturing  Sales Management
  40. 40.  graphics software or image editing software is a program or collection of programs that enable a person to manipulate visual images on a computer.  These are the application software which lets the user to create and manipulate any type of computer graphics with the use of an operating system.
  41. 41.  It is the unauthorized copying of an organization’s internally developed software  Illegal duplication of commercially available software.  Software piracy is the illegal copying, distribution, or use of software  The majority of software today is purchased as a one-site license, meaning that only one computer may have that software installed on it at one time
  42. 42.  . Copying that software to multiple computers or sharing it with your friend without multiple licenses is considered software piracy, which is illegal.  Software piracy comes in many different forms.
  43. 43. 1. soft loading  Also known as soft lifting  Sharing of software with someone who is not authorized by the license agreement.  Purchasing a single licensed copy of software and loading that software onto many several computers.  Eg: sharing software with friends, co-workers
  44. 44.  2.software counterfeiting  Producing fake copies of software and making it look authentic  This involve providing packaging box, CDs or floppies all designed to look like original product  Counterfeit software is sold on street corners, unknowingly sold in retail store.  Counterfeit software is sold at prices far below the actual price
  45. 45.  3. Internet downloading  Fastest growing form of piracy  With the growing number of online users and rapidly increasing connection speeds, the exchange of software on internet Increased  There are many sites that allow users to unlimited downloading of software(warez sites).  Warez sites is craked to eliminate any copy of protection.
  46. 46. 4. Renting  Renting out a copy of software for temporary use, without the permission of the copyright holder.  Eg: renting a video f a movie, violates the license agreement. 5. Hard disk loading  Installing an unauthorized copy of software onto a computer being sold to the end user.  It is often committed by hardware dealers.
  47. 47.  6. license misuse  Software is distributed under special discount licenses to high volume customers, manufacturers or academic institutions.  After getting a copy of software, it will redistribute the software to others who do not hold or qualify for these license  The ways license can be misused: 1. Original equipment manufacturer unbundling 2. Academic product misuse 3. 3.not for resale product misuse
  48. 48. 1. Public domain software  Public domain software is any software that has no legal copyright or editing restrictions associated with it.  Public domain software has no ownership and is available for use, modification and commercialization by anyone.  It is free and open-source software that can be publicly modified, distributed or sold without any restrictions.  It is different from free software and freeware that does has copyrights and patents associated with it.  SQLite, I2P and CERN httpd are popular examples of public domain software.
  49. 49.  2. freeware  Freeware is any copyrighted software, application or program that may be freely downloaded, installed, used and shared.  Such programs are available for use at no cost to general end users.  Freeware differs from free software, as the latter allows a user to modify source code for republishing or integration with other software.  As small software utilities, freeware is free to use throughout its lifetime because it does not expire after a certain period.  Freeware may be used for a desktop, mobile or Web-based utility.  Generally, freeware is a concise and limited version of a larger and paid software program.  large independent software vendors (ISV) publish freeware to enhance brand buzz and market reputation.
  50. 50.  Donation ware is a licensing model that supplies fully operational unrestricted software to the user and requests an optional donation be paid to the programmer or a third-party beneficiary (usually a non-profit).  Postcard ware, also called just card ware, is a style of software distribution similar to shareware, distributed by the author on the condition that users send the author a postcard as a form of payment.
  51. 51.  Abandon ware is commonly used to refer to computer software that is no longer used or sold by the owner and for which no product support is available from the manufacturer.  The most popular abandoned products include word processors, interactive video game  Adware: advertising-supported software, that generates revenue for its developer by automatically generating online advertisements in the user interface of the software.  The software may generate two types of revenue: one is for the display of the advertisement and another on a "pay-per-click" basis, if the user clicks on the advertisement  . The software may implement advertisements in a variety of ways, including a static box display, a banner display, full screen, a video, pop-up ad or in some other form.
  52. 52.  3 .shareware  Shareware is software that is distributed free on a trial basis with the understanding that the user may need or want to pay for it later.  Some software developers offer a shareware version of their program with a built-in expiration date (after 30 days, the user can no longer get access to the program).  Other shareware (sometimes called liteware) is offered with certain capabilities disabled as an enticement to buy the complete version of the program.
  53. 53.  4. Commercial software is any software or program that is designed and developed for licensing or sale to end users or that serves a commercial purpose.  Commercial software was once considered to be proprietary software, but now a number of free and open-source software applications are licensed or sold to end users.  games or other software those sold in computer specialty stores or even music stores and grocery stores, are some examples of commercial software.  Microsoft products such as the Windows Operating System and MS Office are some of the most well- known examples of commercial software.
  54. 54.  5.Open source software is software with source code that anyone can inspect, modify, and enhance.  Open-source software (OSS) is software that is distributed with source code that may be read or modified by users.  The OSS community generally agrees that open- source software should meet the following criteria:  The program must be freely distributed  Source code must be included with the program  Anyone must be able to modify the source code  Modified versions of the source code may be redistributed
  55. 55.  6. Proprietary software is any software that is copyrighted and bears limits against use, distribution and modification that are imposed by its publisher, vendor or developer.  Proprietary software remains the property of its owner/creator and is used by end- users/organizations under predefined conditions.  Proprietary software may also be called closed- source software or commercial software.  Proprietary software is primarily commercial software  It can be purchased or licensed for fee, but relicensing, distribution or copying is prohibited.
  56. 56.  7. Firmware is a software program or set of instructions programmed on a hardware device.  It provides the necessary instructions for how the device communicates with the other computer hardware.  hardware device such as a keyboards, hard drive, BIOS, or video cards.  It is programmed to give permanent instructions to communicate with other devices and perform functions like basic input/output tasks.  Firmware is typically stored in the flash ROM (read only memory) of a hardware device. It can be erased and rewritten.  Firmware also retains the basic instructions for hardware devices that make them operative. Without firmware, a hardware device would be non-functional.

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