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Agriculture 4.0- The future of farming technology


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Agriculture 4.0- The future of farming technology

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The World Government Summit recently came out with an agenda to improve agricultural technologies by integrating farming with industry 4.0. The outcome would be a fourth agricultural revolution or Agriculture 4.0

The World Government Summit recently came out with an agenda to improve agricultural technologies by integrating farming with industry 4.0. The outcome would be a fourth agricultural revolution or Agriculture 4.0


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Agriculture 4.0- The future of farming technology

  1. 1. AGRICULTURE - 4.0: THE FUTURE OF FARMING TECHNOLOGY -Dishant James PALB 7025 II Ph.D. Dept. of Agri. Extension UAS(B)
  2. 2. Objectives: 1. To understand the concepts of Industry 4.0 and Agriculture 4.0. 2. To know about the different trends and technologies under Agriculture 4.0. 3. To discuss the role of extension and municipal organisations in fostering Agriculture 4.0.
  3. 3. World Government Summit • An annual event held in Dubai, UAE. It’s an NGO founded in 2013. • It brings together leaders in government for a global dialogue about governmental process and policies with a focus on the issues of futurism, technology and innovation. • It functions as a thought leadership platform and networking hub for policymakers, experts and pioneers in human development. • Each year, the Summit sets the agenda for the next generation of governments with a focus on how they can harness innovation and technology to solve universal challenges facing humanity.
  4. 4. Industry 4.0
  5. 5. CPS v/s IoT • CPS is a broader concept than the IoT System. • It has "tighter" interactions (having sensing as well as control and actuating functionalities implicitly closer to real-time interactions) with the physical processes/world, than IoT. • IoT in most cases is viewed as a data-centric internet-based system with more relaxed timing requirements.  The first 4.0 project (“Fabbrica 4.0”) in Italy was launched by Confindustria (the largest national association of industries) in 2014.  The aim was to promote better information on possibilities that digitalization can offer to current industries.
  6. 6. Agricultural revolutions  Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1793  Automation of separating cottonseed from the cotton fibre.  Along with other inventions like the spinning jenny, it revolutionized the factory- based textile industry and boosted cotton farming.
  7. 7.  Advances such as telephones, light bulbs, diesel engines, airplanes, the Model T and the introduction of assembly lines.  Improvement in transportation, especially the expansion of railways, helped move crops, livestock and farming machinery, expanding markets and making farms more efficient.
  8. 8. • The third industrial revolution, also called the digital revolution, saw technology advancing from mechanical and analog to digital. • Agricultural technology experienced many advances. Farmers started using HYVs, insect- and weed-resistant crops, effective fertilizers and pesticides. • Satellite technology and biotechnology enabled farmers to increase their produce as well as record and analyse their production. Agriculture during the third industrial revolution
  9. 9. Agriculture during the fourth industrial revolution • Agriculture 4.0, like Industry 4.0, stands for the combined internal and external interaction of farming operations, offering digital information at all farm sectors and processes. • Factories will become smarter, more efficient, safer, and more environmentally sustainable, due to the combination and integration of production technologies and devices, information and communication systems, data and services in network infrastructure. • A Smart Farm must be able to adapt autonomously and in real-time to these changes in order to remain competitive on the market.
  10. 10. Challenges faced by agricultural industry 1. AN ELEVATED INCREASE IN DEMOGRAPHICS WILL BOOST DEMAND FOR FOOD
  13. 13. 4. FOOD WASTE- A MASSIVE MARKET INEFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTAL THREAT • 800 million people go to bed hungry every night. • Each and every one of them could be fed on less than a quarter of the food that is wasted in the US, UK, and Europe each year.
  14. 14. OUTCOME
  15. 15. Four tiers of generic farm architecture
  16. 16. AGRICULTURE 4.0: DISRUPTING THE SYSTEM IS DOABLE WITH NEW TECHNOLOGIES • Three general trends where technology is disrupting the agricultural industry: 1. Produce differently using new techniques 2. Use new technologies to bring food production to consumers, increasing efficiencies in the food chain 3. Incorporate cross-industry technologies and applications Agriculture 4.0, the coming agricultural revolution, would be a green one, with science and technology at its heart
  17. 17. i) HYDROPONICS • The method of growing plants without soil, using mineral nutrient solutions in a water solvent. A conventional greenhouse uses groundwater for irrigation, gas for heating, and electricity for cooling. A Sundrop greenhouse (Australia) turns seawater and sunlight into energy and water. Sustainably sourced carbon dioxide and nutrients are used to maximise the growth of crops.
  18. 18. ii) ALGAE FEEDSTOCK • Only a small percentage of global fish production is actually channeled towards human consumption, with the rest used for fish feed and animal feed. • Algae-based feedstock is an effective and inexpensive substitute for feedstock and fishmeal. • Algae can produce between 7,500 and 19,000 litres of fuel per acre/year, far more than any other renewable feedstock. (Chlorella, Botryococcus)  hydrothermal liquefaction. • They can be grown on brackish or polluted water. • India is a growing market for micro algae such as Spirulina, which is now given as a pharmaceutical product. (Ex: SPRTC, Madurai)
  19. 19. iii) SUSTAINABLE PACKAGING: BIOPLASTICS • 100 million tons of debris drifting in the oceans. • Much of it - disposable plastic food packaging containers and bags. How to manufacture PLA bioplastics: •Process corn kernels and mill them to extract the dextrose from their starch. •Use fermenting vats to turn the dextrose into lactic acid. •In a chemical plant, convert the lactic acid into lactide. •Polymerize the lactide to make long- chain molecules of polylactide acid (PLA) The cornstarch molecules they contain slowly absorb water and swell up, causing them to break apart into small fragments that bacteria can digest more readily.
  20. 20. iv) DESERT AGRICULTURE • The ‘King Abdullah University for Science and Technology’ (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia is at the forefront of research on desert agriculture. • Genome engineering technologies to manipulate biological systems and plant growth and development; • Growth regulators that improve plants response to adverse conditions; and • Plant hormones that shape shoot and root architecture according to nutrient availability. “Valley of the Moon” or Wadi Rum Organic Farms, Jordan
  21. 21. v) 3D OCEAN FARMING Unlike land-based crops, seaweed is a “zero- input food” — it requires no additional fresh water, fertilizer, pesticides, feed or soil to grow. Packed with protein, vitamin C and calcium, seaweed is a nutritious addition to human diets. The nonprofit organization GreenWave trains new seaweed farmers and provides them with two years of support. With about $30,000, a boat and a lease (which requires approvals from state regulators and the US Army Corps of Engineers) to farm 20 acres of near-shore seafloor, anyone can start a 3D ocean farm that produces 10 to 30 tons of kelp and 250,000 shellfish per acre in five months.
  22. 22. i) URBANFARMING The growing of plants and the raising of animals within and around cities. Types of actors involved: • Urban poor, richer people who are seeking a good investment for their capital, women who are home-makers. Types of location: • Inside the cities (intra-urban) or in peri-urban areas • On homestead (on-plot) or on land away from the residence (off-plot), • On private land (owned, leased) or on public land (parks, conservation areas, along roads, streams and railways), • Or semi-public land (schoolyards, grounds of schools and hospitals).
  23. 23. Types of products grown: Crops (root crops, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits) Animals (poultry, rabbits, goats, sheep, fish) Non-food products (aromatic and medicinal herbs, ornamental plants, tree products) Also Inputs (e.g. compost) and services delivery (e.g. animal health services) by specialised micro- enterprises or NGOs Product destination / degree of market orientation: Self consumption Local shops Local farmer markets Restaurants Intermediaries Supermarkets
  24. 24. VERTICALFARMING Vertical farming is the urban farming of fruits, vegetables, and grains, inside a building in a city or urban centre, in which floors are designed to accommodate certain crops. Spiral Garden system Pyramidal Farm
  25. 25. 2) GENETICMODIFICATION • Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) technology  Important new approach to genome editing that allows greater selectivity and reduces the element of chance.
  26. 26. 3) CULTUREDMEATS • Cutting-edge technology that has a lot of potential but is still in a fragile state of development.
  27. 27. 4) APPLYING3D PRINTING TECHNOLOGYTO FOOD • 3D printed food is a way of preparing a meal in an automated additive manner. Grocery stores of the future may stock “food cartridges” Pros of 3D Printed Food: Enable us to reinvent our culinary ways: texture, shape and artistic vision. New ways of preparing a meal in space. Helpful for senior citizens with tooth ailments and gastronomic problems
  28. 28. Professional food 3D printers Consumer desktop food 3D printers
  29. 29. 1) Digital Twin • Digital Twin is the virtual representation of the elements and the dynamics of a process, device or service. • Digital Twin is like an artificial mind that substitutes human decision making with super informed decisions based upon historical data, smart analytics, live environmental factors
  30. 30. 2) Cobots • A cobot or co-robot (from collaborative robot) is a robot intended to physically interact with humans in a shared workspace. • This is in contrast with other robots, designed to operate autonomously or with limited guidance • Collaborative industrial robots are highly complex machines which are able to work hand in hand with human beings. The robots support and relieve the human operator in a conjoint work flow.
  31. 31. 3)BLOCKCHAIN AND SECURING THE AGRICULTURE VALUE CHAIN • The blockchain is an incorruptible digital ledger of economic transactions that can be programmed to record not just financial transactions but virtually everything of value.” – Don & Alex Tapscott, authors of Blockchain Revolution (2016).
  32. 32. Traceability of agri-products using blockchain technology * LBA= Logical Block Addressing, GRN=Goods Received Note, FGN= Finished Goods Note
  33. 33. • By improving traceability in supply chains, it can enable regulators to quickly identify the source of contaminated foods and determine the scope of affected products during contamination incidents. • Additionally, the technology can reduce waste by detecting bottlenecks in the supply chain contributing to food spoilage. • Blockchain technologies can prevent price extortion and delayed payments while simultaneously eliminating middlemen and lowering transaction fees, leading to fairer pricing and helping smallholder farmers capture a larger part of their crop value.
  35. 35. 5) FOOD SHARING AND CROWDFARMING • Olio, founded by social entrepreneurs, has built an app connecting people with their neighbors and local shops so that surplus food can be shared, rather than be discarded. • Situated on the periphery of Bengaluru city, Farmizen manages five farms of 10.5 acres, divided into mini farms of 600 sq ft each. • By paying Rs 2500 as a monthly subscription fee that includes the monthly rent to the farmers, the individuals can grow vegetables of their choice as per the season in the twelve beds allocated to them in their mini farm. They control the farm through an app and can visit the farm anytime and harvest their own chemical-free produce
  36. 36. THE ROLE OF EXTENSION ORGANISATIONS FOLLOW A TARGETED GOAL-ORIENTED APPROACH • Channellize the existing capabilities To create programs that work, don’t start from scratch. Give direction, ambition, and urgency to initiatives in place. • Partner with other agricultural organizations Although NASA had a team of some of the best engineers in the world, 12,000 corporations were involved in making the moon project happen. Get the best possible expertise from outside to add to your own. • Hire business development staff with knowledge on data science (UpGrad)
  37. 37. • Explore cross-industry opportunities to invest in and create new solutions by merging them with agricultural activity (similar to 3D printing entering the food industry) • Urban farmers and NGOs supporting them, have to be involved in the planning process • Provision of training and extension services to urban producers. Emphasis on ecological farming practices, farm development (intensification and diversification),enterprise management and marketing. • Technical advice, Urban FIGs
  38. 38. Municipal strategies for the Development of Safe and Sustainable Agriculture 4.0 1) Creating a conducive policy environment  Formal acceptance of urban agriculture as an urban land use.  In Lima, Peru an urban agriculture sub- department has been created under the Department of Economic Development.  In Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, an Interdepartmental Committee on Urban Agriculture was created to coordinate the activities of the various Municipal departments active in this field including the Departments of Town planning, Health, Finance, and others.
  39. 39. 2) Enhancing access to vacant open urban spaces Making an inventory of the available vacant open land within the city. • Contrary to the common belief, even in highly urbanised areas surprisingly high amounts of vacant land can be found that could be used for agriculture on a temporary or permanent basis. In the city of Chicago, researchers identified 70,000 vacant lots. Stimulating landowners to give vacant land in longer term leases for agriculture • Found in Accra (hospital grounds), Harare (golf club), Santiago de Chile (school yards), Dar es Salaam (university campus). Promotion of multifunctional land use • In Calcutta the maintenance of the wetlands, agriculture and aquaculture are combined with wastewater treatment and reuse.
  40. 40. 3) Enhancing access of urban farmers to credit and finance • Municipalities can stimulate (e.g. by creating a guarantee fund) existing credit institutions to establish special credit schemes for urban producers or to allow the participation of urban producers • The inclusion of urban agriculture in the municipal budget 4) Facilitate (direct-)marketing • Authorize food box schemes and/or support the establishment of “green labels” for ecological grown and safe urban food.
  41. 41. 5) Supporting micro-enterprise development • Suppliers of farm inputs (compost, earthworms, open pollinated seeds and plant materials, bio-pesticides). • Processing enterprises (food preservation, packaging, street vending, transport). • By provision of start-up licenses and subsidies or tax reductions to micro- and small entrepreneurs.