INDEPENDENT CLAUSES▪ An independent clause is a group ofwords that contains a subject andverb and expresses a completethought. An independent clause is asentence.▪ It is a simple sentence that canstand alone.
INDEPENDENTCLAUSE MARKERS also consequently furthermore however moreover nevertheless therefore
Examples of Simple Sentences(Independent Clauses):▪ Mr. Smith arrived at the airport earlythis morning.▪ We must find a new strateghy.▪ I play basketball.
Examples of Compound Sentences(Two Independent Clauses):▪ Mr. Smith arrived early this morning, but Ididn’t meet him.▪ We must find a new strategy, or we will lose ouradvantage.▪ I play basketball, George plays baseball,and Fred plays tennis.
DEPENDENT CLAUSES▪ A dependent clause functions not as a sentencebut as a part of speech (noun, adjective,adverb). Therefore, it cannot stand alone as asentence. It is attached to some part of anindependent clause.▪ It has an incomplete thought and cannot be asentence. Often a dependent clause is markedby a dependent marker word.
DEPENDENT CLAUSE MARKERSafter ifalthough in orderas toas if sincebecause thoughbefore unlesseven if untileven though whateverwhen wheneverwhether while
Examples of Complex Sentences(1 Dependent Clause, 1 Independent Clause):▪ When I got home, I cooked for dinner.▪ We visited the musuem, before it closed.▪ When he handed in his homework, heforgot to give the teacher the last page.
What are the 3 classifications of DEPENDENT CLAUSES?
▪ it act as adverbs and tell usWHEN something happens.▪ They usually begin with thewords:When, Before, After, As soon asand Until
What are the 2 classifications of TIME CLAUSES?
• Clauses that refer to past time areformmed with the verb in the PASTtense:Examples:▪ When I finished my lunch, we played golf.▪ After we played golf, we went to a party.▪ As soon as we arrived at the party, they putthe steaks on.
• Clauses that refer to future timeare formed with the verb in thePRESSENT tense:Examples:▪ As soon as we arrive at the party, they will put thesteaks on.▪ Before we eat our steaks, we will sit around and talk.▪ Until the party ends, there will be plenty of good wine.
▪ It give information aboutnouns (people, things, places, etc.).▪ They appear after the noun theydescribe.▪ Adjective Clauses are also calledRELATIVE CLAUSES.
• Adjective Clauses are not set off bycommas if the information is neccessary inorder to identify the person or thing.Examples:▪ The person who is sitting on my right is left-handed.▪ The gentleman who dropped his wallet willcome back for it.▪ My brother who lives in Alaska works as atrapper and hunter.
• Adjecttive Clauses are set off bycommas if the information is notnecessary in order to identify the person orthing.Examples:▪ John , who is sitting on my right , is left-handed.▪ The governor , who spoke at our banquet , will speakagain next year.▪ My brother , who lives in Alaska , works as a trapperand hunter.
▪ It act as simple nouns and identifypersons, places, things, etc.▪ They are introduced by words suchas:How, If, That, What, When, Where,Whether, Which, Who, Whom,Whomever, Whose, Why
• A Noun Clause as the subject ofa sentence.Examples:▪ That sales have gone up is good newsinddeed.▪ Who gets the credit for a goodidea should not be important.▪ Why she said that is a mystery to me.
• A Noun Clause as the object ofa sentence.Examples:▪ I will never understand how wearrived on time.▪ I dont know when he resigned.▪ Id like to see if he can manage it.