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Evalua&ng
the
Development
and

         Impact
of
FIT

2nd
Annual
Renewable
Energy
Project
Finance

            London,
12
Febr
2013

               Dirk
Volkmann

                   30
min.

what
we
do

•  ConsulEng
and
Interim
Management
Services

   for
the
Renewable
Energy
Industry

•  Project
Management

•  Project
Development

•  Project
Finance
and
Sales

•  Strategy
Development

•  InternaEonalizaEon

recent
projects

•  Interim
Head
of
Project
Finance
and
Sales,

   German
solar
PV
EPC
company
(2010‐11
for
9

   months)

•  Interim
Segment
Manager
UEliEes,
German

   cell
and
module
producer/EPC
(2011
for
10

   months)

•  Interim
Head
of
O&M,
internaEonal
solar
PV

   EPC
company
(2011
for
8
months)

Agenda


1.  Feed
in
tariffs
as
part
of
renewable
energy
program

2.  ImplementaEon
and
cost
effecEveness
of
feed
in

    tariffs
in
Europe

3.  The
use
of
feed
in
tariffs
for
certain
technologies

4.  Are
there
alternaEves
?

5.  How
changes
in
feed
in
tariffs
influence
the
market

    in
certain
countries

What
is
an
FIT
?

•  a
policy
mechanism
designed
to
accelerate
investment

   in
renewable
energy
technologies.

•  the
world’s
most
popular
renewable
energy
policy

   mechanism

•  a
set
rate
for
the
electricity
for
producers,
usually

   differenEated
according
to
the
technology
used
(wind,

   solar,
biomass,
etc.)
and
the
size
of
the
installaEon.


•  PV
system
on
a
home
in
Germany:

the
uElity
buys
the

   power
you
produce
at
a
fixed
FIT
rate
for
a
period
of
20

   years.
When
you
buy
power
from
the
uElity
the
retail

   power
price
is
lower
than
the
FIT,
this
allows
you
to
get

   a
stable
return
on
your
investment.

why
to
implement
an
FIT
program
(1)

1.  FIT
concept
is
proven
and
above
expectaEons
in

    Germany
for
the
past
20
years.


   2010
target:
12.5
%
share
of
RE
in
electric
generaEon
in
2000

   late
2007:




15.1
%
share

2.
FIT’s
pay
for
themselves
in
less
than
one
year:

  

    €9.2
billion
Expenditures
in
2008
for
the
German
FIT

    program.


  
a.
€7.8
billion
from
reduced
amounts
of
fossil
and

    nuclear
fuels
purchased
(of
total
€87
billion
spent
in

    2011)

  
b.
€9.2
billion
saved
from
the
avoidance
of
external

    costs

why
to
implement
an
FIT
program
(2)

• 
 External
costs
are:


   –  
 damage
resulEng
from
climate
change

   –  
 health
related
costs
related
to
air
polluEon
and
toxic

       
wastes

   –  


costs
of
cleanup
of
rivers
and
other
bodies
of
water

       
as
a
result
of
polluEon
etc.

•  Some
countries
ignore
external
costs
and
these

   are
not
included
in
project
or
technology
analysis


•  huge
long‐term
negaEve
for
the
taxpayer
and
will

   result
in
a
significant
burden
for
the
taxpayer

   (paying
many
Emes
over
for
the
problem)

producEon
cost
of
electricity
in
comparison

            (taking
into
consideraEon
different
cost
of
CO2
cerEficates,


                      new
plants,
commissioning
2010
or
later)




                            €/MWh




     lignite

     coal                                               capex

                                                        opex

     natural gas                                        fuel
cost

                                                        cost
of
cerEficates
(8$/to
CO2)

     nuclear                                            add.
cost
at
38€/to
CO2

                                                        min.
back
up
cost

     biomass
                                                        add.
back‐up
cost
(max.)

     hydro

     wind onshore 5.5 m/s

     wind onshore 6.5 m/s

     wind offshore 25 %

     wind offshore 40 %
World
subsidies
to
fossil
fuel
consumpEon

  vs.
renewables
in
2009
(billion
USD)

benefits
of
an
FIT
program
?
(1)

•  FITs
do
not
depend
on
taxpayer
contribuEons
(it
is
not
a
subsidy)

   and
no
new
public
debt
is
needed
to
fund
it.


•  The
FIT
has
proven
superior
to
any
other
program
currently
in
use

   around
the
world,
such
as
subsidies
with
public
money,
tendering

   models
and
quota
models.


•  FITs
encourages
private
investment,
which
results
in
more
taxable

   income
from
new
companies
and
jobs
in
the
industry.
This
is
a
basic

   financial
concept
that
some
countries
have
failed
to
understand.

•  FITs
dramaEcally
reduces
bureaucracy
and
move
the
process
along

   at
a
much
faster
and
cheaper
rate.
Typical
power
purchase

   agreements
in
the
U.S.
are
incredibly
complex
and
require
an
army

   of
lawyers
and
engineers
—
which
is
both
Emely
and
costly
for

   developers/owners.

benefits
of
an
FIT
program
?
(2)

•  example:
in
the
U.S.
the
typical
agreement

   between
a
producer
and
a
uElity
is
a
minimum

   of
85
to
100
pages
long,
in
Germany
the

   comparable
contract
is
only
two
to
four
pages.


•  FITs,
by
acceleraEng
the
development
of
the

   renewable
energy
industry,
enhance
naEonal

   security
by
lessening
dependence
on
foreign

   oil
and
helping
to
decrease
the
huge
cash

   from
buying
foreign
oil.

disadvantages
?

•  Transmission
System
Operator
(TSO)
has
to

   integrate
the
renewable
energy
into
the

   market

•  RE
does
not
react
to
demand
fluctuaEons
or

   spot
market
prices
(yet)

  –  new
development
of
direct
markeEng

  –  green
power
privilege
(bonus)

  –  remote
shut‐off
bonus

2012
Selected
Indicators





               source:
REN21
Renewables
2012
Global
Status
Report


2012
Top
5
RE
countries





              source:
REN21
Renewables
2012
Global
Status
Report


2012
Top
5
countries





             source:
REN21
Renewables
2012
Global
Status
Report


esEmated
Jobs
in
Renewable
Energy

     Worldwide,
by
Industry





                   source:
REN21
Renewables
2012
Global
Status
Report


ImplementaEon
and
cost
effecEveness

                      of
feed
in
tariffs
in
Europe

2005
and
2010,
with
Targets
for
2020
(1)

 EU
Renewable
Shares
of
Final
Energy,






                                            source:
REN21
Renewables
2012
Global
Status
Report


ImplementaEon
and
cost
effecEveness

                      of
feed
in
tariffs
in
Europe

2005
and
2010,
with
Targets
for
2020
(2)

 EU
Renewable
Shares
of
Final
Energy,






                                            source:
REN21
Renewables
2012
Global
Status
Report


Map
of
EU
countries
according
to
their

   support
mechanisms
for
RES‐E

Added
capacity
and
ROI
values
for
some

  EU
member
countries,
1992
‐
2008





                  source:
Assessing
the
Strength
and
EffecEveness
of
Renewable
Electricity


                  Feed‐In
Tariffs
in

European
Union
Countries,
diw,
Berlin
2011

Added
capacity
and
ROI
values
for
some

  EU
member
countries,
1992
‐
2008





                  source:
Assessing
the
Strength
and
EffecEveness
of
Renewable
Electricity


                  Feed‐In
Tariffs
in

European
Union
Countries,
diw,
Berlin
2011

roof
top
installaEons
minus
66%
since
2006



                        average
final
customer
price
for


                        turn‐key
roof
top
installa&ons


                        up
to
10
kW
(excl.
VAT)






                                                       source:
BSW‐Solar

The
use
of
feed
in
tariffs
for
certain

FIT
payments
for
a
range
of
renewable
Energy

 Technologies,
selected
countries,
2011/2012
         technologies





                                                                 source:
REN21
Renewables
2012
Global
Status
Report


AlternaEves
for
the
promoEon
of

              Renewable
Energy

                         promo&on
programs
for
RE



     price
rule
                    quota
rule
                   tender



Feed‐In‐Tariff
(FIT)
           Renewable
Energy

          Price‐Quota‐Mechanism

• 
fixed
price
per
kWh
         Standards
(RES)
/
RO
/
RPS
 • 
government
organizes


• 
financed
by
public

         • 
uEliEes
are
obliged
to

 


public
bid
for
fixed
amount





authoriEes
and
private

    


generate
a
fixed
porEon

 


of
electricity




sector
                     


with
renewable
energy.

 • 
the
winner
gets
a
limited


• 
in
some
cases

             • 
ImplementaEon
with
green


                                                           


feed‐in
guarantee
for
the





implemented
by

            


cerEficates
and
PPAs
     


power
produced




net‐metering

                              +
Net
Metering

                              +
PPA
Power
Purchase
Agreements

Net
metering





                source:
Wikipedia

Power
Purchase
Agreement
(PPA)





                         Buyer

promoEon
of
Renewable
Energy
–
strengths


            and
weaknesses

             strengths
                        weaknesses
                        countries


Feed‐In‐     • 
high
TSS
(transparency,
       • 
burden
on
consumers/            Germany,
Spain,

             stability,
security)
             taxpayers
                         Italy,
France,

Tariff
       • 
guarantees
price
and
volume
   • 
long
term
commitment
(up
to
    Czech
Republic,

             • 
‘pull
incenEve’
               25
years)
                         UK,
India
(state

                                               • 
design
of
a
balanced
FIT
is
    level)

                                               difficult

Renewable
   • 
simplifies
the
compeEEon
       • 
low
TSS
                        Australia,
USA,
UK

             between
RE
technologies
          • 
price
fluctuaEons

Energy
      • 
Exact
target
achievement
      • 
unfavorable
for
certain
RE

Standard
    (theoreEcal)
                     technologies

                                               • 
complex
contracts

                                               • 
bureaucraEc

Tender
      • 
combinaEon
of
market
          • 
high
transacEon
cost
favors
    • 
ArgenEna,
Peru.

             efficiency
and
price
guarantee
     large
companies
                   India

             leads
to
cost
efficient
soluEons
   • 
inconsistent
tenders
lead
to
   • 
offshore
wind:

             (theoreEcal)
                     incerEtude
                        France,
Denmark

                                               • 
longing
for
lowest
bid
holds

                                               back
serious
business
models

development
of
FIT
and
prices


for
convenEonal
energy
sources


                       feed‐in
tariff
for
new
plants





                                                          ©
Bundesverband
erneuerbare
Energien

     produc&on
cost





                          delivery
cost
power
exchange

FIT
and
grid
parity




                                    extra
margin

        FIT
for
20
years



        power
price





2011
                       2015

How
changes
in
feed
in
tariffs
influence
the
market
in

                  certain
countries


•  for
solar
PV
FIT’s
change
more
frequently,
as

   jurisdicEons
adjust
their
tariffs
for
new
contracts
to

   reflect
falling


   panel
prices


   and
naEonal


   targets

opposiEon
to
FIT’s:


         opposiEon
is
talk,
FIT’s
are
fact

•  FIT’s
major
opponent
is
the
local
electric
uElity.
They
are

   monopolies
—
monopolies
do
not
respond
to
market

   forces.


•  If
one
looks
at
FIT
results,
especially
in
another

   developed
country
like
Germany,
the
numbers
speak
for

   themselves.

•  FIT’s
are
far
more
market‐oriented
than
monopolies.

•  Lack
of
poliEcal
courage
to
try
something
new
or
allow

   something
that
powerful
stakeholders
(uEliEes,
fossil
fuel

   companies)
do
not
want
to
jeopardize
their
businesses.

Expected
development
of
the
EEG
cost
fracEon
unEl
2030,

   depending
on
the
development
of
electricity
prices





                  source:
Brief
Analysis
on
the
Current
Debate
about
Costs
and
Benefits
of
Expanding
the

                  Use
of
Renewable
Energies
in
Electricity
GeneraEon,
Wuppertal
InsEtute
2011

Comparison
of
EEG
cost
for
2008
unEl
2010
and
for
2030
and

  support
for
environmentally
damaging
acEviEes
in
2008





                   source:
Brief
Analysis
on
the
Current
Debate
about
Costs
and
Benefits
of
Expanding
the

                   Use
of
Renewable
Energies
in
Electricity
GeneraEon,
Wuppertal
InsEtute
2011

conclusions


•  FIT
is
essenEal
for
the
introducEon
and
development

   of
renewable
energy
capaciEes
in
a
country,
unless

   you
already
have
reached
grid
parity

•  the
less
interesEng
or
favorable
the
IRR
for
investors

   gets,
the
more
important
the
quality
and
efficiency

   of
the
equipment
is
(premium
brand
technology)

•  without
a
granted
grid
access
the
development
will

   be
very
low

•  FITs
are
not
only
vital
for
the
development
of
RE

   capaciEes
but
also
for
the
development
of
an

   industry
and
employment
if
well
done

hrp://green.wiwo.de/solarindustrie‐warum‐sie‐in‐deutschland‐kaum‐eine‐zukuns‐hat/






                                                Joachimstrasse 55
                                                40547 Düsseldorf
                                                Germany
                                                T +49 – 172 – 24 23 240
                                                e info @ volkmann-consult.de
                                                www.volkmann-consult.de

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Evaluating the Development and Impact of Feed-In Tariffs

  • 1. Evalua&ng
the
Development
and
 Impact
of
FIT
 2nd
Annual
Renewable
Energy
Project
Finance
 London,
12
Febr
2013
 Dirk
Volkmann
 30
min.

  • 2. what
we
do
 •  ConsulEng
and
Interim
Management
Services
 for
the
Renewable
Energy
Industry
 •  Project
Management
 •  Project
Development
 •  Project
Finance
and
Sales
 •  Strategy
Development
 •  InternaEonalizaEon

  • 3. recent
projects
 •  Interim
Head
of
Project
Finance
and
Sales,
 German
solar
PV
EPC
company
(2010‐11
for
9
 months)
 •  Interim
Segment
Manager
UEliEes,
German
 cell
and
module
producer/EPC
(2011
for
10
 months)
 •  Interim
Head
of
O&M,
internaEonal
solar
PV
 EPC
company
(2011
for
8
months)

  • 4. Agenda
 1.  Feed
in
tariffs
as
part
of
renewable
energy
program
 2.  ImplementaEon
and
cost
effecEveness
of
feed
in
 tariffs
in
Europe
 3.  The
use
of
feed
in
tariffs
for
certain
technologies
 4.  Are
there
alternaEves
?
 5.  How
changes
in
feed
in
tariffs
influence
the
market
 in
certain
countries

  • 5. What
is
an
FIT
?
 •  a
policy
mechanism
designed
to
accelerate
investment
 in
renewable
energy
technologies.
 •  the
world’s
most
popular
renewable
energy
policy
 mechanism
 •  a
set
rate
for
the
electricity
for
producers,
usually
 differenEated
according
to
the
technology
used
(wind,
 solar,
biomass,
etc.)
and
the
size
of
the
installaEon.

 •  PV
system
on
a
home
in
Germany:

the
uElity
buys
the
 power
you
produce
at
a
fixed
FIT
rate
for
a
period
of
20
 years.
When
you
buy
power
from
the
uElity
the
retail
 power
price
is
lower
than
the
FIT,
this
allows
you
to
get
 a
stable
return
on
your
investment.

  • 6. why
to
implement
an
FIT
program
(1)
 1.  FIT
concept
is
proven
and
above
expectaEons
in
 Germany
for
the
past
20
years.

 2010
target:
12.5
%
share
of
RE
in
electric
generaEon
in
2000
 late
2007:




15.1
%
share
 2.
FIT’s
pay
for
themselves
in
less
than
one
year:
 
 €9.2
billion
Expenditures
in
2008
for
the
German
FIT
 program.

 
a.
€7.8
billion
from
reduced
amounts
of
fossil
and
 nuclear
fuels
purchased
(of
total
€87
billion
spent
in
 2011)
 
b.
€9.2
billion
saved
from
the
avoidance
of
external
 costs

  • 7. why
to
implement
an
FIT
program
(2)
 • 
 External
costs
are:

 –  
 damage
resulEng
from
climate
change
 –  
 health
related
costs
related
to
air
polluEon
and
toxic
 
wastes
 –  


costs
of
cleanup
of
rivers
and
other
bodies
of
water
 
as
a
result
of
polluEon
etc.
 •  Some
countries
ignore
external
costs
and
these
 are
not
included
in
project
or
technology
analysis

 •  huge
long‐term
negaEve
for
the
taxpayer
and
will
 result
in
a
significant
burden
for
the
taxpayer
 (paying
many
Emes
over
for
the
problem)

  • 8. producEon
cost
of
electricity
in
comparison
 (taking
into
consideraEon
different
cost
of
CO2
cerEficates,

 new
plants,
commissioning
2010
or
later)
 €/MWh
 lignite coal capex
 opex
 natural gas fuel
cost
 cost
of
cerEficates
(8$/to
CO2)
 nuclear add.
cost
at
38€/to
CO2
 min.
back
up
cost
 biomass add.
back‐up
cost
(max.)
 hydro wind onshore 5.5 m/s wind onshore 6.5 m/s wind offshore 25 % wind offshore 40 %
  • 10. benefits
of
an
FIT
program
?
(1)
 •  FITs
do
not
depend
on
taxpayer
contribuEons
(it
is
not
a
subsidy)
 and
no
new
public
debt
is
needed
to
fund
it.

 •  The
FIT
has
proven
superior
to
any
other
program
currently
in
use
 around
the
world,
such
as
subsidies
with
public
money,
tendering
 models
and
quota
models.

 •  FITs
encourages
private
investment,
which
results
in
more
taxable
 income
from
new
companies
and
jobs
in
the
industry.
This
is
a
basic
 financial
concept
that
some
countries
have
failed
to
understand.
 •  FITs
dramaEcally
reduces
bureaucracy
and
move
the
process
along
 at
a
much
faster
and
cheaper
rate.
Typical
power
purchase
 agreements
in
the
U.S.
are
incredibly
complex
and
require
an
army
 of
lawyers
and
engineers
—
which
is
both
Emely
and
costly
for
 developers/owners.

  • 11. benefits
of
an
FIT
program
?
(2)
 •  example:
in
the
U.S.
the
typical
agreement
 between
a
producer
and
a
uElity
is
a
minimum
 of
85
to
100
pages
long,
in
Germany
the
 comparable
contract
is
only
two
to
four
pages.

 •  FITs,
by
acceleraEng
the
development
of
the
 renewable
energy
industry,
enhance
naEonal
 security
by
lessening
dependence
on
foreign
 oil
and
helping
to
decrease
the
huge
cash
 from
buying
foreign
oil.

  • 12. disadvantages
?
 •  Transmission
System
Operator
(TSO)
has
to
 integrate
the
renewable
energy
into
the
 market
 •  RE
does
not
react
to
demand
fluctuaEons
or
 spot
market
prices
(yet)
 –  new
development
of
direct
markeEng
 –  green
power
privilege
(bonus)
 –  remote
shut‐off
bonus

  • 13. 2012
Selected
Indicators
 source:
REN21
Renewables
2012
Global
Status
Report


  • 14. 2012
Top
5
RE
countries
 source:
REN21
Renewables
2012
Global
Status
Report


  • 15. 2012
Top
5
countries
 source:
REN21
Renewables
2012
Global
Status
Report


  • 16. esEmated
Jobs
in
Renewable
Energy
 Worldwide,
by
Industry
 source:
REN21
Renewables
2012
Global
Status
Report


  • 17. ImplementaEon
and
cost
effecEveness
 of
feed
in
tariffs
in
Europe
 2005
and
2010,
with
Targets
for
2020
(1)
 EU
Renewable
Shares
of
Final
Energy,

 source:
REN21
Renewables
2012
Global
Status
Report


  • 18. ImplementaEon
and
cost
effecEveness
 of
feed
in
tariffs
in
Europe
 2005
and
2010,
with
Targets
for
2020
(2)
 EU
Renewable
Shares
of
Final
Energy,

 source:
REN21
Renewables
2012
Global
Status
Report


  • 19. Map
of
EU
countries
according
to
their
 support
mechanisms
for
RES‐E

  • 20. Added
capacity
and
ROI
values
for
some
 EU
member
countries,
1992
‐
2008
 source:
Assessing
the
Strength
and
EffecEveness
of
Renewable
Electricity

 Feed‐In
Tariffs
in

European
Union
Countries,
diw,
Berlin
2011

  • 21. Added
capacity
and
ROI
values
for
some
 EU
member
countries,
1992
‐
2008
 source:
Assessing
the
Strength
and
EffecEveness
of
Renewable
Electricity

 Feed‐In
Tariffs
in

European
Union
Countries,
diw,
Berlin
2011

  • 22. roof
top
installaEons
minus
66%
since
2006
 average
final
customer
price
for

 turn‐key
roof
top
installa&ons

 up
to
10
kW
(excl.
VAT)

 source:
BSW‐Solar

  • 24. AlternaEves
for
the
promoEon
of
 Renewable
Energy
 promo&on
programs
for
RE
 price
rule
 quota
rule
 tender
 Feed‐In‐Tariff
(FIT)
 Renewable
Energy

 Price‐Quota‐Mechanism
 • 
fixed
price
per
kWh
 Standards
(RES)
/
RO
/
RPS
 • 
government
organizes

 • 
financed
by
public

 • 
uEliEes
are
obliged
to

 


public
bid
for
fixed
amount

 


authoriEes
and
private

 


generate
a
fixed
porEon

 


of
electricity
 


sector
 


with
renewable
energy.

 • 
the
winner
gets
a
limited

 • 
in
some
cases

 • 
ImplementaEon
with
green

 


feed‐in
guarantee
for
the

 


implemented
by

 


cerEficates
and
PPAs
 


power
produced
 


net‐metering
 +
Net
Metering
 +
PPA
Power
Purchase
Agreements

  • 25. Net
metering
 source:
Wikipedia

  • 27. promoEon
of
Renewable
Energy
–
strengths

 and
weaknesses
 strengths
 weaknesses
 countries
 Feed‐In‐ • 
high
TSS
(transparency,
 • 
burden
on
consumers/ Germany,
Spain,
 stability,
security)
 taxpayers
 Italy,
France,
 Tariff
 • 
guarantees
price
and
volume
 • 
long
term
commitment
(up
to
 Czech
Republic,
 • 
‘pull
incenEve’
 25
years)
 UK,
India
(state
 • 
design
of
a
balanced
FIT
is
 level)
 difficult
 Renewable
 • 
simplifies
the
compeEEon
 • 
low
TSS
 Australia,
USA,
UK
 between
RE
technologies
 • 
price
fluctuaEons
 Energy
 • 
Exact
target
achievement
 • 
unfavorable
for
certain
RE
 Standard
 (theoreEcal)
 technologies
 • 
complex
contracts
 • 
bureaucraEc
 Tender
 • 
combinaEon
of
market
 • 
high
transacEon
cost
favors
 • 
ArgenEna,
Peru.
 efficiency
and
price
guarantee
 large
companies
 India
 leads
to
cost
efficient
soluEons
 • 
inconsistent
tenders
lead
to
 • 
offshore
wind:
 (theoreEcal)
 incerEtude
 France,
Denmark
 • 
longing
for
lowest
bid
holds
 back
serious
business
models

  • 28. development
of
FIT
and
prices

 for
convenEonal
energy
sources
 feed‐in
tariff
for
new
plants
 ©
Bundesverband
erneuerbare
Energien
 produc&on
cost
 delivery
cost
power
exchange

  • 29. FIT
and
grid
parity
 extra
margin
 FIT
for
20
years
 power
price
 2011
 2015

  • 30. How
changes
in
feed
in
tariffs
influence
the
market
in
 certain
countries
 •  for
solar
PV
FIT’s
change
more
frequently,
as
 jurisdicEons
adjust
their
tariffs
for
new
contracts
to
 reflect
falling

 panel
prices

 and
naEonal

 targets

  • 31. opposiEon
to
FIT’s:

 opposiEon
is
talk,
FIT’s
are
fact
 •  FIT’s
major
opponent
is
the
local
electric
uElity.
They
are
 monopolies
—
monopolies
do
not
respond
to
market
 forces.

 •  If
one
looks
at
FIT
results,
especially
in
another
 developed
country
like
Germany,
the
numbers
speak
for
 themselves.
 •  FIT’s
are
far
more
market‐oriented
than
monopolies.
 •  Lack
of
poliEcal
courage
to
try
something
new
or
allow
 something
that
powerful
stakeholders
(uEliEes,
fossil
fuel
 companies)
do
not
want
to
jeopardize
their
businesses.

  • 32. Expected
development
of
the
EEG
cost
fracEon
unEl
2030,
 depending
on
the
development
of
electricity
prices
 source:
Brief
Analysis
on
the
Current
Debate
about
Costs
and
Benefits
of
Expanding
the
 Use
of
Renewable
Energies
in
Electricity
GeneraEon,
Wuppertal
InsEtute
2011

  • 33. Comparison
of
EEG
cost
for
2008
unEl
2010
and
for
2030
and
 support
for
environmentally
damaging
acEviEes
in
2008
 source:
Brief
Analysis
on
the
Current
Debate
about
Costs
and
Benefits
of
Expanding
the
 Use
of
Renewable
Energies
in
Electricity
GeneraEon,
Wuppertal
InsEtute
2011

  • 34. conclusions
 •  FIT
is
essenEal
for
the
introducEon
and
development
 of
renewable
energy
capaciEes
in
a
country,
unless
 you
already
have
reached
grid
parity
 •  the
less
interesEng
or
favorable
the
IRR
for
investors
 gets,
the
more
important
the
quality
and
efficiency
 of
the
equipment
is
(premium
brand
technology)
 •  without
a
granted
grid
access
the
development
will
 be
very
low
 •  FITs
are
not
only
vital
for
the
development
of
RE
 capaciEes
but
also
for
the
development
of
an
 industry
and
employment
if
well
done

  • 35. hrp://green.wiwo.de/solarindustrie‐warum‐sie‐in‐deutschland‐kaum‐eine‐zukuns‐hat/

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