Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Characterizing change in baseflow
interactions with urbanization through
event-based hydrograph separation and
analysis
Pe...
Effects of
Urbanization
• Increase in impervious area
• Shorter events
• Larger peak discharge
• Infiltration
• Changes to...
AAfafdas
Hydrograph Change with Urbanization
Time (T) Time (T)
Rainfall(L)
Discharge(L/T3)
After
Urbanization
Original
Lag...
Study Catchments
4
Environment Canada
(Water Survey Division)
Gauged Catchments
0 2 4 6 8 101
Kilometers
Effective Catchment Area
Road Network - 1954
Forested Cover - 1955
Urbanized Area - 1954
Little D...
0 2 4 6 8 101
Kilometers
Effective Catchment Area
Road Network - 1960
Urbanized Area - 1960
1960
Don River at York
Mills
(...
0 2 4 6 8 101
Kilometers
Effective Catchment Area
Road Network - 1970
Urbanized Area - 1970
1970
Don River at York
Mills
(...
0 2 4 6 8 101
Kilometers
Effective Catchment Area
Road Network - 1978
Urbanized Area - 1978
1978
Don River at York
Mills
(...
0 2 4 6 8 101
Kilometers
Effective Catchment Area
Road Network - 1995
Urbanized Area - 1995
1995
Don River at York
Mills
(...
0 2 4 6 8 101
Kilometers
Effective Catchment Area
Road Network - 2005
Urbanized Area - 2005
2005
Don River at York
Mills
(...
Land Use Change
(“De-farming”/Urbanization)
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000...
Urban Stream Flow Data
• Need high resolution, high frequency data
• Joint project with Water Survey of Canada
• Extracted...
Daily vs. Instantaneous Data
Daily vs. Instantaneous Data
15
Event Separation Algorithm
• Suite of hydrograph visualization and
analysis tools written in VB .net
16
Event Separation Algorithm
Typical Event Hydrograph
Qpeak
Qend
Qstart
Qreg
Time
Discharge
Qpivot
tstart
tpeak
tend treg
Trise Tevent Trec
Vevent
Q75
...
Mann-Kendall Test
• Non-parametric test for monotonic trends
• Independent events assumed to be
uncorrelated
• Trends test...
Peak Event Discharge
MK Trend: Increasing
Peak Event Discharge
Station Name Trend
Duffins Creek above Pickering
East Humber River near Pine Grove
East Oakville Cree...
Number of Events per Year
Station Name Trend
Duffins Creek above Pickering
East Humber River near Pine Grove
East Oakville...
Event Volume
Station Name Trend
Duffins Creek above Pickering
East Humber River near Pine Grove
East Oakville Creek near O...
Total Event Duration
Station Name Trend
Duffins Creek above Pickering
East Humber River near Pine Grove
East Oakville Cree...
Hydrograph Separation
Qpeak
Qstart
Qreg
Time
Discharge
Qpivot
tstart
tpeak
treg
Quick (Direct)
Flow
Inter Flow
Base Flow
C...
Hydrograph Separation
25
Event Quick Flow
(Direct Runoff) Volume
Station Name Trend
Duffins Creek above Pickering
East Humber River near Pine Grove...
Event Interflow Volume
Station Name Trend
Duffins Creek above Pickering ↑
East Humber River near Pine Grove
East Oakville ...
Zombie Science?
28
“Results from these comparisons show that depending on the
method used, automated baseflow separation u...
Conclusions
• While direct runoff increases in urbanizing
catchments, event contribution to shallow system
may increase or...
Acknowledgements
Dr. Herman Goertz Jeanette Fooks
Paula Hunter Carrie-Lynn Green
Eco-Hydraulics Co-op
Tyler Gale
Victoria ...
31
Questions or Comments?
WSC
Station ID
Station Name
Area
(km2)
Percent
Urban
(1969)
Percent
Urban
(≈2010)
Percent
Change
02HC019 Duffins Creek abo...
Summary (Warm Weather Trends)
Station Name
Peak
Discharge
Time to
Peak
Event
Duration
Total
Hydrograph
Duration
Event
Volu...
Partial Flow Duration Curve
1970
1985
2010
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Characterizing Change in Baseflow Interactions with Urbanization Through Event-Based Hydrograph Separation and Analysis

292 views

Published on

For more more information about us please feel free to visit our website at http://earthfx.com/

Published in: Engineering
  • Be the first to comment

Characterizing Change in Baseflow Interactions with Urbanization Through Event-Based Hydrograph Separation and Analysis

  1. 1. Characterizing change in baseflow interactions with urbanization through event-based hydrograph separation and analysis Peter John Thompson Earthfx Inc. Dr. William K. Annable Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Waterloo IAH 2012 Congress September 21, 2012
  2. 2. Effects of Urbanization • Increase in impervious area • Shorter events • Larger peak discharge • Infiltration • Changes to frequency • Channelization • Change in vegetative cover • Habitat degradation • Erosion • Poor water quality • Failure of engineered structures 2
  3. 3. AAfafdas Hydrograph Change with Urbanization Time (T) Time (T) Rainfall(L) Discharge(L/T3) After Urbanization Original Lag time after urbanization Hydrograph of streamflow Lag time Center of mass of runoff and of rainfall Discharge(L/T3) Rainfall •Changes to event hydrograph with urbanization...? after Leopold (1968)
  4. 4. Study Catchments 4 Environment Canada (Water Survey Division) Gauged Catchments
  5. 5. 0 2 4 6 8 101 Kilometers Effective Catchment Area Road Network - 1954 Forested Cover - 1955 Urbanized Area - 1954 Little Don River at Don Mills (02HC029) 1954 Don River at York Mills (02HC005)
  6. 6. 0 2 4 6 8 101 Kilometers Effective Catchment Area Road Network - 1960 Urbanized Area - 1960 1960 Don River at York Mills (02HC005) Little Don River at Don Mills (02HC029)
  7. 7. 0 2 4 6 8 101 Kilometers Effective Catchment Area Road Network - 1970 Urbanized Area - 1970 1970 Don River at York Mills (02HC005) Little Don River at Don Mills (02HC029)
  8. 8. 0 2 4 6 8 101 Kilometers Effective Catchment Area Road Network - 1978 Urbanized Area - 1978 1978 Don River at York Mills (02HC005) Little Don River at Don Mills (02HC029)
  9. 9. 0 2 4 6 8 101 Kilometers Effective Catchment Area Road Network - 1995 Urbanized Area - 1995 1995 Don River at York Mills (02HC005) Little Don River at Don Mills (02HC029)
  10. 10. 0 2 4 6 8 101 Kilometers Effective Catchment Area Road Network - 2005 Urbanized Area - 2005 2005 Don River at York Mills (02HC005) Little Don River at Don Mills (02HC029)
  11. 11. Land Use Change (“De-farming”/Urbanization) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 RoadDensity(km/km2) PercentArea Year Urbanized Area Agricultural Area Catchment Road Density 02HC005 – Don River at York Mills Effective Catchment Area – 95.5 km2
  12. 12. Urban Stream Flow Data • Need high resolution, high frequency data • Joint project with Water Survey of Canada • Extracted archived stream flow data to create a complete hydrometric record from 1969 to present 12
  13. 13. Daily vs. Instantaneous Data
  14. 14. Daily vs. Instantaneous Data
  15. 15. 15 Event Separation Algorithm • Suite of hydrograph visualization and analysis tools written in VB .net
  16. 16. 16 Event Separation Algorithm
  17. 17. Typical Event Hydrograph Qpeak Qend Qstart Qreg Time Discharge Qpivot tstart tpeak tend treg Trise Tevent Trec Vevent Q75 Q50 T75 T50Rising Limb Falling Limb Recession Limb 17
  18. 18. Mann-Kendall Test • Non-parametric test for monotonic trends • Independent events assumed to be uncorrelated • Trends tested to a 95% significance level ( p ≤ 0.025 )            0if1 0if0 0if1 sgn           1 1 1 sgn n k n kj kj xxS 18
  19. 19. Peak Event Discharge MK Trend: Increasing
  20. 20. Peak Event Discharge Station Name Trend Duffins Creek above Pickering East Humber River near Pine Grove East Oakville Creek near Omagh Laurel Creek at Waterloo ↑ Redhill Creek at Hamilton Black Creek near Weston ↑ Etobicoke Creek at Brampton ↑ Etobicoke Creek below QEW ↑ Mimico Creek at Islington ↑ Don River at York Mills ↑ Little Don River at Don Mills ↑ Don River at Todmorden ↑ Rouge River near Markham ↑ Highland Creek near West Hill ↑ Harmony Creek at Oshawa ↑
  21. 21. Number of Events per Year Station Name Trend Duffins Creek above Pickering East Humber River near Pine Grove East Oakville Creek near Omagh Laurel Creek at Waterloo Redhill Creek at Hamilton Black Creek near Weston Etobicoke Creek at Brampton ↑ Etobicoke Creek below QEW Mimico Creek at Islington Don River at York Mills ↑ Little Don River at Don Mills ↑ Don River at Todmorden Rouge River near Markham ↑ Highland Creek near West Hill ↑ Harmony Creek at Oshawa ↑
  22. 22. Event Volume Station Name Trend Duffins Creek above Pickering East Humber River near Pine Grove East Oakville Creek near Omagh Laurel Creek at Waterloo ↑ Redhill Creek at Hamilton ↑ Black Creek near Weston Etobicoke Creek at Brampton ↑ Etobicoke Creek below QEW ↑ Mimico Creek at Islington ↑ Don River at York Mills ↓ Little Don River at Don Mills ↑ Don River at Todmorden ↑ Rouge River near Markham ↑ Highland Creek near West Hill Harmony Creek at Oshawa
  23. 23. Total Event Duration Station Name Trend Duffins Creek above Pickering East Humber River near Pine Grove East Oakville Creek near Omagh ↓ Laurel Creek at Waterloo Redhill Creek at Hamilton Black Creek near Weston ↓ Etobicoke Creek at Brampton ↓ Etobicoke Creek below QEW ↑ Mimico Creek at Islington ↑ Don River at York Mills ↓ Little Don River at Don Mills ↑ Don River at Todmorden ↓ Rouge River near Markham ↑ Highland Creek near West Hill ↓ Harmony Creek at Oshawa ↓
  24. 24. Hydrograph Separation Qpeak Qstart Qreg Time Discharge Qpivot tstart tpeak treg Quick (Direct) Flow Inter Flow Base Flow Constant Slope MethodInflection Point Solver • Find inflection point on falling limb via non-linear curve fitting • Separate linear storage volumes
  25. 25. Hydrograph Separation 25
  26. 26. Event Quick Flow (Direct Runoff) Volume Station Name Trend Duffins Creek above Pickering East Humber River near Pine Grove East Oakville Creek near Omagh Oakville Creek at Milton ↓ Credit River near Orangeville Black Creek near Weston Etobicoke Creek at Brampton ↑ Etobicoke Creek below QEW ↑ Mimico Creek at Islington ↑ Don River at York Mills Little Don River at Don Mills ↑ Don River at Todmorden Rouge River near Markham ↑ Highland Creek near West Hill ↑ Harmony Creek at Oshawa MK Trend: Increasing
  27. 27. Event Interflow Volume Station Name Trend Duffins Creek above Pickering ↑ East Humber River near Pine Grove East Oakville Creek near Omagh Oakville Creek at Milton Credit River near Orangeville Black Creek near Weston ↑ Etobicoke Creek at Brampton Etobicoke Creek below QEW ↑ Mimico Creek at Islington ↑ Don River at York Mills Little Don River at Don Mills ↑ Don River at Todmorden ↑ Rouge River near Markham ↑ Highland Creek near West Hill ↑ Harmony Creek at Oshawa ↑ MK Trend: Increasing
  28. 28. Zombie Science? 28 “Results from these comparisons show that depending on the method used, automated baseflow separation underestimates the simulated baseflow by as much as 28%, or overestimates it by up to 74%, during rainfall events.” (Partington et al., 2012)
  29. 29. Conclusions • While direct runoff increases in urbanizing catchments, event contribution to shallow system may increase or decrease • Hydrograph separation methods have relevance in modern hydrology, more work required • Must work towards integrated SW/GW definitions • Canada has an large database of high resolution, instantaneous hydrometric data spanning from 1969 onwards 29
  30. 30. Acknowledgements Dr. Herman Goertz Jeanette Fooks Paula Hunter Carrie-Lynn Green Eco-Hydraulics Co-op Tyler Gale Victoria Lounder Ben Plumb Christina Bright Water Survey Division, Environment Canada Tom Arsenault Aerial Photography Analysis Robert Leonard Nikita Tirskikh Chris McKie
  31. 31. 31 Questions or Comments?
  32. 32. WSC Station ID Station Name Area (km2) Percent Urban (1969) Percent Urban (≈2010) Percent Change 02HC019 Duffins Creek above Pickering 93.5 > 5% -- 02HC009 East Humber River near Pine Grove 197 > 10% -- 02HB004 East Oakville Creek near Omagh 199 > 10% -- 02GA024 Laurel Creek at Waterloo 57.5 15 38 23 02HA014 Red Hill Creek at Hamilton 56.3 27 60 33 02HC027 Black Creek near Weston 58 55 78 22 02HC017 Etobicoke Creek at Brampton 63.2 1 18 17 02HC030 Etobicoke Creek below QEW 204 20 55 34 02HC033 Mimico Creek at Islington 70.6 43 82 39 02HC005 Don River at York Mills 88.1 30 69 39 02HC029 Little Don River at Don Mills 130 30 68 38 02HC024 Don River at Todmorden 316 43 73 30 02HC022 Rouge River near Markham 186 7 40 33 02HC013 Highland Creek near West Hill 88.1 47 86 39 02HD013 Harmony Creek at Oshawa 41.6 20 45 25 32 Study Catchments
  33. 33. Summary (Warm Weather Trends) Station Name Peak Discharge Time to Peak Event Duration Total Hydrograph Duration Event Volume Total Hydrograph Volume Flashiness Duffins Creek above Pickering East Humber River near Pine Grove East Oakville Creek near Omagh ↓ Oakville Creek at Milton ↑ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↑ Credit River near Orangeville ↑ Laurel Creek at Waterloo ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ Redhill Creek at Hamilton ↑ Black Creek near Weston ↑ ↓ ↑ Etobicoke Creek at Brampton ↑ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ Etobicoke Creek below QEW ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ Mimico Creek at Islington ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ Don River at York Mills ↑ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↑ Little Don River at Don Mills ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ Don River at Todmorden ↑ ↓ ↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ Rouge River near Markham ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ Highland Creek near West Hill ↑ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↑ ↑ Harmony Creek at Oshawa ↑ ↓ ↓ ↑
  34. 34. Partial Flow Duration Curve 1970 1985 2010

×