Pengajaran Dan Pembelajaran Secara Online 6543ppt


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  • Perhaps it is the flexibility of access, at anytime or anywhere, to learning materials that motivates learning and this in turn removes that feeling of “being taught.” Online learning, synchronous or asynchronous, puts the learner in control of his/her learning with support from the expert in the field of study. This innate regulation motivates the student to access the learning materials and become actively involved in deep meaningful learning. Learning is the primary focus, not “teaching” or being “taught.”
  • As educators we strive to look for instructional systems to promote learning. As we look at online learning environments we have a desire to assure they are pedagogically effective. The construction of “effective” online learning situations should be supported by proven and sound learning theories. The design of the course versus the medium of delivery is the determining factor for effectiveness. There is not one exact theory to follow. However, one may combine given theories and look toward the advent of new theories on the horizon. These are some of the theories cited in the literature.
  • The early computer learning systems were created based on the behaviorist approach to learning. Skinner (1974): External stimuli change human behaviors. However, other educators insisted there is more to learning than just observable changes in behavior. Therefore, a switch from a behaviorist to a cognitive approach. Teach the facts (what) Cognitivist: teach principles and processes of “how” Piaget: To understand is to discover; the learner is capable of “production” and “creativity.” real life, personal applications, contextual Vygotsky: People act on the environment (objects, individuals, and institutions) through the intermediaries of technology and “social” institutuions. Bruner’s basic premise is “learning” is an “active” process that learners construct new knowledge and meaning based upon their current or past knowledge. Curriculum should be developed in the shape of a “sprial” where the learner builds upon previously learned material.
  • Pavio hypothesized that there are verbal and nonverbal subsystems that are structurally and functionally distinct at the cognitive level. Individuals create internal verbal symbols from verbal stimuli, internal images from visual representations, and referential connectioins between the two systems. This cognitive coding provides a framework for the construction of multimedia design that is delivered via computerized technology. Human interaction with the computer’s hardware and software involves the kinesthetic, auditory and visual sensorimotor systems. Therefore, the computer may be viewed as a cognitive learning tool that assists with the encoding of verbal and nonverbal messages for the learner and perhaps enhances learning. Empirical research supports the use of pictures and text when designing instructional materials for the learner.
  • Rich Mayer states 3 assumptions in his theory of multimedia learning (2001): dual channels, limited capacity, and active processing. Learning material may be presesnted verbally aas on-screen text or by voice and graphically as images or animation in computer-based multimedia Limited capacity: inidividuals do not have unlimited capacity to process information in the auditory/visual channels of working memory. Message: avoid overloading the learner with information. Active processing: individuals participate in learning in order to make meaningful experiences. They make sense of multimedia presentations by paying attention, organizing information, and combining new information with previous knowledge from long-term memory.
  • George Siemens notes that behaviroism, cognitivism, and constructivism are learning theories that were developed before “learning was impacted through technology.” Implications for connectivism are: design of learning envirionments; personal knowledge management in relation to organizational management; management and leadership.
  • By choosing one or several learning theories you will design effective online learning environments that motivate…etc.
  • Pengajaran Dan Pembelajaran Secara Online 6543ppt

    1. 1. GGGE 6543 Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran secara Online
    2. 2. Emerging Trends and Practices <ul><li>Noble and Worthy Mission </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing learning to the disenfranchised </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who have not been served by traditional classroom settings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interesting (and exciting) times! </li></ul><ul><li>New tools, new techniques, new theories! </li></ul><ul><li>After centuries of sameness (since printing press) we now are confronted with a new context in higher education </li></ul>
    3. 3. Millennial Students <ul><li>Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation , Neil Howe and William Strauss – 7 descriptors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheltered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team-Oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They expect Student Centered Learning </li></ul>
    4. 4. Digital Natives <ul><li>So if Digital Immigrant educators really want to reach Digital Natives – e.g. all their students – they will have to change. It’s high time for them to stop their grousing, and as the Nike motto of the Digital Native generation says, “Just do it!” They will succeed in the long run – and their successes will come that much sooner if their administrators support them. </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the Millennial Students ? </li></ul>
    5. 5. Technologies and Techniques <ul><li>How do we connect with the digital natives – the millennial students? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time-shifting technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage interaction - engage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate individual communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilize their means of communication – digital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet them where they are – on their turf </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Learning Theories <ul><li>Applying learning theories to online teaching and learning </li></ul>
    7. 7. “ Personally, I’m always ready to learn, although I do not always like being taught.” -Winston Churchill
    8. 8. Learning Theories <ul><li>Behaviorist, Cognitivist, Constructivist </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Representations </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivism </li></ul>
    9. 9. Learning Theories <ul><li>Behaviorist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thorndike, Pavlov, Skinner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning = observable behavioral changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitivist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Craik, Tulving, Ausubel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning = motivation, thinking, memory, reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Construcitivst </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piaget, Vygotsky, Bruner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning = observation, processing, interpretation </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Learning Theories <ul><li>Mental Representations </li></ul><ul><li>Paivio’s Dual Coding Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal and nonverbal subsystems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Words/pictures enhance cognitive coding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive imagery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research supports use of images & text </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Learning Theories <ul><li>Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Mayer extends Paivio’s theory </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures = “animation” </li></ul><ul><li>Text = “narration” </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-based multimedia presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Prior knowledge influences integration of pictures and text in “working memory” </li></ul>
    12. 12. Learning Theories <ul><li>Connectivism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A learning theory for the digital age” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal knowledge is a “network” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal to network to organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know “where” to locate “up-to-date” knowledge </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Just Do It Right! <ul><li>Motivate learners </li></ul><ul><li>Promote meaningful learning </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage interaction & collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Give timely constructive feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the whole person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner and learning process at the center </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Sampling of New Technologies <ul><li>Innovative trends and practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Podcasting and Enhanced Podcasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RSS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaming – simulations </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Blogs <ul><li>We B + LOGS = BLOGS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Since 1997 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse chronological order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick and easy way to publish instantly and internationally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provision for responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Blogs <ul><li>How are blogs used in education? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty members sharing info with students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students in virtual study groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students sharing creative writing with world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online journaling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Portfolios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anonymous evaluations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incredible reach – last 24 hours for OLU </li></ul>
    17. 17. Podcasts <ul><li>i POD + broad CAST = PODCAST </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Born out of blogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio blogging using MP3 or MP4 format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listened to online or through iTunes auto-downloaded to an iPod </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Margaret Maag – USF: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Burks Oakley – University of Illinois: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Podcasts <ul><li>Podcasts recorded outside the classroom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skype (Voice over Internet Protocol) computer-to-computer or telephone – or via iTalk microphone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SHU Podcast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ed-Cast An International Collaboration to Enhance Access and Knowledge via podcasts freely shared across institutions </li></ul>
    19. 19. Vodcasts <ul><li>V ideo O n D emand + broad CAST = VODCAST </li></ul><ul><li>Video files commonly in blogs that can be played on a computer or a video iPod </li></ul><ul><li>Some example sites: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Pod/Vodcasts <ul><li>How are Pod/Vodcasts used in education? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lecture delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Those who miss class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Review of lectures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slider-bar for review of concepts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voiced discussion boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Providing richer communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student project delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling audio/video multimedia </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Wikis <ul><li>Wiki = Hawaiian term for “quick” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g. wiki wiki buses) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online shared space for composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normally, anyone with access can edit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikispaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. RSS <ul><li>Rich Site Summary / Really Simple Syndication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online XML files pointing to updates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggregators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables instant sharing of resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs, Podcasts, Vodcasts, Wikis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Gaming - Simulation <ul><li>Millennial learners are veterans at digital gaming and simulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More hours spent with x-box than prior generations spent with books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comfortable mode of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Theory References <ul><li>Athabasca University. (2004). Foundations of Educational Theory for Online Learning. In T. Anderson, & F. Elloumi (Eds.), Theory and Practice of Online Learning. (pp. 3-31). Available at . </li></ul><ul><li>Mayer, R. (2001). Multimedia learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Cambridge, England: University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representations: A </li></ul><ul><li>dual coding approach. Oxford, England: </li></ul><ul><li>Oxford University Press. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Theory References <ul><li>Siemens, G. (2004). Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age. Available at: </li></ul>
    26. 26. Technology Sources <ul><li>Educause has published a free E-Book on the topic: Educating the Net Generation (July, 2005) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online Learning Update – more than 5,000 postings since 2001 </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>