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IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
IRF-Washington
Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee
December 12, 2014
EDITED Draft
D.Kalivas, Chair DBET
D...
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01a - DBET Subcommittee Position Statement DRAFT February2015

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01a - DBET Subcommittee Position Statement DRAFT February2015

  1. 1. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 1 International Road Federation Driver Behavior Education and Training Subcommittee (DBET) Position Statement and Guidelines (2014 – 2018)
  2. 2. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 2 IRF ROAD SAFETY COMMITTEE Mission Statement It is the mission of the Road Safety Committee (RSC) to: (1) advance the vision and mission of the International Road Federation (IRF); (2) promote the safe and efficient transportation of people and goods on urban and rural roadway systems throughout the world; (3) decrease the number of road-related crashes that result in fatalities and serious injuries; (4) reduce safety risks for motorists, bicyclists, pedestrians, and other road users; and (5) decrease the risk for property damage to businesses, industry, residential structures, and other infrastructure located adjacent to roadway systems. Goals The goals of the RSC are to: (1) garner road safety expertise, including best practices and newest technologies, through technology transfer from the international community to prepare and support road safety programs, policy statements, and positions; (2) educate government agencies (i.e., transportation, health, etc.), road authorities, consulting organizations, and other associations on the use of new design methods, proven technologies, and cost-effective practices; (3) influence key decision-makers to implement successful road safety strategies/programs as well as support road safety research; (4) identify focus areas where significant improvements in road safety and mobility can be achieved. Objectives The objectives of the DBET Subcommittee are to implement the vision, mission and goals of the RSC, specifically with the advancement of: 1 Creating a culture of “ Is it Safe” when promoting driver education, training and best practice, and 2 Develop stronger links between driver behavior research, legislation and training best practice.
  3. 3. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 3 IRF RSC, DBET Position Statement and Guidelines Driver Behavior, Education and Training
  4. 4. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 4 Table of Contents Executive Summary...........................................................................................................................5 Context.............................................................................................................................................8 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................9 Element 1 - Education & Training ....................................................................................................10 Element 2 - Learner Drivers .............................................................................................................12 Element 3 - Probationary Drivers & Post License, Driver Training Standards.....................................17 Fundamental elements to achieve effective post license driver training........... 17 1. Quality curriculum requires: ................................................................................................... 18 2. Develop Cognitive Skills (high order, thinking skills)..................................................... 18 3. Coaching approach....................................................................................................................... 18 4. Context ............................................................................................................................................. 18 5. General:* ......................................................................................................................................... 19 Element 4 - Early School Years & Vulnerable Road Users .................................................................22 Element 5 - Adult Drivers ................................................................................................................24 Endorsements.................................................................................................................................28
  5. 5. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 5 Executive Summary The IRF DBET subcommittee has identified five important elements of action applicable for drivers and road users. The pillars selected also align with the UN Decade of Road safety Action Pillars and cover both the diversity and common challenges afflicting road user behavior, road safety and training and education. In summary the five elements identified are;  Education & Training  Learner Drivers & Learner Driver Licensing Standards  Probationary Drivers, Post license Driver Training, Driver Training Standards  Road Safety Education , Early School Years & Vulnerable Road Users,  Adult Drivers, key risks and effective law enforcement In developing the 5 elements, careful consideration was given to identify “human and other critical factors” which are vital in developing strategies to reduce road harm and improve road safety. The diagram below outlines the key factors acknowledged under the safe systems approach to Road Safety, (safer cars, safer roads, safer speeds, safer people) that enable a platform for effective countermeasures to improve road safety. The DBET subcommittee acknowledges that actions to improve road safety actions should be developed in the local context , knowledge and resources available to deal with human and critical road safety factors, and leverage , integrate and maximize existing initiatives where present. Human Development & Attitude Light & Heavy Vehicles Motorcycle Alcohol & DrugsFatigue Inattention Speed Human Error 95% Infrastructure Environment Culture Global Road Safety Strategy
  6. 6. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 6 The DBET subcommittee key position statements to support the IRF Road Safety Committee mission statement are;  Human error remains a significant contributor to road related trauma (estimated by the Federal Office of Road Safety, Australia to be as high as 95%).  Human brain development poses considerable challenges for training novice drivers (young drivers) and vulnerable road users (pedestrians), based on research which identifies:  Delayed development of the frontal lobes in humans takes place significantly late than other parts of the central nervous system (MRI study 2009).  Judgment factors including the speed of moving objects, particularly in children (Wann, Poulter, & Purcell, 2011), Royal Halloway University London.  Worldwide, Driver Education and Training needs to better understand the limitations in human development particularly in the context of persons aged 16 to 28.  Recognising and responding to hazards in living environments is a vital element for training of young drivers, pedestrians and other road users (Ivers, et al., 2006), Dr Chris Sharp, David Legge, (Monash University, Melbourne 2009)  Of critical importance to the integrity of road safety is the standard of licensing system applied and the level of law enforcement provided to support it. Globally many nations have adopted a safe systems approach toward road safety, with a key element being a rigorous and transparent driver licensing system.  Standards and procedures for training of persons involved with the licensing process including administration, road test examination and traffic law enforcement must be transparent and accredited.  Support Graduated Driver licensing systems (GDLS) that enables new drivers of motor vehicles with driving experience and skills based on competencies achieved in low-risk environments.  Based upon extensive supporting documentation by Elvik,et al (2009), Gregersen (1996), Sanders & Keskinen (2004), and Mayhew and Simpson (2002), training programs aimed at enhancing the skills to regain control in emergency situations should not be included in basic driver education nor in post-test driver training programs. Driver training should be aimed at improving the calibration skills of drivers.  Effective road safety education program involves teaching children and young people to be safer road users. It does so by developing:
  7. 7. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 7 • Knowledge and understanding of road traffic and the environment in which it is found • Behavioral skills necessary to survive in the presence of road traffic • An understanding of students’ own responsibilities for keeping themselves and others safe • Knowledge of the causes and consequences of road accidents  To effectively change adult behavior and curtail risky actions, three important factors must be present: o strong laws that are transparent in their benefit o effective messaging of the laws and the purpose behind them to effectively engage with road users o rigorous enforcement of laws. o Without the laws, the behaviour is not improper; o without the messaging there is no understanding of the reason for the laws; o without the enforcement there are no consequences thus no reason to change, education alone is usually insufficient  In an effort to support active participation of all segments in a community, the DBET Subcommittee will promote activities that educate government agencies, legislators, safety advocates, and community leaders on what is needed for an effective statutory structure in traffic safety.  Effective traffic safety efforts may require that corruption is addressed in a comprehensive approach. The perception and the reality of corruption undermine any effort to establish the rule of law as paramount.  Without the support of the law enforcement in upholding the law and the understanding by the public that the laws apply to all, there will be no change in behaviour.
  8. 8. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 8 Context Until the early 1990s, driver-training “best practice” emphasized the development of psycho-motor skills and driver training practices based on procedural training. During the last 2 decades, significant research from the field of human development, psychology and cooperative efforts from road safety regulators identified the benefits of developing cognitive aspects of driving - risk perception, multiple-task performance and allocation of attention – into driver training. In the words of Nils Gregersen (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, 1997) “ safe driving is not primarily a matter of physical vehicle control and steering, but rather a matter of attitude. Increased self-awareness is a precondition of safe driving, different education strategies are needed in order to achieve these goals”. For the effective implementation of the IRF RSC’s vision and to take a holistic “road user” approach the DBET Subcommittee shall garner and target road safety expertise specifically for driver behavior education and training for:  Learner drivers (of eligible age and beyond), seeking professional driver training for licensing purposes  Probationary Drivers (holding restrictive license) and fully licensed drivers seeking additional skills development (Defensive/ Advanced)  Parents and adults “supervising” learner drivers engaged in a road safety capacity  Management/rehabilitation/re-education of drivers who have committed traffic offences through demerit point schemes and targeted traffic offender intervention programs. The DBET Subcommittee shall also promote road safety education (RSE) to support and create synergies with other IRF subcommittees to enhance road safety in relation to:  School aged children to adolescents (ages 5 to 15) years, targeting traffic and road safety knowledge and awareness  Vulnerable road users such as pedestrians, passengers, motorcyclists, cyclists.  Target issues associated with road user behavior such as, distracted driving, drink & drug related driving, speed, fatigue, reckless driving and seat belt use.  Law Enforcement & respecting the law as road users  Raising awareness and understanding of new concepts between road infrastructure and road users ( i.e. self-explaining roads). Road safety research and official statistical road trauma data has well documented the hazards and risks associated for these persons and the overrepresentation of this demographic in road deaths and injuries.
  9. 9. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 9 Purpose The purpose of this paper is to set policy and priorities for the DBET Subcommittee to assist the implementation the 4 key goals of the RSC, garner road safety expertise, educate government agencies, road authorities and other associations, influence key decision-makers to implement successful road safety strategies and identify focus areas where significant improvements in road safety and mobility can be achieved.
  10. 10. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 10 Element 1 - Education & Training Context In a learning environment people of all ages may not understand at times what is being taught. Often there are barriers to communication and learning such as individual perceptions, language, emotions, motivation, attention and preconceived notions. Successful learning can be achieved by careful facilitation and use of knowledge and experience of participants, which should be acknowledged and applied. People prefer to see the relevance of what they are learning in the wider context are more interested in learning to solve problems rather than gaining knowledge. Scope The DBET Subcommittee shall promote the following learning pillars to support and implement effective education and training that:  Requires identifying problems and problem solving  Defines thinking skills that shape behavior  Determines strategies to help reduce personal risk (anticipating or avoiding danger)  Enables “self calibration” (self-assessment and self-correction thinking)  Promotes Hazard Perception as a key driving behavior skill  Promotes the development of insightfulness regarding personal road safety goals and responses relating to perceptions of road safety,  Promotes respecting road and traffic rules  Promotes safety awareness of traffic management, road safety infrastructure and vehicle safety systems.  Enables life skill development (information processing and decision making that is intentional) Training & Learning Objectives The DBET Subcommittee shall promote effective training and learning initiatives. By definition effective training and learning allows participants to: 1. acquire knowledge and principles, 2. analyze, understand and apply knowledge, 3. achieve skills (these can be self-based) 4. establish habits, and 5. develop positive attitudes Education & Public Awareness Campaigns
  11. 11. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 11 The DBET Subcommittee shall promote education and awareness campaigns that promote or enable: 1. self realization and discovery (insightfulness) 2. generalization of knowledge gained and meaningful application into daily life 3. self-assessment and normalization of less risky road user behavior.
  12. 12. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 12 Element 2 - Learner Drivers Driving Context To assist DBET communicate and promote the above priority areas it is important that DBET defines the main competencies are required for safe driving, these are: Operational tasks Involve the direct control over the vehicle, i.e., basic vehicle maneuvers such as lane choice, lane position keeping, speed choice, braking and accelerating, starting and stopping. Tactical tasks Involve drivers interacting with other traffic whilst managing the operational task. Functional tasks Involve variations in the driving environment and pose a substantial cognitive workload. Aspects that increase cognitive workload are the interpretation and prediction of the behavior of surrounding traffic, making eye contact, deciding when to initiate a traffic maneuvers, etc. Functional tasks involve drivers complex decision making, however this process is also influenced by personal attitudes which can shape our behaviour and reduce our cognitive performance due to emotional pressures. Scope The DBET Subcommittee shall promote best practice driver education and training in 3 priority areas: 1) Cognitive Skills Development 2) Attitude and Personal behavior 3) Developing competencies associated with licensing standards and solo driving Cognitive skills development Human error remains a significant contributor to road related trauma (estimated by the Federal Office of Road Safety, Australia to be as high as 95%). Recent studies have identified significant delays in human brain development that pose challenges for training novice drivers (young drivers) and also vulnerable road users (pedestrians) and, specifically:  Delayed development of the frontal lobes in humans takes place significantly late than other parts of the central nervous system (MRI study 2009).  Judgment factors including the speed of moving objects, particularly in children (Wann, Poulter, & Purcell, 2011), Royal halloway University London.
  13. 13. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 13  Recognising and responding to hazards in living environments is a vital element for training of young drivers, pedestrians and other road users (Ivers, et al., 2006), Dr Chris Sharp, David Legge, (Monash University, Melbourne 2009) Driver Training worldwide needs to better understand the limitations in human development particularly in the context of persons aged 18 to 28. The development of cognitive high orders skills are a vital element in driver training and should be assessed against suitable competencies during driver training and license testing. The graphs below whilst specific to Novice driver deaths in (Victoria, Australia 2010) and novice driver crash involvement in New South Wales, Australia, 2006-2010, are indicative of similar trends worldwide, whereby novice drivers (those with less than 5 years’ experience) are 50% more likely to be involved in a vehicle collision. Figure 1 – TOP: Novice driver deaths in (Victoria, Australia 2010) Source Vicroads. BOTTOM: Novice driver crash involvement in New South Wales, Australia, 2006-2010. Source NSW Centre for Road Safety, 2012
  14. 14. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 14 Statistically valid causation factors (gender, age, experience, habit, overconfidence and risky driving behavior) are prevalent collision factors, however the abovementioned studies identified significant new psychological and human development factors may have a greater impact. These are:  Early adolescent (Pedestrians) under the age of 13 years cannot effectively measure and predict the speed on oncoming vehicles.  The capacity of novice drivers to organize thought, scan and observe, prioritize risk and take appropriate corrective action is limited and not fully developed in females until the average age of 23 and males 28.  Hazard perception training remains critical, reconfirmed earlier work by Horswill and McKenna (2004) “of all the different components of driving skill, only hazard perception has been found to relevant and consistent in identifying effective counter measures relating to crash involvement”. The above studies established evidence that driver training for pre and post license must recognize the limitations of human development and current driver training and road safety education needs to be developed to enhance cognitive skills associated with road users. Attitude and Personal behavior Context Personal attitudes shape personal behavior, and adequate knowledge is essential in forming well- balanced and informative choices. One critical behavior for a well-balanced and informed choice is having drivers stop when law enforcement officers perform routine traffic stops. Most drivers who flee are between the ages of 13-25. Parents, educators, and the public of all ages need to teach younger drivers that police pursuits kill—that the consequences for pulling over are much less than what could happen if they flee. The IRF DBET Subcommittee supports the position that personal characteristics are a critical element in driver training. As a guide the DBET Subcommittee endorses the Norwegian public Roads administration -GADGET matrix (GDE) matrix which outlines essential elements of driver training including the hierarchy of driver behavior.
  15. 15. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 15 Licensing Standards. Of critical importance to the integrity of road safety is the standard of licensing system applied and the level of law enforcement provided to support it. Globally many nations have adopted a safe systems approach toward road safety, with a key element being a rigorous and transparent driver licensing system. The DBET subcommittee promotes and encourages that all nations develop, implement and enforce the following:  Licensing & law enforcement standards that are based on best practice & competency  Licensing curriculums and driver training is accredited  Standards and procedures for training of persons involved with the licensing process including administration, road test examination and traffic law enforcement are transparent and accredited.  Apply where applicable Graduated Driver licensing systems (GDLS) a system to provide new drivers of motor vehicles with driving experience and skills gradually over time in low-risk environments. Learner Driver Competencies associated with licensing standards and solo driving The DBET Subcommittee supports the position that less reliance is placed on short term training that helps people pass “tests” and focus on active learning methods to prepare for solo and safer driving. Specifically this involves greater training focus on:  Establishing driving goals (safety)  Planning and preparing for driving  Behavioral and judgment tendencies  Self knowledge, personality factors and personal competency  Learning with accredited driving schools  Learning within and respecting the licensing system and traffic laws Essential elements of driver training Knowledge and skills (1) Risk-increasing factors (2) Self-evaluation (3) Hierarchicallevelsofdriverbehaviour Personal characteristics, ambitions and competencies (4) 4.1  lifestyle  peer group norms  personal values and norms  etc. 4.2  sensation-seeking  adapting to social pressure 4.3  impulse control  risky tendencies  personal risky characteristics Trip-related context and considerations (3) 3.1  choice of route  estimated driving time  estimating urgency of the trip 3.2  physiological condition of driver  social context and company in vehicle 3.3  personal skills with regard to planning  typically risky motives when driving Mastery of traffic situations (2) 2.1  application of traffic rules  observation and use of signals  anticipation of events 2.2  vulneable road users  breaking traffic rules / unpredictable behaviour  information overload  difficult (road) conditions 2.3  strengths and weaknesses regarding driving skills in traffic  personal driving style Basic vehicle control (1) 1.1  control of direction and position of car  technical aspects of vehicle 1.2  improper use of seatbelt, headrest, sitting position  under-pressure tyres 1.3  strengths and weaknesses of basic vehicle control
  16. 16. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 16
  17. 17. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 17 Element 3 - Probationary Drivers & Post License, Driver Training Standards Driving Context Whilst the challenges for safe driving are similar for learner drivers, the driving context for novice or probationary exposes them to significant increased risks as their driving context has changed from being supervised to unsupervised. The driving context for probationary drivers can be influenced or shaped in many complex ways, however novice drivers are exposed to: 1) Increasing self-reliance to determine low risk thinking and decision making 2) Applying competencies in the real driving world, 3) Using the road within their own emotional, cognitive and behavioral development constraints, and 4) Lifestyle changes, greater independence and peer influences. Driver Training Scope Post licensed drivers often seeking additional driving skills (commonly referred to as defensive or Advanced driving), or additional driver training for “professional” development. Based upon extensive supporting documentation by Elvik,et al (2009), Gregersen (1996), Sanders & Keskinen (2004), and Mayhew and Simpson (2002), training programs aimed at enhancing the skills to regain control in emergency situations should not be included in basic driver education nor in post-test driver training programs. Driver training should be aimed at improving the calibration skills of drivers. The DBET Subcommittee promotes and encourages post license driver training that focuses on:  Building resilience by improving both safety and skill level of the trainee  Competency, not confidence  Teaching how to avoid dangerous situations and skills to deal with unavoidable hazards  Personality traits and how this influences risk taking  Development of road safety goals  Understanding the operation of vehicle safety systems ( ABS, ESP, DBA, Seat belts)  Developing cognitive skills (e.g. commentary driving)  Apply the model (Knowledge =Transfer = Attitude = Behavior = Retention)  Reducing distractions and maintaining concentration  Identifying personal safety triggers. Fundamental elements to achieve effective post license driver training
  18. 18. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 18 1. Supported by quality curriculum 2. Focus on the development of cognitive skills 3. Are based on “coaching” rather than teaching – involving problem solving 4. The driving context must relate to the local environment, but the training should not be context dependent (i.e. enabling students to generalise skills in the real world). 1. Quality curriculum requires:  A system of validation – pre and post training assessment  Enable knowledge transfer  Encourage student self-reflection  Is competency based  Enables students to demonstrate behavior change – triangulation 2. Develop Cognitive Skills (high order, thinking skills) o Hazard Perception - Anticipating or avoiding danger (through a combination of practice and obtaining feedback trainees can create their own understandings of how cues in traffic and a possible outcome are related. Moreover, trainees can experience the results of their own risky choices or inattention). o Self Calibration ( self-assessment) information processing and decision making that is intentional) 3. Coaching approach  Models include the Norwegian public Roads administration -GADGET matrix and EU Hermes coaching Project  Greater focus on o Establishing driving goals (safety) o Planning and preparing for driving o Behavioral and judgment tendencies o Self knowledge , personality factors and personal competency 4. Context • Curriculum and training must relate to the local environment, Roads, Vehicles and Collision reduction measures from statistical evidence • Supported by local road safety strategy – Police , Local Authorities, public campaigns • Utilise new technology to enhance competency based training – (simulation)
  19. 19. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 19 5. General:* • Courses should be varied, highly interactive, self-analytical • The trainer to participant ratio should be small enough to allow for individual attention and for intensive training, but large enough to facilitate stimulating group discussion. • Practical off road exercises should be considered more of a starting point for the learning process than a complete process in itself. Each exercise should be followed with discussion. • On road driving should be used to development cognitive skills. • Check for undesirable side effects of training. • Use a range of locations and teaching methods (discussions, case studies, • problem-solving, self-evaluation questionnaires, videos + discussion, on-road training and driver observation, etc.) • A good ending is vital, not rushed! and where the experiences and views of the training can be shared, summarized and discussed. • It is not the message that is delivered, but the message which is received by the participants that counts. Constant participant feedback and course evaluation are necessary! *See EU ADVANCED project - if a course is not extremely well designed, overestimation of one's own skills is encouraged, and the effect on road safety will be the opposite of what is intended Driving Simulators & Driver Training Studies undertaken by the University of Massechussus (2006) and the Technical University, Madrid Spain) identified that driving simulators and PC based systems are a useful learning tool when used in conjunction with scenario based training (SBT). The Dutch Government have invested significantly in driving simulators and by late 2005, 100 simulators were used in the Netherlands in the driver training for a car driving licence (Kappé & Van Emmerik, 2005). Dr Kappe, Mvan Emmerik, Winsum and Rozendom (Defence, security and safety, Netherlands) report that Driving simulators are a valuable tool for driver training. They allow basic vehicle handling and traffic participation to be trained effectively. Since traffic situations can be controlled, many specific training situations can be presented in a short time-span. This makes simulator training more effective than training in the real world. Emirates Driving Company (EDC) in the United Arab Emirates, has been utilising driving simulators since 2005 as part of its internationally accredited driver training curriculum . Students take a small number of simulation lessons to target knowledge and skills that a driver needs for driving under different circumstances, aspects of driving that can increase the risk (perception of traffic situation, and speed adjustment) and critical self-evaluation of performance during training. EDC trains over 4000 students per month. Driver training in simulators can identify functional short comings and allow students to create countermeasures to enhance cognitive thought. Examples may include:
  20. 20. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 20 Element Application Risk perception & ordering Enhance HP scenarios Dimension-driving scenarios allow participants to identify and refine a number of cognitive skills such as:  Speed and lateral position measurements.  Approaching intersections - Recognize type of intersection in time.  Judge the visibility of crossing traffic - Perform scanning techniques correctly  Judging speed  Assessing complex intersections  Observing and predicting traffic movement, (lane changes, peripheral vision,)  Speed differential between slow and faster moving objects, heavy vehicles , motorcycles, pedestrians and cars)  Overtaking scenarios (cars, heavy vehicles)  Maintaining a safe following distance. Self Calibration Expose students to a variety of traffic environments by allowing the student to control the learning environment, and to train specific driving tasks. The learning can be both simulation or on road. Driver Trainer Standards Assessment & qualifications Driver trainer standards and qualifications are important elements in maintaining adequate standards in the training system. The DBET subcommittee promotes pre assessment and selection criteria and minimum qualifications for driver trainers, these are:  3 years driving experience (excluding probationary period)  Education level (successful completion of high school),  Clean driving record for the previous 3 years with no major traffic offences or law violations)  No history or conviction for drink driving or substance abuse Training accreditation and pedagogy Minimum training qualifications and training system are vital for establishing and maintaining a robust and technically competent driver training profession. The DBET subcommittee promotes and encourages that traffic /transport authorities allow driving schools to operate under the following criteria:  Driving schools operate under an accredited curriculum and trainee teaching method or present such documentation for endorsement to the responsible traffic / transport regulator.
  21. 21. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 21  Driver trainers meet a minimum training standard (association or vocational). The DBET subcommittee promotes and encourages driving schools to operate under a recognized training system, and this system ensures:  Effective application of training / Learning methods  Accreditation and training of driver trainers is based on approved professional development courses such as “train the trainer” , industry or professional driver associations, registered training organisations (RTO’s) Training methods The DBET subcommittee promotes and encourages trainers to be competent in the following training and learning principles: 1. Practical skills: instructional techniques – be able to use of a wide range of methods, lecture, group, simulation, be able to demonstrate a practical skill or example, introduce , illustrate or explain lesson material, maintain trainee interest and concentration. Learning is optimised through a combination of demonstration and participant involvement including: 1. Trainer demonstrates - how to accomplish task through correct method, 2. Trainer links physical activity - to knowledge and attitude 3. Participants repeat demonstration -step by step, 4. Participants and trainer share common difficulties, 5. Instructional evaluation – be able to measure trainee learning through test or observation, diagnose learning problems, evaluate instructor effectiveness, be able to measure the impact of learning in progress. 2. Communication skills: 1. interpersonal / communication skills – be able to organise information effectively, consider perceptions and feelings of students in trainee situations, use questioning in an effective manner, allow for varying needs and motivation of trainees, diagnose barriers to effective communication. 2. communicating in group context - give clear spoken instructions, use appropriate language for trainees.
  22. 22. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 22 Element 4 - Early School Years & Vulnerable Road Users Context No matter how well the road environment is engineered the following facts* will always remain the same:  no-one is born knowing how to use the system  the transport system and road environment that children inherit is complex and inherently  dangerous  the skills individuals need to manage the traffic environment are perceptual and take time to develop  there are social, cultural, emotional and lifestyle factors over which the individual has little control or when they have choices they do so in an unsafe and anti-social way  there will always be a need for modeling, supervision and training of children by parents and others. * Gayle Di Pietro, GRSP RSE in schools (Malaysia 2006) The inclusion of Road Safety Education programs (RSE) in the school curriculum is considered important and acknowledged by education systems worldwide, particularly because many crashes occur on the way to school and on the way home from school, as well as in local communities. The repercussions of children being killed or injured have a profound impact within school communities. An effective road safety education program* involves teaching children and young people to be safer road users. It does so by developing: • Knowledge and understanding of road traffic and the environment in which it is found • Behavioural skills necessary to survive in the presence of road traffic • An understanding of students’ own responsibilities for keeping themselves and others safe • Knowledge of the causes and consequences of road accidents According to GRSP (2000), a best practice road safety education program should: • Begin at the pre-school level and educate continuously throughout the child’s school life • Base the education on practical training in a realistic road environment • Use teaching methods which follow the principles of child and adolescent development • Base its training needs to be regular, frequent and combined with practice • Be tailored to take account of education, cultural, transport and financial circumstances • Have a formal place in the school curriculum • Be reinforced by community safety schemes. *Catchpole et al , road safety education in Schools, ARRB, Austroads.
  23. 23. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 23 DBET Scope The DBET Subcommittee supports RSE in schools that promote the following. Pre learner driver education and road safety (What approaches should schools use?). Schools should ensure that road safety programs are:  designed to fit within the school curriculum, are developmentally appropriate and delivered at different time points through a student’s school life rather than one-off events, talks and forums  interactive and encourage students to develop social competence and resilience rather than purely information based programs  part of a whole school approach including road safety policies and teacher support and training  designed to engage with school parents and the local community given the vital role they play  enhanced by measures to increase school connectedness among students and their parents. What approaches should community groups use? Community road safety groups should deliver road safety programs and campaigns that are:  multi-action and integrated programs are delivered over time to address the complex factors  underpinning many road safety problems  designed to enhance and encourage a safer culture in the local community  engaging for young people, their parents and other important community partners  evidence-based programs, rather than approaches that intuitively feel good. What topics should be covered? Youth related road safety programs should inform and support:  helping young people develop strategies to comply with the peer passenger and alcohol restrictions for novice drivers  the importance of choosing a safe vehicle safety, especially for young drivers  understanding and encouraging compliance with road laws  linking with age appropriate alcohol and drug prevention programs, especially as they relate to young road user safety  encouraging parents to be good road safety role models and providing parents with strategies to help  reduce the risks their children face as road users  drink driving prevention through a range of mechanisms to reduce community level access to alcohol among young people.
  24. 24. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 24 Element 5 - Adult Drivers Scope The DBET Subcommittee shall promote best practices to educate and change dangerous driving behaviour of adult drivers in five priority areas: 1. Observing and respecting speed limits 2. Reducing alcohol/drug use and driving 3. Increasing motorcycle helmet use 4. Increasing seat belt use 5. Reduce Distracted Driving Context Intentional and unintentional human error contributes to a significant percentage of traffic crashes. While there must be a vigorous approach to training new drivers, any approach to safer roads requires a comprehensive approach for all drivers. The United Nations has declared 2011-2020 a Decade of Action for Road Safety focusing on certain behavioural risk factors that could significantly reduce traffic crashes and/or fatalities. The above list contains a number of those risky activities, with the issue of Distracted Driving as an additional new concern. To effectively change adult behaviour and curtail these risky actions, three important factors must be present:  strong laws that are transparent in their benefit  effective messaging of the laws and the purpose behind them to effectively engage with road users  rigorous enforcement of laws. Without the laws, the behaviour is not improper; without the messaging there is no understanding of the reason for the laws; without the enforcement there are no consequences thus no reason to change, education alone is usually insufficient.1 It takes all three factors combined to change behaviour. Effective messaging involves an effective road safety education program in schools (i.e., prior to driving), public education campaigns that integrate with police enforcement activities, and effective policies to manage/rehabilitate/re-educate those drivers who have commit traffic offences (through demerit point schemes and targeted traffic offender intervention programs). Overall, using this three-step process changes behaviour of most drivers and creates a safer road user culture. The DBET Subcommittee endorses the U.N.’s risk factors as critical in creating safer roads for all. Increasing Road Safety Legislation 1 Improving the Effectiveness of Road Safety Campaigns: Current and New practices, Hoekstra, T., Wegman, F. 2010.
  25. 25. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 25 While many countries have separately passed legislation dealing with seat belts, substance abuse and driving, or motorcycle helmets, it is the comprehensive approach on all of these topics that is missing. As of 2013, ninety-four countries have laws that address these factors in some fashion, but only twenty-eight countries have comprehensive laws on all five U.N. risky behaviours.2 To aid governments’ understanding of what laws are needed, and based on an examination of the successful countries the DBET Subcommittee will develop (1) a comprehensive checklist and promote it to:  government agencies,  legislators,  safety advocates, and  community leaders This will allow for others to determine the missing elements from their own country’s jurisprudence. Additionally, the DBET Subcommittee will (2) supply with the checklist research supporting these actions, such as statistics demonstrating the benefit of wearing seat belts. This can provide an scientific basis for the implementation of these laws. In an effort to support active participation of all segments in a community, the DBET Subcommittee will promote activities that educate government agencies, legislators, safety advocates, and community leaders on what is needed for an effective statutory structure in traffic safety. The focus will be on the five priority areas listed above: reducing speed, reducing alcohol/drug use and driving, increasing motorcycle helmet use, increasing seat belt use, and distracted driving. Effective Messaging A road safety message that works in one country may not work at all in another country. With different cultures, different issues, and a variety of communication methods it is not likely a one- size fits all message can or should be developed. Local entities need to be allowed to “buy” into the message, thus developing their own messages will be more effective. What can be created are tools describing effective communication, e.g. basic principles that can be examined and shared. Tools currently exist to inform and support traffic safety messaging, such as Road Safety Communication Campaigns, Manual for Design, Implementation and Evaluation, Delhomme, P. et. al. 20103 ; White Paper on Traffic Safety Culture, Ward, N. et. al. (2010) and a variety of others. Using the information in existence, the DBET Subcommittee can assess, and develop a variety of targeted methods currently used and distribute basic principles from those methods. Rigorous Enforcement 2 The five topics include: speed, reducing drinking and driving, increasing motorcycle helmet use, increasing seat belt use, and increasing the use of child restraints. 3 More information can be found this publication and about CAST—Campaigns and Awareness-raising Strategies in Traffic Safety at: http://www.cast-eu.org/pages/publications.html
  26. 26. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 26 When laws are not enforced, behaviour is not changed. Unfortunately, many law enforcement agencies (and officers) look at traffic safety as a tangential requirement of “protect and serve”, taking a “back seat” to other law enforcement activities. Yet when looking at top ten leading global causes of death, excluding chronic diseases, traffic crashes is a primary cause of death. Similar to many chronic diseases, traffic crashes are preventable with targeted interventions.4 While governments can typically do more to support law enforcement agencies (e.g. budgetary support, hiring of sufficient officers, technological support such as preliminary breath testing devices and traffic cameras, and more), law enforcement agencies, command officers, and patrol officers need to understand the importance of traffic safety laws and then take action to support and enforce them. Consistent enforcement of these laws can help provide a safe and healthy environment. At times, enforcement also must include “high visibility” enforcement. This will support any messaging being done. It is through a high visibility fashion that the citizens begin to see and understand that violating the law can have consequences and change their behaviours. Additionally, when speaking of enforcing traffic laws, it is more than being caught violating the law. The traffic stop is critical, but it is also important the offender face consequences from the violation. This requires that the courts effectively process cases. Prosecutors (if they are involved in the cases) and judges/magistrates must understand the importance of traffic enforcement. A court is actually a system, which requires each component, police, prosecutors, and judges,5 to be actively involved. Using the objectives expressed in the Education & Training Pillars (section 3), the DBET Subcommittee will promote effective traffic safety training of law enforcement agencies, command officers and patrol officers, as well as for prosecutors and judges when appropriate. Law Enforcement Corruption As mentioned, some law enforcement officers look at traffic safety as a tangential requirement of “protect and serve,” however, another important issue is corruption. Police corruption is an international problem, and while not all officers are corrupt, the perception in some countries is that all law enforcement officers are corrupt and that a bribe will get the offender out of any violation. Effective traffic safety efforts may require that corruption is addressed in a comprehensive approach. The perception and the reality of corruption undermine any effort to establish the rule of law as paramount. Without the support of the law enforcement in upholding the law and the understanding by the public that the laws apply to all, there will be no change in behaviour. Thus the elimination of any law enforcement corruption should be considered in any part of training and /or reform effort. This will require an analysis of the communities where traffic safety efforts are progressing. It will also require the development of an independent oversight agency/committee to monitor the changes and enforce the reform. Keeping the public informed about the efforts and transformations that are occurring will bring about support by the public. 4 Globally, the World Health Organization (WHO) has indicated that road deaths is 9 th as a cause of death in the world. 5 In a few jurisdictions supervision officers or probation officers may also be involved.
  27. 27. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 27 Dealing with traffic offenders Traditional methods used to manage traffic offenders have used monetary fines and driver license sanctions (suspension, disqualification) as the principal means to penalise illegal behaviour. Many jurisdictions have also introduced demerit point schemes that are managed through driver licensing administration. Over the past two decades, some jurisdictions have legislated a requirement for driving offenders to attend a traffic intervention program before re-licensing. Additional means of dealing with offenders include vehicle sanctions (impoundment) or requirements to fit intervention devices (such as alcohol ignition interlocks for alcohol-impaired drivers). The DBET Subcommittee will identify and promote effective approaches that can be used to address driver offending behaviour. The Subcommittee notes that the behaviour of novice drivers under supervision by parents or driving instructors within a Graduated Driver Licensing System (GDLS) is relatively offence-free, and that it appears that the move to solo (unaccompanied) driving, often with per passengers, is associated with the unlearning of safer, less risky driving behaviour.
  28. 28. IRF-Washington Driver Behavior, Education and Training Subcommittee December 12, 2014 EDITED Draft D.Kalivas, Chair DBET D. Wallac Co Chair DBET 28 Endorsements The International Road Federation (IRF) is a not-for-profit, non-political, organization with the mission to encourage and promote development and maintenance of better, safer and more sustainable roads and road networks. Endorsing specific traffic safety concepts is one way to publically demonstrate support for specific traffic safety activities and encourage a change in policy. When appropriate, the DBET Subcommittee will develop endorsements of traffic safety actions that are under the DBET Subcommittee’s purview and submit them for consideration by the Road Safety Committee and the IRF.

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