Credentials

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International dimensions for assessment education

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Credentials

  1. 1. INTERNATIONALDIMENSIONS IN ASSESSMENTProf. Dinesh Selvam S. 1/6/2013 1
  2. 2. Overview. . Meaning History Need for International Assessment Research Framework Issues Components Credentialing Credit GPA 1/6/2013 2
  3. 3. Meaning International dimension literallymeans ‘between countries’- as ininternational relationships. The study of assessment as itmanifests in different countries. 1/6/2013 3
  4. 4. What is International Assessment? International assessments can provide countries with information that allows them to identify areas of relative strengths and weaknesses and monitor the pace of progress of their education system 1/6/2013 4
  5. 5. WHAT IS INTERNATIONAL ASSESSMENT? stimulate countries to raise aspirations by showing what is possible in education in terms of the quality, equity, and efficiency of educational services provided. foster better understanding of how different education systems address similar problems 1/6/2013 5
  6. 6. HISTORY OF INTERNATIONALASSESSMENT 1950-1960 : The discourse on international comparisons of learning outcomes started to emerge . 1958 : An expert group led by William Douglas Wall of UNESCO’s International Institute of Education in Hamburg, Germany, conducted a feasibility study to compare student performance internationally. The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) emerged out of this . 1/6/2013 6
  7. 7. HISTORY . . . 1998-The U.S. Education Testing Service conducted the International Assessment of Educational Progress (IAEP) in 1998 and a follow-up study in 1991. The latest generation of international assessments has been developed by the OECD as part of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). PISA is currently the most rigorous and also the most comprehensive international assessment. 1/6/2013 7
  8. 8. Needs for International dimension inAssessment  Global job market  Influx of foreign workers with unknown qualifications.  To increase the visibility of the qualifications of their own members abroad.  In Europe, several of these organizations are now in the process of equating their certifying examinations.  The attempts to make degrees and certificates comparable could be a systematic input from international educational assessments. 1/6/2013 8
  9. 9. Research Frameworks of International AssessmentsOECD and IEA: Context: measures of student learning outcomes Background information collected from students, principals, and sometimes teachers and parents Interpretation: the observed variation in learning outcomes between students, classrooms, schools, and education systems. 1/6/2013 9
  10. 10. Research Frameworks. . Three research areas (learning outcomes, policies shaping education outcomes, and factors that constrain policies and outcomes) to four levels of the education system (individual learners, classrooms or instructional settings, educational institutions and providers of educational services, and the education system as a whole). 1/6/2013 10
  11. 11. Issues related to InternationalAssessment  Putting national targets into a broader perspective  Assessing the pace of change in educational improvement  Design Issues and Challenges for International Assessments  Cross-country validity and comparability in the assessment instruments  Establishing the assessment domains  Reflecting national, cultural, and linguistic variety  Selecting assessment nature and form  Ensuring external validity  Comparability of the target populations  Comparability in survey implementation 1/6/2013 11
  12. 12. Components of InternationalDimensions in AssessmentCredentialing,Calculating or converting credit hoursCalculating the grade point average 1/6/2013 12
  13. 13. CREDENTIALINGA credential is an attestation ofqualification, competence, or authorityissued to an individual by a third party witha relevant or de facto authority or assumedcompetence to do so.Examples of credentials include academicdiplomas, academicdegrees, certifications, securityclearances, identificationdocuments, badges, passwords, usernames, keys, powers of attorney, and so on. 1/6/2013 13
  14. 14. Credentialing. . . The Nurse Credential recognises the skills,expertise and experience of nurses. Itdemonstrates that an individual nurse hasachieved the professional standard for practice Credentialing is a core component ofclinical/professional governance or selfregulation where members of a profession setstandards for practice and establish a minimumrequirement for entry, continuing professionaldevelopment, endorsement and recognition. 1/6/2013 14
  15. 15. Credentialing. . . Registered nurses working in specialised fields and other disciplines have developed credentialing as a means to ensure standards of practice and competence within their specialist domain beyond entry to practice. 1/6/2013 15
  16. 16. Credentialing. . . Credentialing is an administrative procedure to examine information about a practitioners education, certification, training, continuing education, and experience or actions by the Board of Registration Credentials relate to the qualification of an individual to practice in their state within the scope of practice for that individuals profession. Factors stimulating credentialing - globalization, competition, consumerism, and telecommunication. 1/6/2013 16
  17. 17. Principles of Credentialing (ANA) In addition to benefitting and protecting the public, credentialing also benefit those who are credentialed. The legitimate interest of the involved occupation or institution and of the general public should be reflected in each credentialing mechanism. Accountability should be an essential component of any credentialing process. A system of checks and balances within the credentialing system should assure equitable treatment for all patient involved. 1/6/2013 17
  18. 18. Principles . . .Objective standards and criteria and personscompetent in their use are essential to thecredentialing process .Professional identity and responsibility shouldevolve from the credentialing process.An effective system of role delineation isfundamental to any credentialing mechanismfor individuality.Periodic assessment with potential for sanctionare essential components of an effectivecredentialing mechanism. 1/6/2013 18
  19. 19. Principles . . . An effective system of programme identification is fundamental to any credentialing mechanism for the institutions. Co-ordination of credentialing mechanism should lead to efficiency and cost effectiveness and avoid duplication. Widely accepted definitions and terminologies are basic to an effective credentialing system. Communications and understanding between health care providers and society should be facilitated through the credentialing process. 1/6/2013 19
  20. 20. Organisations providing Credentialing ServicesANCC- American Nursing Credentialing Center Identification: It credentials nurses in a chosen field of specialty, ensures safe working environments, and provided accreditation for schools offering continuing education credits for nurses. 1/6/2013 20
  21. 21. ANCC. .Types: Credentialed in specialties such as surgical, pediatric, cardiac, community nursing, gerontology, home health nursing, psychiatric and pain management. Advanced credentials can be obtained to work in diabetes management or other condition-specific fields, public health or in executive positions. 1/6/2013 21
  22. 22. ANCC. .Considerations: first hold a degree in nursing from an accredited college. must choose a specialty. take courses either in person, online or by reading manuals. work for a specific period of time as a nurse before applying. Depending on specialty, may also have to complete a certain number of hours working in your field. 1/6/2013 22
  23. 23. ANCC. . .Time Frame: vary in length - in person, online or through self study with books and manuals.Benefits: keeps up to date on the latest treatment options and research. Changing Medical knowledge stay on top of recent developments. Increase salary 1/6/2013 23
  24. 24. American Credential Evaluation Services Since 1995, ACES has provided assistance to individuals who have completed their education in any foreign country in the world and translate and convert their educational documents (degree, diploma, certificate, and transcript) into the U.S. educational equivalency. Evaluation equivalency report may be used for: Immigration Employment Education Licensing Military Enlistment 1/6/2013 24
  25. 25. AECS. . .Four types of evaluation services:A. Educational Evaluation Report (Document by Document)B. Professional Work ExperienceC. Course by CourseD. Position Evaluation 1/6/2013 25
  26. 26. AECS. . .A. Educational Evaluation Reports the foreign academic credentials of the applicant. determine the applicants level of education, the number of years completed and the specialization of the applicant. 1/6/2013 26
  27. 27. AECS. . .B. Professional Work Experience Evaluations:- evaluate the applicants education (if applicable), as well as their work experience.C. Course by Course Evaluations:- educational evaluation report - list the courses the applicant has taken - the grades received - and the credit equivalence earned in the United States. 1/6/2013 27
  28. 28. AECS. . .D. Position Evaluations:analyze the job duties of a particularposition - determine if the job duties of theposition are so complex. 1/6/2013 28
  29. 29. CALCULATING GPA AND CREDIT HOURS GRADE POINT AVERAGE Grades are standardized measurements of varying levels of comprehension within a subject area. Grades can be assigned in letters (for example, A, B, C, D, or F), as a range (for example 4.0–1.0), as descriptors (excellent, great, satisfactory, needs improvement), in percentages, or, as is common in some post-secondary institutions in some countries, as a grade point average (GPA). 1/6/2013 29
  30. 30. GPA. . . A Cumulative Grade Point Average is a calculation of the average of all of a students grades for all semesters and courses completed up to a given academic term, whereas the GPA may only refer to one term. 1/6/2013 30
  31. 31. GPA. . .GPA Calculation: Multiply the number of course credits/semester hours for each course by the grade point values associated with the grade received in that course. Add all of those totals together and divide that sum by the total number of course credits/semester hours. 1/6/2013 31
  32. 32. NOTE: All GPAs are truncated to three decimal points. Here are some examples of semester GPA calculations: Grade Crs Credits Grd PtsECON 1D B 1.0 x 3.0 = 3.0FRENCH 76 B+ 1.0 x 3.3 = 3.3MATH 31L A- 1.0 x 3.7 = 3.7LIT 20S A+ 1.0 x 4.0 = 4.0MUSIC 80 B 0.5 x 3.0 = 1.5TOTAL 4.5 15.5SEMESTER GPA: 15.5/4.5 = 3.444 1/6/2013 32
  33. 33. Cumulative grade point average  Cumulative Grade Point Average (GPA) refers to the overall GPA, which includes dividing the number of quality points earned in all courses attempted by the total degree-credit hours in all courses.  It is the final grade point obtained after an year. It refers to the average of all the averages of all the subjects. 1/6/2013 33
  34. 34. CREDIT HOURS Credit hours are effectively how many hours per week you are in that class. The number of hours you receive for taking a class. Its roughly equivalent to the amount of time you will spend in class (i.e., a 3 hour class means you will probably have 3 1-hour lectures during the week). 1/6/2013 34
  35. 35. CONVERTING CLOCK HOURS INTO CREDIT HOURS Lecture Hours: Instructional hours. Lecture Credit Hours: Semester Credits – Must teach a minimum of 15 lecture hours to award 1 semester credit hour (divide lecture hours by 15). Quarter Credits – Must teach a minimum of 10 lecture hours to award 1 quarter credit (divide lecture hours by 10). 1/6/2013 35
  36. 36. Laboratory Hours: Instructional hours consistingof supervised student practice of a previouslyintroduced theory/principle during which practicalskills and knowledge are developed and reinforced.Laboratory Credit Hours: Semester Credits – Mustteach a minimum of 30 laboratory hours to award 1semester credit (divide laboratory hours by 30).Quarter Credits – Must teach a minimum of 20laboratory hours to award 1 quarter credit (dividelaboratory hours by 20). 1/6/2013 36
  37. 37. Externship/Internship Hours: Instructionalhours consisting of supervised work experienceactivities related to skills/ knowledge acquiredduring the training program.Externship/Internship Credit Hours:Semester Credits – Must teach a minimum of 45externship hours to award 1 semester credit(divide externship/ internship hours by 45). 1/6/2013 37
  38. 38. THANK YOU 1/6/2013 38

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