Impact of media over consumer buying behaviour on the people who play golf in delhi & ncr region


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Impact of media over consumer buying behaviour on the people who play golf in delhi & ncr region

  1. 1. Summer Training Report On“Impact of media on the consumer buying behaviour from the products displayed in golf courses in Delhi & NCR Region” Under the supervision of Mr. K. Srinivas Rao Chief of Operations Value2ad, New Delhi By Dinesh bhatt (10070500116) Submitted to Department of management studies Dehradun Institute of Technology, Dehradun August 2011 1
  2. 2. Student’s DeclarationDinesh Bhatt10070500116Depatment of Management StudiesDIT, Dehradun Statement by the studentIDinesh Bhatt the undersigned, student of Dehradun Institute of TechnologyDehradun, declare that this project report titled ―Impact of media on the consumerbehaviour from the products displayed in golf courses in Delhi & NCR Region‖ issubmitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the summer internship projectduring the Post Graduate Program in Management. I also declare that this is myoriginal work and has not been previously submitted as part of any other degree,diploma of another B-school or University. The findings and conclusions of the data inthis report are based on my personal study, during the tenure of my summer internship.Date: Dinesh bhatt 2
  3. 3. AcknowledgementsI express my sincere thanks to Mr K.Srinivas Rao, My summer internship guide whohave given me the opportunity to work on such a challenging project. I also would liketo thank the commuter‘s help, without which it would not have been possible toaccomplish the project successfully. Their timely feedback has facilitated in bringingthe project in the present form. Last but not the least I would also like to thank Mr. Ashwin Yadav who tooktime off to share insights about their experiences while travelling in Golf Courses. Thishelped us immensely to understand the psyche of the consumer. We just hope that therecommendations and suggestions presented by me are considered seriously. 3
  4. 4. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYValue2ad offers all on-site all golf services to all age group and class of people in thesociety, to the level and extent what they are looking for. Our clients are all majorcorporate companies who target premium class of people to increase their footfalls andto increase the sales of their products and all those people who play golf.Across India golf is now days played in every city and town and has seen an explosionof growth over last 5 years as the new private golf club came into existence and theway youth is taking entrust in it. While there are currently two branches of the parentcompany (value2ad), with the name of Golf Outdoor and 9th Hole in which theyprovide different services all related to golf or inside the golf course. Golf Outdoor- it deals with the all branding and media promotions of the companies who wont to target premium class of people and wont to do there promotion inside the golf courses with the help of outdoor hoardings, banners , posters all across the golf courses i.e. cafeteria, health club , open areas , receptions etc. all across India 9th Hole- it deals with the Above the line (ATL) & Below the line (BTL) activities and the golf tournaments all across India ( PAN INDIA )Value2ad marketing strategy is to acquire more and more golf course in India whichinclude private and public both as they are the only player in the market who is dealingwith the branding inside the golf course. All services are provided by the wellexperienced staffs that are in this industry from past more than 10 years and arecommitted to available for the clients all around the clock‘s.The management of Value2ad consist of C.E.O Mr. Ashwin Yadav and Mr. NitinYadav. Value2ad has extensive experience in golf and has worked in SALES andMARKETING for 5 years. Both will be taking hands-on management roles in thecompany. In addition, they have assembled a board of advisors to provide managementexpertise. The advisors are; Mr K.Srinivas Roy, Mr Pankaj,Already they have service commitments from over 15 clients and plan to aggressivelybuild their client base through newspapers, local television and direct mail advertisingand as well as with the help of personal meeting with the other corporate companies. 4
  5. 5. The loving on-site services and work that Value2ad will provide is sure to appeal toother corporates also for their media promotions throughout the India. 5
  6. 6. INDEXNumber Subject Page number1 Introduction 1-20 Introduction of industry (MEDIA & ADVERTISING) Introduction of company Company profile 1. Vision , Mission and Values 2. About the product Major competitors Achievements of the company About the project2 Research methodology 21-40 Problem definition Introduction research design Source of data Research instrument Data collection method3 Data analysis and interpretation 41-544 Findings Conclusion Recommendation Limitation Bibliography 55-62 Appendix 6
  7. 7. LIST OF TABLE/CHARTS/ DIAGRAM/FIGURSSr. Topic Page No.No1 A picture showing how advertisements are done inside golf 2 course2 A picture of street media advertisements 33 A chart on advantages and disadvantages of impact of golf 5 courses4 A graph on percentage contributions on different types of 9 media5 A calendar show the upcoming events of golf in coming 14 months6 Table on the people whom they are targeting 157 Company site MAP 168 Different charts and graphs based on the data collected from 41-54 the research work done on the golf courses9 Questionnaire 59-62 7
  8. 8. CHAPTER :1INTRODUCTION OF THE COMPANYType – Private Limited CompanyFounded- 2005Regd. Office; plot no-116, street no-10, Libaspur, New Delhi- 110042Head office; Bungalow no. 123, 1st floor, Aram Nagar, Part-1, 7 Bungalow FisheryUniversity Road. Andheri (W), Mumbai-400061Key people Ashwin Yadav ( M.D & CEO ) Nitin Yadav (Chief manager acquisition) K.Srinivas rao ( Chief Of Operations)Industry- Media and AdvertisementsServices - 1) GOLF OUTDOOR- Outdoor Advertising Branding Media Promotions 8
  9. 9. 2) 9th Hole- Event Management ATL & BTL Activities Golf TournamentsThe Value 2 Ad is a team comprised of marketing experts holds many years‘experience in advertising of print, out of home, digital, sports (Golf) and leisureindustries.Several media properties are installed in the golf courses where there is high circulationof players, members and consumers. The advertisement displays will hold the attentionof this highly desirable demographic. The display formats are a mixture of advertisingstructures on exterior, interior which includes club house, restaurant, bar, gym,changing rooms, lounges and on the course will deliver the advertising messageseffectively to the target group.Value 2 Ad is committed to delivering the ad messages to the top echelon in salesprospective, product and services to both clients and advertisers.We have conquered Indian Golf advertising Market and currently expanding to theother world markets. Stay tuned.Company missionTo reach a target group of affluent Golfers and their family members.Research shows that reaching your target during leisure yields a substantially higherbrand recall rate. Value 2 Ad offers a cost effective medium other than Airport media,Mall Media or any other alternate media to reach an upscale captive target group whilethey are at their dwell time. 9
  10. 10. Our demographic = Your consumersYour message can reach over4 lakh people every month,If you want, we can putina good word for you. 10
  11. 11. ABOUT THE PRODUTS & SERVICESGOLF OUTDOORThis company majorly deals with the acquisition of golf courses and branding insidethe golf courses. For acquisition they deal with both public and private golf courses,currently they are holding 110 golf courses all across India; they have collaborationwith INDIAN ARMY for next 15 years and have acquired some private golf coursesand still counting. These acquisitions are done to take the sole rights of all in-outactivities which are done on a regular basses inside the golf courses.Now if we talk about BRANDINGBranding is that a brand is a name or symbol that is commonly known to identify acompany or its products and separate them from the competition.A well-known brand is generally regarded as one that people will recognise, often evenif they do not know about the company or its products/services. These are usually the 11
  12. 12. businesses name or the name of a product, although it can also include the name of afeature or style of a product.The overall ‗branding‘ of a company or product can also stretch to a logo, symbol, oreven design features (e.g. regularly used colours or layouts, such as red and white forCoca Cola.) that identify the company or its products/services.Branding Benefit their Business, its helps to provide Recognition and Loyalty- The main benefit of branding is that customers are much more likely to remember your business. Image of Size- A strong brand will project an image of a large and established business to your potential customers. Image of Quality- A strong brand projects an image of quality in your business; many people see the brand as a part of a product or service that helps to show its quality and value. Image of Experience and Reliability- A strong brand creates an image of an established business that has been around for long enough to become well known. Multiple Products- If your business has a strong brand; it allows you to link together several different products or ranges. You can put your brand name on every product or service you sell, meaning that customers for one product will be more likely to buy another product from you. In Value2ad they proved a platform for other companies to turn their product in to a brand and with the help of this; these company can increase the number of footfall, which will let to increase the number of sales of their product. Advertising is done with the help of physical advertising medium such as  Coffee cup advertising  In-store advertising  Billboard advertising  Street advertising. 12
  13. 13. History of golf in IndiaIn India you can play golf almost anywhere, for this outdoors sport is widely played bya cross-section of people to the countrys often-dramatic background. In the hills andhigh Himalayan fastness, in metropolitan cities and in small towns, by lakes andforests, or surrounded by tea estates, out in the desert and in old British cantonments...the flavor of India is visible everywhere that golf in the country is played.India was the first country outside of Great Britain to take up the game of golf. TheRoyal Calcutta Golf Club, established in 1829, is the oldest golf club in India, and thefirst outside Great Britain. With the growing influence of the British in the Indianempire, the eighteenth century saw a mushrooming of new golf clubs in India.Wherever land was available and grass grew, golf found a new HOME.The founding of the Royal Calcutta Golf Club in 1829 was followed by the nowdefunctRoyal Bombay Golf Club in 1842 and the Bangalore Golf Club in 1876.The ShillongGolf Club incorporated a golf course in 1886.Golf had already been played in India for 59 years before the first major course wasopened in the USA and Europe in 1888. By the end of the 19th century, India alreadyhad a dozen golf clubs.What makes golfing in India exciting is the diversity of its courses. Not only does ithave the oldest golf club in the world outside Great Britain, but also the highest, atGulmarg (altitude 2,700 metres) in Kashmir. There are golf courses in the mountains,plains, and deserts and at beach resorts. The environment of each course is unique in itsculture and history, highlighting all that makes India a diverse destination. In fact, itwould not be wrong to say that one of the best ways to experience India is through itsgolf courses. Most of Indias courses are well connected by road, rail, and air, and haveexcellent accommodation facilities. Till the 50s, golf clubs in India were affiliated tothe Royal Calcutta Golf Club, which followed the rules of St. Andrews in Scotland. InDecember 1955, a group of golfers got together to form the Indian Golf Union as thecontrolling body for the game. 13
  14. 14. The Indian Golf Union is now affiliated to the World Amateur Golf Council, and hasdone a great deal to promote golfing in the country. In 1957, it started its first trainingcamp at the Royal in Calcutta, where assistant professionals and caddies were broughtfrom all over the country and trained to teach golf.The year 1958 is a landmark in the history of Indian Championship was moved awayfrom the Royal Calcutta Golf Club to be played alternately at Delhi, Bombay andCalcutta. The most important annual event in the calendar of the Indian Golf Union isthe India Open Golf Championship, which was first played in Delhi in 1964, and wonby the Australian golfer, Peter Thompson.Golfing in India has come a long way, and a large number of Indian players nowcompete on the international circuit. Golf enthusiasts continue to grow in numbers, andnew courses are added almost every year. And what could be a better feather in Indiasgolfing cap than the fact that Delhi was chosen to host the first ever golf competitionfor the Asian Games in 1982.Impact of Golf Courses Golf courses have a long association with coastal areas. In recent years golf tourism in Spain has increased in popularity and the number of golf courses has grown rapidly. These are resort destinations, and the golf courses are normally associated with substantial real estate development, hotels and related facilities. In drier regions like the Mediterranean, the issue of water scarcity is of particular concern. Because of the hot climate and the tendency of tourists to consume more water when on holiday than they do at home, the amount used can run up to 440 litres a day. This is almost double what the inhabitants of an average Spanish city use. Golf course maintenance can deplete these scarce fresh water resources. Golf courses require an enormous amount of water every day and, as with other causes of excessive extraction of water, this can result in water scarcity. If the water comes from wells, over-extraction can cause saline intrusion into groundwater. Golf resorts are more and more often situated in or near protected areas or areas where resources are limited, exacerbating their impacts. 14
  15. 15. Advantages DisadvantagesEmployment and income Loss of biodiversitybenefits, both direct and indirectTax benefits to local, regional and Eutrophication or river or seawaternational governments through use of fertilisersAttracts new firms to the region Heavy user of water for irrigation Biocides use to maintain theHealth and social benefits. greenness of the greens, controlCareers can benefit through insects, fungicides and weeds,networking. contaminate both the air and waterAttracts the higher-spending Golf clubs often portray an elitist andsocial groups exclusive lifestyleHelps conserve valuablefragments of coastal habitat from Leads to an increase in road trafficencroaching urbanisation andagriculture Raises property prices beyond theIncreases local property values reach of local young people 15
  16. 16. MEDIAWhat is meant by media?The media refers to the different channels we use to communicate information in theeveryday world. Media is the plural of medium (of communication), and the mainmedia are television, films, advertising, newspaper, radio, internet etc.What is a media study?Media Studies involves the close analysis of the images, sounds and text that weexperience via the media. It is the study of individual media texts (such as movies, TVshows, magazines, websites) and As well as essays, research, and reports, MediaStudies also involves practical work, where you learn the techniques involved for theproduction of your own media text. Students at SIS have recently produced pop videos,TV commercials, magazine advertisements, computer animation, photo-essays anddocumentary videos. Media is a learn by doing subject, and you compare your ownexperiences with what the professionals go through. Most of our production in schoolis done digitally (ie using computers) and we have the latest software and equipment tohelp with this.Media Studies can be taken as a GCSE, AS or A-level course and many students go onto study it at university. Success in this subject comes from a combination of creativityand understanding. It is a unique fusion of practical and theoretical learning, which,although it can be hard work and very time consuming, is always rewarding. Its also alot of fun - what other subject deals with your favourite movies, popstars and TV showsWhy it is so important?As we progress into the 21st century, communications are becoming faster and fasterand faster. Think of the millions of different media images you are bombarded withevery day. It is as important now to be able to read and make sense of those images, asit has been to be able to read ordinary text. If you do not know how to read themessages coming at you from TV, the Internet, advertising etc, then you may becomevery lost in the modern world. You also need to have a good idea of how those 16
  17. 17. messages are made, and who is making them, so that you may quickly become aware ifsomeone (or some corporation!) is trying to manipulate your thoughts and feelings.Media Studies is also about appreciating the skill and creativity which goes into theproduction of media texts. Just as analysing the different techniques used in thecreation of a poem or novel helps you appreciate the talent of the writer, so doeslearning about media techniques help you appreciate value the skill with words andpictures that the creators of a media text must possess.Media Studies also deals with the very latest idea - which is why you need a website tohelp you study it. Although you do need to have some understanding of the history ofmedia (particularly how new technological developments have changed things), thefocus of your studies is what is happening right now, buzzing round the airwaves of theglobe.ADVERTISINGAdvertising is a form of communication used to persuade an audience (viewers,readers or listeners) to take some action with respect to products, ideas, or services.Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behaviour with respect to acommercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common.Advertising messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via varioustraditional media; including mass media Such as newspaper, magazines, televisioncommercial, radio advertisement, outdoor advertising or direct mail; or new media suchas websites and text messages.Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their productsor services through "Branding," which involves the repetition of an image or productname in an effort to associate certain qualities with the brand in the minds ofconsumers. Non-commercial advertisers who spend money to advertise items otherthan a consumer product or service include political parties, interest groups, religiousorganizations and governmental agencies 17
  18. 18. Objective of advertisingIt clarifies the objectives of an advertising campaign and for each individualadvertisement. The model suggests that there are six steps a consumer or a businessbuyer moves through when making a purchase. The steps are: 1. Awareness 2. Knowledge 3. Liking 4. Preference 5. Conviction 6. PurchaseTypes of advertisingDigital advertising Television advertising / Music in advertising- The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format, as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events. Infomercials- An infomercial is a long-format television commercial, typically five minutes or longer. The main objective in an infomercial is to create an impulse purchase, so that the consumer sees the presentation and then immediately buys the product through the advertised toll-free telephone number or website. Infomercials describe, display, and often demonstrate products and their features, and commonly have testimonials from consumers and industry professionals. Radio advertising-Radio advertising is a form of advertising via the medium of radio Airtime is purchased from a station or network in exchange for airing the commercials. While radio has the limitation of being restricted to sound, proponents of radio advertising often cite this as an advantage. Radio is an expanding medium that can be found not only on air, but also online. 18
  19. 19. Online advertising-Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customersPhysical advertising Press advertising- Press advertising describes advertising in a printed medium such as a newspaper, magazine, or trade journal. This encompasses everything from media with a very broad readership base, such as a major national newspaper or magazine, to more narrowly targeted media such as local newspapers and trade journals on very specialized topics. A form of press advertising is classified advertising, which allows private individuals or companies to purchase a small, narrowly targeted ad for a low fee advertising a product or service. Billboard advertising- Billboards are large structures located in public places which display advertisements to passing pedestrians and motorists. Most often, they are located on main roads with a large amount of passing motor and pedestrian traffic; however, they can be placed in any location with large amounts of viewers, such as on mass transit vehicles and in stations, in shopping malls or office buildings, and in stadiums. Mobile billboard advertising-Mobile billboards are generally vehicle mounted billboards or digital screens. These can be on dedicated vehicles built solely for carrying advertisements along routes preselected by clients, they can also be specially equipped cargo trucks or, in some cases, large banners strewn from planes. The billboards are often lighted; some being backlit, and others employing spotlights. Some billboard displays are static, while others change Target advertising, one-day, and long-term campaigns, Conventions, Sporting events, Store openings and similar promotional events, and big advertisements from smaller companies. In-store advertising-In-store advertising is any advertisement placed in a retail store. It includes placement of a product in visible locations in a store, such as at 19
  20. 20. eye level, at the ends of aisles and near checkout counters (aka POP—Point OfPurchase display), eye-catching displays promoting a specific product, andadvertisements in such places as shopping carts and in-store video displays.Coffee cup advertising-Coffee cup advertising is any advertisement placed upona coffee cup that is distributed out of an office, café, or drive-through coffeeshop. This form of advertising was first popularized in Australia, and has begungrowing in popularity in the United States, India, and parts of the Middle EastStreet advertising-This type of advertising first came to prominence in the UKby Street Advertising Services to create outdoor advertising on street furnitureand pavements. Working with products such as Reverse Graffiti and 3dpavement advertising, the media became an affordable and effective tool forgetting brand messages out into public spaces. percentage contributions Mobile Phone Radio Print percentage contributions Internet TV outdoor 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 20
  21. 21. Consumer buying behaviourConsumer is the most important person. The business revolves around the consumer, inthis you will understand What is meant by consumer behaviour? Consumer decision-making process Marketing strategy and consumer behaviour Indian consumer and his characteristicsINTRODUCTIONAll of us are consumers. We consume things of daily use; we also consume and buythese products according to our needs, preferences and buying power. These can beconsumable goods, durable goods, speciality goods or, industrial goods. What we buy,how we buy, where and when we buy, in how much quantity we buy depends on ourperception, self-concept, social and cultural background and our age and family cycle,our attitudes, beliefs values, motivation, personality, social class and many other factorsthat are both internal and external to us. While buying, we also consider whether to buyor not to buy and, from which source or seller to buy. In some societies there is a lot ofaffluence and, these societies can afford to buy in greater quantities and at shorterintervals. In poor societies, the consumer can barely meet his barest needs. Themarketer therefore tries to understand the needs of different consumers and havingunderstood his different behaviours which require an in-depth study of their internaland external environment, they formulate their plans for marketing.Management is the youngest of sciences and oldest of arts and consumer behaviour inmanagement is a very young discipline. Various scholars and academiciansconcentrated on it at a much later stage. It was during the 1950s, that marketing conceptdeveloped, and thus the need to study the behaviour of consumers was recognised. 21
  22. 22. Marketing starts with the needs of the customer and ends with his satisfaction. Wheneverything revolves round the customer, then the study of consumer behaviourbecomes a necessity. It starts with the buying of goods. Goods can be boughtindividually, or in groups. Goods can be bought under stress (to satisfy an immediateneed), for comfort and luxury in small quantities or in bulk. For all this, exchange isrequired. This exchange is usually between the seller and the buyer. It can also bebetween consumers. Consumer behaviour can be defined as the decision-makingprocess and physical activity involved in acquiring, evaluating, using and disposing ofgoods and services.This definition clearly brings out that it is not just the buying of goods/services thatreceives attention in consumer behaviour but, the process starts much before the goodshave been acquired or bought. A process of buying starts in the minds of the consumer,which leads to the finding of alternatives between products that can be acquired withtheir relative advantages and disadvantages. This leads to internal and externalresearch. Then follows a process of decision-making for purchase and using the goods,and then the post purchase behaviour which is also very important, because it gives aclue to the marketers whether his product has been a success or not.To understand the likes and dislikes of the consumer, extensive consumer researchstudies are being conducted. These researches try to find out What the consumer thinks of the company‘s products and those of its competitors? How can the product be improved in their opinion? How the customers use the product? What is the customer‘s attitude towards the product and its advertising? What is the role of the customer in his family?The following key questions should be answered for consumer research. A marketcomes into existence because it fulfils the needs of the consumer. In this connection, amarketer has to know the 70.s framework for consumer research.Consumer behaviour is a complex, dynamic, multidimensional process, and allmarketing decisions are based on assumptions about consumer behaviour. Marketing 22
  23. 23. strategy is the game plan which the firms must adhere to, in order to outdo thecompetitor or the plans to achieve the desired objective. In formulating the marketingstrategy, to sell the product effectively, cost-benefit analysis must be undertaken. Thedifference between this total benefit and total cost constitutes the customer value. Theidea is to provide superior customer value and this requires the formulation of amarketing strategy. The entire process consists of market analysis, which leads to targetmarket selection, and then to the formulation of strategy by juggling the product, price,promotion and distribution, so that a total product (a set of entire characteristics) isoffered. The total product creates an image in the mind of the consumer, whoundergoes a decision processA simplified framework for studying consumer behaviour. Which leads to the outcomein terms of satisfaction or dissatisfaction, which reflects on the sales and image of theproduct or brand. The process of decision-making varies with the value of the product,the involvement of the buyer and the risk that is involved in deciding theproduct/service. The consumer and his life style is influenced by a number of factorsshown all around the consumer. These are culture, subculture, values, demographicfactors, social status, reference groups, household and also the internal make-up of theconsumer, which are consumer‘s emotions, personality motives of buying, perceptionand learning. Consumer is also influenced by the marketing activities and efforts of themarketer. All these factors lead to the formation of attitudes and needs of the consumer.Consumer buying decision process-The decision-making process consists of a seriesof steps which the consumer undergoes. First of all, the decision is made to solve aproblem of any kind. This may be the problem of creating a cool atmosphere in yourhome. For this, information search is carried out, to find how the cool atmosphere canbe provided, e.g. by an air-conditioner or, by a water-cooler. This leads to theevaluation of alternatives and a cost benefit-analysis is made to decide which productand brand image will be suitable, and can take care of the problem suitably andadequately. Thereafter the purchase is made and the product is used by the consumer.The constant use of the product leads to the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of theconsumer, which leads to repeat purchases, or to the rejection of the product.The marketing strategy is successful if consumers can see a need which a company‘sproduct can solve and, offers the best solution to the problem. For a successful strategy,the marketer must lay emphasis on the product/brand image in the consumer‘s mind. 23
  24. 24. Position the product according to the customers. Likes and dislikes. The brand whichmatches the desired image of a target market sells well. Sales are important and salesare likely to occur if the initial consumer analysis was correct and matches theconsumer decision process. Satisfaction of the consumer, after the sales have beenaffected, is important for repeat purchase. It is more profitable to retain existingcustomers, rather than looking for new ones. Problem Recognition Information search, External and internal Evaluation and selection, Store choice and purchases Post-purchase Behaviour 24
  25. 25. Characteristics of buyer behavioursThe chief characteristics of the buyer behaviour are as follows:- 1. It consists of mental and physical activity which consumer undertakes to get goods and services and to obtain satisfaction from them. 2. It includes both observable activity such as walking through the market to examine merchandise and making a purchase and mental activities such as forming attitude, perceiving advertising material, and learning to prefer particular brands. 3. Consumer behaviour is very complex and dynamic to constantly changing. And therefore, management need to adjust with the change otherwise market may be lot. 4. The individual‘s specific behaviour in the market place is affected by internal factor, such as need, motives, perception and attitude as well as by external of enviourmenatal influences such as the family social group, culture, economic and business influences. 25
  26. 26. 9th Hole This company majorly deals with the BTL & ATL Activities and golftournamentsBTL & ATL activitiesIn a nutshell, while ATL communications use media that are broadcast and published tomass audiences, BTL communications use media that are more niches focused. BothATL and BTL communications can be used to either build brand awareness or drivesales through specific offers (promotions), it is BTL communication, however, thatgives the marketer the ability to tailor their messaging in a more personal manner to theaudience. ATL promotions are also difficult to measure well, while BTL promotionsare highly measurable, giving marketer‘s valuable insights into their return-on-investment. These insights can then be used to inform the next BTL communication tothe audience and tailor the messaging based on the feedback received.Promotional activities carried out through mass media, such as television, radio, out-of-home, magazines, cinema and newspaper, are classed as "above the line" promotion."Below the line" promotion refers to forms of non-media communication oradvertising, and has become increasingly important in the communications mix ofmany companies, not only those involved in fast moving consumer goods, but also forindustrial goods."Through the line" refers to an advertising strategy involving both above and below theline communications. This strategic approach allows brands to engage with a customerat multiple points (for example, the customer will see the television commercial, hearthe radio advert and be handed a flyer on the street corner). This enables an integrated 26
  27. 27. communications approach where consistent messaging across multiple media creates acustomer perception.Above the line sales promotionATL is a type of advertising through media such as television, cinema, radio, print, andOut-of-home to promote brands or convey a specific offer. This type of communicationis conventional in its nature and is considered impersonal to customers. It differs fromBTL advertising, which uses unconventional brand-building and promotionalstrategies, such as direct mail, sales promotions, flyers, point-of-sale, telemarketing andprinted media ( for example brochures, and usually involves no motion graphics). It ismuch more effective than when the target group is very large and difficult to define.Below the line sales promotionBTL sales promotion is an immediate or delayed incentive to purchase, expressed incash or in kind, and having short duration. It is efficient and cost-effective for targetinga limited and specific group. It uses less conventional methods than the usual ATLchannels of advertising, typically focusing on direct means of communication, mostcommonly direct mail and e-mail, often using highly targeted lists of names tomaximize response rates. BTL services may include those for which a fee is agreedupon and charged up front.BTL is a common technique used for "touch and feel" products (consumer items wherethe customer will rely on immediate information rather than previously researcheditems). BTL techniques ensure recall of the brand while at the same time highlightingthe features of the product. 27
  28. 28. Upcoming golf tournaments 28
  29. 29. Whom they are targetingAs golf is considered as a premium brand played by the high class people of thesociety.Core Golfer profile:Avg house hold income - $85,960House hold income > $100K - 42%House hold income > $125K - 24%High educationAttended college - 84%College Degree - 53%Graduate Degree - 25%WomenNew Golfers - 41%College Degree - 51%Work - Full / Part time - 63%Avg house hold income - $76,340Control or share family budget- 74% 29
  30. 30. Currently company have 110 sites all over India and upcoming with someinternational projects in South East Asia PacificTHESE ARE THE SITES 30
  31. 31. They currently have 110 Golf courses in India. (And this is just the beginning andcounting every day)Why golf outdoor advertising?Golf outdoor advertising is among the fastest growing media all over the world today.Researchers have revealed that golf outdoor advertising attracts niche TG‘s attentionbetter than any other form of advertising methods.Percentage of people who report that the golf outdoor advertising catches theirattention.Golf Outdoor:* Appealing creative on designer structures* Captures the consumer attention* is highly effective* targets the consumers in their dwell time* Communicates directly to a desirable upscale TG* Provides superior Brand recall* Flexible in budget and inventoryMore than 75% consumers say Golf OOH advertising catches their attention and 60%say they have taken action as a result of these ads.How do they know this?According to market research:More than 98% of the golfers noticed the advertising messages at the golf coursesThe rate of awareness of this media is 95% which is higher than any media penetrationOverall, Golf outdoor media reaches 95% golfers in India aged 08 or older every month90% of the brands displayed had increase in sales up to 35% in additional sales throughthe use of golf outdoor media 31
  32. 32. So according to them?In one month, your ad will receive close to a 4 lakh eye ballsThat is 8 lakh foot falls per month on these greensPlus 8 lakh footfalls off the greens. Total 16 Lakh foot fallsMAJOR COMPETITORSAlthough they are the only company India who is working on the concept of brandinginside the golf courses, so there is not so much competition in the market in thissegment. But as there are now engaged with the other activities also i.e BTL & ATLand Tournaments activities there are have a good competition with the othercompanies who are already engaged in such activities from long time.For BTL &ATL and Golf Tournaments activities there major competitors are;- O & M Ogilvy & Mather Ltd - Brand Print, Brand Audit, Information Gathering, Brand Stewards - offices inMumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, India & over 159 cities worldwide , Percept Advertising Ltd - Advertising, Media, Public Relations - Offices inMumbai, Delhi, Baroda, Pune, Bangalore, Icon Relations - PR agency based in Kochi - K Social Media assistance, Crisis Management, Image management, Business Intelligence, Media tracking, Press Clipping services, Press Conference and Press Release. Areas served-Kochi, Trivandrum, Calicut, Coimbatore, Chennai and Bangalore., OBEROI Multimedia Limited: Press and television advertising, Graphic Designing, Strategic Planning , Creative Solutions, Outdoor Ad Release, Television Ad Release, , Direct Mail and Marketing, Cinema and Transit Advertising, Electronic Kiosks, Web Site Development, Exhibitions and Trade 32
  33. 33. Shows, Catalogues, Brochures, In-film Promotion, Media Planning & Buying,Email: Website: www.oberoimultimedia.comAndheri (W), MumbaiXebec: Integrated Communications Group offering a suite ofcommunication services such as Advertising, Brand Building, Print Production,Public Relations and Market Research under one roof. Experience: The agencyhas over 14 years of experience in handling International and National accounts.Qualified and Experienced professionals are Xebecs value added assets.Website: http://www.xebecindia.comGlimmerize Advertising and Entertainment solution company : OurBusiness Activities : 3D, walk through, Print Media, Website Solutions,Electronic Media, Event Management, Artist Management, CD-ROMPresentations, Designer Stalls & Exhibitions, Outdoor Advertising, LogoDesigning, PR Activities. Our Major Clients: Omaxe, Amway, Zion Promoters& Developers, (Rock Band) and many more. Visit us more details at,CREATIVE INC - is a 12-year old advertising and brand managementorganization working with some of the leading names of the industry. Ourservices include branding, media planning and buying, print advertising(leading national dailies, magazines, etc), BTL activities end-to-end eventmanagement and radio and television commercials. We help create andconsolidate brand image through integrated advertising and marketing mix.CREATIVE INCs client portfolio includes multinationals, retail sector,hospitality, NGOs, television channels and educational institutes. Location:Main Kalkaji Market New Delhi ,www.creative-inc.bizAlert Golf Management Services Pvt Ltd-One of the industrys leading golfmanagement companies since a decade, Alert Golf Management Services Pvt.Ltd. (AGMS) has been at the forefront of developing, managing andmaintaining top golf facilities and landscaping works nationwide. Amongst the 33
  34. 34. first to offer golf management services, AGMS has pioneered the construction and maintenance of some of the countrys most elite Clubs, Organisations etcACHIEVEMENTS OF THE COMPANY Company biggest achievement was when they signed the contract with Indian Army for 15 years; with the help of this contract they acquired 110 golf courses of Army all over India for branding and media. Other achievement was when they also got the contract from Indian Army to become there media partners and event management partner for organising golf events all over the India all around the year. By the end of last month the number of golf courses acquired was increased to 154, which includes Indian Army and Private golf courses all over India and still counting. In the month of July 2011, company organised a Swedish cup golf tournament in Srinagar, India and was a great success. In a very small span of time , company have made a very good reputation in the market and more & more companies are getting connected for their promotions of their product inside the golf courses A very good deal has been finalised and company is turning into a Multi- National company , they are coming up with their first international office in south east Asia , in Singapore 34
  35. 35. ABOUT THE PROJECT Currently company is engaged with the outdoor campaign of the MAX Group, for the promotion of their new upcoming hospitals in different location, such as, BHATINDA, MOHALI, PANCHKULA all sites of Punjab state, SHALIMAR BAGH, NEW DELHI. In coming months company will be doing media promotions of Max hospital in DEHRADUN also. Other campaign of media promotion of INDIGO AIRLINES , in Delhi and Mumbai as they have recently started some new international sectors , and branding inside the Army Golf courses as they are providing 50% discounts to Indian Army in their flights in all domestic sectors . Company is currently under a marketing research work for opening a golf training academy in DEHRADUN. Company side by side are engaged with other projects IREO GROUP, SWISS WATCH GROUP for their branding. Now company is targeting other companies in different segments , such as For cars – Mercedes, Audi, BMW Hospitals – max is already their client, so now looking for Fortis Business? Real Estate – DLF, Parsavnath, Unitech. Airlines – kingfisher, jet etc. Company coming up with a new golf tournament in Mumbai, that will be for the different age group , it will be for all kids , women‘s and men‘s. The biggest project which is running all over India, is a maintenance of all ARMY golf courses , and there they also have to deal to pre pare driving range ( a place where people practice when there are in there beginning stage of playing golf ) and as well will going to appoint a person who will train the kids and other people also who have a desire to learn , how to play golf . that work will also be in all India level. 35
  36. 36. Chapter :2RESEARCH METHODOLOGYINTRODUCTIONMarketing research is the function which links the consumer, customer and public tothe marketers through information used to identify and define marketing, opportunitiesand problems, generates refine marketing actions, monitor marketing performance, andimprove understanding of marketing as a process Marketing research specifies the information required to address theseissues; designs the method for collection information manages and implements the datacollection process; analysis the result and communication the findings and theirimplications.Research definition:―Research is careful inquiry or examination to discover new information andrelationship and to expand and to verify exiting knowledge‖ Research always starts with questions or a problem. Its purposeis to find answers to questions through the application of the scientific method. It is asystematic and intensive study directed towards a more complete knowledge of thesubject studies.Research can also be defined as the search for knowledge, or as any systematicinvestigation, to establish novel facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas,or develop new theories, usually using a scientific method. The primary purpose forbasic research (as opposed to applied research) is discovering, interpreting, and thedevelopment of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on awide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. 36
  37. 37. PROBLEM DEFINATIONTo know the best consumer buying behaviour and demand into the mind of thesepeople who play golf in golf courses all over India, because the people who plays golfare mostly from the premium class and there buying behaviour in far different from theother sections of the society, there are lot of companies in the market who produceshigh quality product and target only premium class people of the society.Let‘s take an example of cars BMW, AUDI.Therefore, research is required to measure the present buying behaviour of the premiumclass people at the time they purchase their product. So the research problem is toidentify what are the criteria that premium class people takes into considerationbefore buying their product with the effect of outdoor media. RESEARCH DESIGN―Research design id the plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as toobtain answer to research questions and to control variance.‖ -by KERLINGERResearch designs are concerned with turning the research question into a testingproject. The best design depends on your research questions. Every design has itspositive and negative sides. The research design has been considered as a "blueprint"for research, dealing with at least four problems: what questions to study, what data arerelevant, what data to collect, and how to analyse the results.Research design can be divided into fixed and flexible research designs. Others havereferred to this distinction with ‗quantitative research designs‘ and ‗qualitative researchdesigns‘. However, fixed designs need not be quantitative, and flexible design need notbe qualitative. In fixed designs the design of the study is fixed before the main stage ofdata collection takes place. Fixed designs are normally theory-driven; otherwise it‘simpossible to know in advance which variables need to be controlled and measured.Often these variables are quantitative. Flexible designs allow for more freedom duringthe data collection. One reason for using a flexible research design can be that the 37
  38. 38. variable of interest is not quantitatively measurable, such as culture. In other cases,theory might not be available before one starts the research.The research design can be classified in to true broad categories: Exploratory Descriptive CasualExploratory research is a type of research conducted for a problem that has not beenclearly defined. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, datacollection method and selection of subjects. It should draw definitive conclusions onlywith extreme caution. Given its fundamental nature, exploratory research oftenconcludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist.Exploratory research often relies on secondary research such as reviewing availableliterature and/or data, or qualitative approaches such as informal discussions withconsumers, employees, management or competitors, and more formal approachesthrough in-depth interviews, focus groups, projective methods, case studies or pilotstudies. The Internet allows for research methods that are more interactive in natureThe results of exploratory research are not usually useful for decision-making bythemselves, but they can provide significant insight into a given situation. Although theresults of qualitative research can give some indication as to the "why", "how" and"when" something occurs, it cannot tell us "how often" or "how many"Exploratory research is not typically generalizable to the population at large.Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data andcharacteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive researchanswers the questions who, what, where, when and how...Although the data description is factual, accurate and systematic, the research cannotdescribe what caused a situation. Thus, Descriptive research cannot be used to create acausal relationship, where one variable affects another. In other words, descriptiveresearch can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity. 38
  39. 39. The description is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations.Often the best approach, prior to writing descriptive research, is to conduct a surveyinvestigation. Qualitative research often has the aim of description and researchers mayfollow-up with examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications ofthe findings are.In short descriptive research deals with everything that can be counted and studied.But there are always restrictions to that. Your research must have an impact to the livesof the people around you. For example, finding the most frequent disease that affectsthe children of a town. The reader of the research will know what to do to prevent thatdisease thus; more people will live a healthy life.Causal researchdesigns are research design that follow the experimental procedure,but do not randomly assign people to (treatment and comparison) groupsThe present study seeks to find out the impact of outdoor media on consumerbuying behaviour of premium class. The study also aims to find out the drawbacksof marketing set up in outdoor media inside the golf courses by VALUE2 ADPUBLICITY PVT LTD. So this makes the study a descriptive one. SOURCE DATAThe source of data collection methods are as follows:-Primary data:-Research to collect original data. Is often undertaken after the researcher has gainedsome insight into the issue by collecting secondary data. This can be through numerousforms, including questionnaires, direct observation and telephone interviews amongstothers. This information may be collected in things like questionnaires and interviews.Jeep sang the baby face there are basic approaches to data collections using primarymethods: Seiya Kung Qualitative research includes interviews, focus groups,participant observations and ethnographies. 39
  40. 40. Quantitative research includes controlled laboratory experiments, field work,questionnaires and surveys.The term primary research is widely used in academic research, market research andcompetitive intelligence.There are advantages and disadvantages to primary research.Advantages: Addresses specific research issues as the researcher controls the search design to fit their needs Great control; not only does primary research enable the marketer to focus on specific subjects; it also enables the researcher to have a higher control over how the information is collected. Taking this into account, the researcher can decide on such requirements as size of project, timeframe Primary researchPrimary research Is when you do your own research to gain information that has not yetbeen collected. This can be done though questionnaires, interviews and experiments.Primary research is best if you want to get the most accurate and up to dateinformation. But it can be very expensive producing the paper for questionnaires or theequipment for an experiment of some sort. It can also take a long time to get the correctinformation.Secondary dataSecondary research (also known as desk research) involves the summary, collationand/or synthesis of existing research rather than primary research, where data iscollected from, for example, research subjects or experiments.The term is widely used in market research and in medical research. The principalmethodology in medical secondary research is the systematic review, commonly usingmeta-analytic statistical techniques, although other methods of synthesis, like realistreviews and meta-narrative reviews, have been developed in recent years.In archaeology and landscape history, desk research is contrasted with fieldwork. 40
  41. 41. Secondary research can come from either internal or external sources. The proliferationof web search engines has increased opportunities to conduct secondary researchwithout paying fees to database research providersQualitative researchQualitative research a method of inquiry employed in many different academicdisciplines, traditionally in the social sciences, but also in market research and furthercontexts.Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of humanbehaviour and the reasons that govern such behaviour. The qualitative methodinvestigates the why and how of decision making, not just what, where, when. Hence,smaller but focused samples are more often needed than large samples.In the conventional view, qualitative methods produce information only on theparticular cases studied, and any more general conclusions are only propositions(informed assertions). Quantitative methods can then be used to seek empirical supportfor such research hypotheses. This view has been disputed by Oxford Universityprofessor Bent Flyvbjerg, who argues that qualitative methods and case study researchmay be used both for hypotheses-testing and for generalizing beyond the particularcases studied.Qualitative researchers may use different approaches in collecting data, such as thegrounded theory practice, narratology, storytelling, classical ethnography, orshadowing. Qualitative methods are also loosely present in other methodologicalapproaches, such as action research or actor-network theory. Forms of the datacollected can include interviews and group discussions, observation and reflection fieldnotes, various texts, pictures, and other materials.Qualitative research often categorizes data into patterns as the primary basis fororganizing and reporting results. Qualitative researchers typically rely on the followingmethods for gathering information: Participant Observation, Non-participantObservation, Field Notes, Reflexive Journals, Structured Interview, Semi-structuredInterview, Unstructured Interview, and Analysis of documents and materials 41
  42. 42. Quantitative researchIn the social sciences, quantitative research refers to the systematic empiricalinvestigation of social phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computationaltechniques. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employmathematical models, theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to phenomena. The processof measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides the fundamentalconnection between empiricalobservation and mathematical expression of quantitativerelationships.Quantitative research is used widely in social sciences such as psychology, economics,sociology, and political science, and less frequently in anthropology and history.Research in mathematical sciences such as physics is also quantitative by definition,though this use of the term differs in context. In the social sciences, the term relates toempirical methods, originating in both philosophical positivism and the history ofstatistics, which contrast qualitative research methods.Qualitative methods produce information only on the particular cases studied, and anymore general conclusions are only hypotheses. Quantitative methods can be used toverify, which of such hypotheses are true.Data collection methodData collection is a term used to describe a process of preparing and collecting data -for example as part of a process improvement or similar project. The purpose of datacollection is to obtain information to keep on record, to make decisions about importantissues, to pass information on to others. Primarily, data is collected to provideinformation regarding a specific topic.Data collection usually takes place early on in an improvement project, and is oftenformalised through a data collection plan which often contains the following activity. 1. Pre collection activity – Agree goals, target data, definitions, methods 2. Collection – data collection 3. Present Findings – usually involves some form of sorting analysis and/or presentation. 42
  43. 43. Prior to any data collection, pre-collection activity is one of the most crucial steps inthe process. It is often discovered too late that the value of their interview informationis discounted as a consequence of poor sampling of both questions and informants andpoor elicitation techniques After pre-collection activity is fully completed, datacollection in the field, whether by interviewing or other methods, can be carried out in astructured, systematic and scientific way.A formal data collection process is necessary as it ensures that data gathered is bothdefined and accurate and that subsequent decisions based on arguments embodied inthe findings are valid. The process provides both a baseline from which to measurefrom and in certain cases a target on what to improve.Other main types of collection include census, sample survey, and administrative by-product and each with their respective advantages and disadvantages. A census refers todata collection about everyone or everything in a group or population and hasadvantages, such as accuracy and detail and disadvantages, such as cost and time. Asample survey is a data collection method that includes only part of the total populationand has advantages, such as cost and time and disadvantages, such as accuracy anddetail. Administrative by-product data is collected as a by-product of an organizationsday-to-day operations and has advantages, such as accuracy, time simplicity anddisadvantages, such as no flexibility and lack of controlResearcher instrument is the tool by which the researcher can do research on specificproblem or objective. The most popular researcher instrument for collection data is“Questionnaire” for a particular investigation. It is simple for a moiled set ofquestions presented to respondent for their answers. Due to the flexibility, it is mostcommon instrument used to collect the primary data. During the pre-testing ofquestionnaire, we can see the reaction of respondents and suggestions required to makechange in research instrument.A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and otherprompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Although they areoften designed for statistical analysis of the responses, this is not always the case. Thequestionnaire was invented by Sir Francis Galton. 43
  44. 44. Questionnaires have advantages over some other types of surveys in that they arecheap, do not require as much effort from the questioner as verbal or telephone surveys,and often have standardized answers that make it simple to compile data. However,such standardized answers may frustrate users. Questionnaires are also sharply limitedby the fact that respondents must be able to read the questions and respond to them.Thus, for some demographic groups conducting a survey by questionnaire may not bepractical.As a type of survey, questionnaires also have many of the same problems relating toquestion construction and wording that exist in other types of opinion polls.The questionnaire contains three types of questions:-Open-ended questionsThe ability to ask open-ended questions is very important in many vocations, includingeducation, counselling, mediation, sales, investigative work and journalism.An open-ended question is designed to encourage a full, meaningful answer using thesubjects own knowledge and/or feelings. It is the opposite of a closed-ended question,which encourages a short or single-word answer. Open-ended questions also tend to bemore objective and less leading than closed-ended questions (see next page).Open-ended questions typically begin with words such as "Why" and "How", orphrases such as "Tell me about...". Often they are not technically a question, but astatement which implicitly asks for a response.Dichotomous questionsIt has only two answers in form ‗yes‘ or ‗no‘ , ‗true‘ or ‗false‘ , ‗use‘ or ‗do not use‘.So the respondent is offered two or more choice.Multiple-choice questionsIn this, the respondent is offered two or more choice. 44
  45. 45. SAMPLING PLANSAMPLE SITE:-The survey was conducted in New Delhi & NCR Region...  Delhi Golf Club  Golden Greens Golf & Country Club, Gurgaon  Qutab Golf Club Delhi  Jaypee Greens Golf Resort Noida  Classic Golf Resort, Gurgaon  Noida Golf Club  The DLF Golf & Country Resort, GurgaonSAMPLING UNIT-It means ―who is to be surveyed‖. Here target population is decided and it is who areinterested to play golf in golf courses and sampling frame is developed so that everyonein the target population has known chance to being sampled. So the survey is conductedparticularly in all major golf courses of New Delhi & NCR Region.SAMPLE SIZE-For the purpose of proper survey, there is need of perfect research instrument to findout sample size for more accurate results about buying behaviour of golf course users .the sample size is of 40 respondentMeaning of SamplingIn simple words sampling consists of obtaining information from a larger group or auniverse.Quite often, a social researcher has to collect information about a universe that consistsof vast, differentiated population spread over a large territory and that too with in alimited amount of time and money.Measuring or collecting information from each and every member of such a vastpopulation is, therefore, always not possible. 45
  46. 46. It is known that part of a whole can give sufficient dependable information if theprocedures followed in collection the part has of been scientific.What should be the desired characteristics of a sample?A proper sample must give a precise but correct picture of the population from which itis drawn.The sample must be obtained by probability process. This would permit the use ofstatistical procedures to describe and analyze the sample data.The sample should be as small as precision considerations permitIt should be as economical as possible and gathered swiftly to be completed within thetime schedule.Concepts used in Samplings:The following concepts are used in sampling designs universe or population stratum elements sampleUniverse:In sample language, a population or universe can be defined as any collection ofpersons or objects or event in which one is interested.Universe or population differs for each research problem depending upon the natureand type of information sought.In other words a population consists of the people who are related to the specificproblem under investigation.For example, if we are studying the relationship between the class achievements of theuniversity students and the methods of teaching then the students of any place and ofany time will come under our population. 46
  47. 47. If we are studying the voting behaviour or political participation of the citizens of Indiathen all the adult citizens of India, living in India or outside will come underpopulation.Population CharacteristicsIn research, we often speak in terms of population characteristics. E.g. age, sex,income, place of residences, caste, occupation population, size, denote etc.At the same time all of these characteristics are measured.What characteristics are to be measured depends upon the nature and type of problemunder investigation.Types of Universe:The universe, on the basis of characteristics, could be divided in to three types. Univariate population Bi-variate population Multivariate populationUnivariate population:In which only one characteristic is considered, for studying at a time.The characteristic may be age, income, sex, T.V. listening habit, etc.Bi-Variate PopulationThe population can be defined as a bivariate type when we are measuring twocharacteristics simultaneously of each member.In sociology we often get interested to know how characteristics are related to eachother or are associated with each other.For example, we want to know how crime going habit varies from urbanites toruralities or how political participation is determined by degree of political awarenessetc. 47
  48. 48. Multivariate Universea multivariate universe is the one in which we consider observations on three or morecharacteristics simultaneously.Several social factors together determine the occurrence of an event. e.g. a car accidenton the road is often caused not only by the mechanical factor of the car but also by theother factors like, the drivers mental and physical condition, traffic volume, impropersignals at crossing, pedestrians behaviour etc.Similarly poverty is caused by several factors like big and fast growing population lackof proper industrialization according to the growing need of the population,discriminate distribution of wealth, etc.StratumWhen the population is divided into several groups on the basis of one or severalcharacteristics, we call each group as a stratum.Stratum can also be called as a sub population.A stratum may be defined by one or more specifications that divide a population intomutually exclusive segments.E.g. a given population may be divided into different stratums on the basis of thecinema going habit of the people viz. (a) males who visit cinema frequently, (b) maleswho rarely visit cinema; (c) males who visit cinema occasionally; (d) males who do notat all visit cinema.Similarly, females, students, non-students persons of different age groups, can bedivided into the above four stratum on the basis of their cinema going habits.Thus the number of stratums would depend upon the number of characteristics includedfor stratification.Population Element:By a population element we mean the units that make the population. Such units maybe an individual, an object, or even a small group. 48
  49. 49. Sample:By sample we mean the aggregate of objects, persons or elements, selected from theuniverse.It is a portion or sub part of the total population.The following two methods are used to collect information about the populationCensus and SamplingCensus: when each and every element or unit of the population is studiedSampling: when a small part of the population is selected for study.Why Sampling:Advantages:Helps to collect vital information more quickly. Even small samples, when properlyselected, help to make estimates of the characteristics of the population in a shortertime.The modern world is highly dynamic, therefore, any study must be completed in shorttime, otherwise, by the time the survey is completed the situations, characteristics etc.may have changed.It cuts costs; enumeration of total population is much more costly than the samplestudies.Sampling techniques often increases the accuracy of data. With small sample, itbecomes easier to check the accuracy of the data. Some sampling techniques/ methodsmake it possible to measure the reliability of the sample estimates from the sampleitself.From the administrative point of view also sampling becomes easier, because itinvolves less staff, equipment‘s etc.Disadvantages: Sampling is not feasible where knowledge about each element or unitor a statistical universe is needed. 49
  50. 50. The sampling procedures must be correctly designed and followed otherwise, what wecall as wild sample, would crop up with mis-leading results.Each type of sampling has got its own limitations.There are numerous situations in which units, to be measured, are highly variable. Herea very large sample is required in order to yield enough cases for achieving statisticallyreliable information.To know certain population characteristics like population growth rate, populationdensity etc. census of population at regular intervals is more appropriate than studyingby sampling.Probability Sampling Techniques:A probability sampling technique is one in which one can specify for each element ofpopulation, the probability of its being included in the sample.Every probability can be expressed in the form of a proportion e.g. the probability ofgetting a head in testing a coin is 1/2 or 1 chance in 2 trials.Thus, probability samples are characteristised by the fact that the probability ofselection of each unit is known.In the sample of example each of the elements has the same probability of beingincluded as in random sampling method.An essential quality of a probability sample is that it makes possible representativesampling plans. It also provides an estimate of the extent to which the samplecharacteristics or findings are likely to differ from the total population.Major Forms of Probability Sampling Methods are:Simple random sampling method, andStratified random sampling method.Non Probability Sampling:In non-probability sampling techniques one cannot estimate beforehand the probabilityof each element being included in the sample. 50
  51. 51. It does not also assure that every element has a chance of being included.In probability sampling, one has to prepare or know atleast all the elements of the totalpopulation from which the sample is to be drawn. This makes the sampling procedurecostlier and more time consuming.The major forms of non-probability samples are: Accidental samples Quota samples Purposive samplesTypes of Probability Sampling:Simple Random Sampling MethodIn a day to day business, the term random is frequently used for careless,unpremeditated, casual haphazard activity or process. Which means that a randomsample is drawn carelessly in unplanned manner, without a definite aim or deliberatepurpose. This concept is not correct.Random sampling correctly means the arranging of conditions in such a manner thatevery item of the whole universe from which we are to select the sample shall have thesame chance of being selected as any other item.Random sampling, therefore, involves careful planning and orderly procedure.Steps of Simple Random SamplingInvolves listing or cataloguing of all the elements in the population and assigning themconsecutive numbers.Deciding upon the desired sample size. Using any method of sampling, a certainnumber of elements from the list is selected.Advantages of Random Sampling Technique:Most basic, simple and easy methodProvides a representative sample. 51
  52. 52. Disadvantages:In most cases it is difficult to find data list of all units of the population to be sampled.The task of numbering every unit before the sample is chosen is time consuming andexpensive.The units need not only to be numbered but also arranged in a specified order.The possibility of obtaining a poor or misleading sample is always present whenrandom selection is used.Methods of Drawing, Sample in Random Method(a)Lottery Method:The number of all the elements of the universe are written on different tickets or piecesof paper of equal size shape and colour. Which are then shuffled thoroughly in a box,or a container.Then tickets are then drawn randomly their numbers are noted and the correspondingindividuals or objects are studied.(b)Tippets Numbers:It was first developed by Prof L. H. C. Tippet and since then is known by his name.He developed a list of 10,400 sets of numbers randomly, each set being of four digitsTheir numbers are written on several pages in unsystematic order.(c) Grid Method:This method is applied in selection of the areas.Suppose we have to select any number of areas from a town or any number of townsfrom a province for survey.For selection, first a map of the whole area is prepared.The area is often divided into different blocks. 52
  53. 53. A transparent plate is made equivalent to the size of the map that consists of severalseqared holes in it which carries different numbers.By random sampling method it is decided as to which numbers are to be included in thesample.Systematic Sampling Method:In this method first of all a list is prepared of all the elements of the universe on thebasis of a selection criterion.A list may be prepared in alphabetical order, as given in the telephone directory.Then from the list every third, every tenth every twentieth or any number in the likemanner can be selected.For the application of this method, preparing a list of all the elements and numberingthem is essential.Secondly, the population needs to be homogenous in nature.Social phenomenon is variable in nature and individuals are heterogeneous. Howeveron their social characteristics they are homogenous viz. we may decide to cover onlythe students, the professors, the slum dwellers etc.The characteristics to be selected for this purpose must be relevant to the problemunder study.Advantages:It is frequently used because it is simple, direct and in- expensive.When a list of names or items is available, systematic sampling is often an efficientapproach.Disadvantages:One should not use systematic sampling in case of exploring unfamiliar areas becauselisting of elements is not possible 53
  54. 54. When there is a periodic fluctuation in the characteristic under examination in relationto the order in which the items appear, the methods is ineffectiveStratified Random Sampling Method.Definition:When the population is divided into different strata or groups and then samples areselected from each stratum by simple random sampling procedure or by regular intervalmethod, we call it as stratified random sampling method.According to the nature of the problem relevant criteria are selected for stratification.Among the possible stratifying criteria, cum age, sex, family income, number of yearsof education, occupation, religion, race, place of residence etc.On the basis of characteristics universe can be divided into different strata or stratum,Each stratum has to be homogeneous from within such a division can be done on thebasis of any single criterion. e.g. on the basis of age we can divide people into below 25and above 25 groups, on the basis of education into matriculates and non matriculatesetc.Stratification can also be done on the basis of a combination of any two or more criteriaviz. on the basis of sex and education; we can divide the people into four groups. educated women un-educated women education men un educated menElements are then selected from each stratum through simple a random samplingmethod. An estimate is made for each stratum separately. These estimates arecombined to provide an estimate for the entire population.Purpose:The primary purpose is to increase the representatives of the sample without increasingthe size of the sample on the basis of having greater knowledge of the populationcharacteristics. 54
  55. 55. Advantages:The population is first stratified into different groups and then the elements of thesample are selected from each group. Therefore, the different groups are sure to haverepresentation in the sample. In case of random sample, there is possibility that biggergroups have greater representation and the smaller groups are often eliminated or underrepresented.With more homogenous population greater precision can be achieved with fewer cases.This saves time in collecting and processing of the data when detailed study aboutpopulation characteristics are wanted it is more effective.As compared to random samples, stratified samples are geographically moreconcentrated and thus save time, money and energy, in money from one address toanother.Disadvantages:Unless there are extreme differences between the strata, the expected proportionalrepresentation would be small. Here a random sampling may give a nearly proportionalrepresentation.Even after stratification, the sample is selected from each stratum either by simplerandom sampling method or by systematic sampling method; as such the draw backs ofboth methods can be present.For application of the stratified method, one must know the characteristics of thespecified population in which the study is to be made. He must also know as to whichcharacteristics are related to the subject under investigation and therefore can beconsidered as relevant for stratification.The process of stratification becomes more and more complicated and difficult as thenumbers of characteristics to be used for stratification are increased.Types of Stratified Sampling: Stratified random sampling method can further be sub divided into two groups Disproportionate stratified sampling Proportionate stratified sampling 55
  56. 56. Disproportionate stratified sampling:Disproportionate stratified sampling is also known as equal size stratified sampling.In this method, an "equal number" of cases are selected from each stratum irrespectiveof the size of the stratum in the universe.The number of cases drawn from each one is restricted to the number of pre designatedin the plans.This also called "controlled sampling" because the number of cases to be selected invarious strata us limited.AdvantagesWhen equal number of cases is taken from each stratum, comparisons of different strataare facilitated.Economy of procedureThe controlled sample prevents the investigators from securing an unnecessary largenumber of schedules for most prevalent groups of population.Disadvantages:It requires the weighing of results stratum by stratum, the relative frequency of eachstratum in the universe must be known or estimated in under to determine the weights.Proportionate stratified Sampling:In this method cases are drawn from each stratum in same proportion as they occur inthe universe.In other words, in this method the number of samples to be drawn varies from stratumto stratum according to their size.To apply this method we first of all we need to have a list of all striatum and also needto know their proportionate size in total population.Since the size of the stratum vary, the number of persons coming from each stratum inthe sample on the basis of selection of a given percentage of people will also vary. 56
  57. 57. Advantage:The definiteness of proportional representation.DisadvantageThe researcher may have poor judgement or in adequate information upon which tobase the stratification. the greater the number of characteristics on which we are to boorour stratification, and the more are the strata the more complicated becomes theproblem of securing proportional representation of each stratum.Cluster Sampling:In cluster sampling the stratification is done in a manner that the groups areheterogeneous in nature rather than homogenousHere the elements are not selected from each stratum as is done in stratified sampling,rather the elements are obtained by taking a sample of group and not from withingroups.That means that out of several clusters or groups, one, two or more number of clustersare selected by simple or stratified random method and their elements are studied.All the elements in these clusters are not to be included in the sample; the ultimateselection from within the clusters is also carried out on simple or stratified samplingbasis.Purpose or Goal:The purpose of a cluster sample is to reduce cost and not essentially to increasepercussion.Advantage:In cluster sampling the cost per element is greatly reduced.It becomes possible to take a larger sample and regain the amount of precisionIt can be used in situations where it is impossible to obtain sample by other methods. 57
  58. 58. Disadvantage:It is a complicated sample design the researcher has to be highly skilled in sampling.Its standard errors are almost inevitably larger than those of sample random sampling.Multi-stage sampling:The method is used in selecting a sample from a very large area. As the name suggestsm.s. sampling refers to a sampling technique which is carried out in various stages.Normally a multi-stage sampling is the one that combines cluster and random samplingmethods.Eg., if we want to study the socio-economic background, attitudes and motivations ofslum dwellers, we can first make a list of the cities which would thus make our clusters.From these clusters we can select any number of cities.Then each city or cluster would be stratified into different slum areas.Thus our cities can be called as primary sampling units and the slum areas as secondarysampling units.Non-Probability Sampling:Non probability sampling is the one in which one cannot estimate before had theprobability of each element being included in the sample.The major forms of non-probability samples are Accidental samples Quota samples and Purposive samplesAccidental Samples:Accidental sampling means selecting the units on the basis of easy approaches.Here one selects the sample that fall to hand easily. 58
  59. 59. E.g. suppose one is studying the political socialization and political participation amonguniversity and college students of A.U. and his sample size is 100.He would go to the university campus and would select the first hundred studentswhom he happens to meet, whether in class room, or in students common room or infield.Such type of sampling is easy to do and saves time and money. But the chores of biasare also great.Quota Sampling:In quota sampling the interviewers are interested to interview a specified number ofpersons from each category.The required numbers of elements from each category are determined in the officeahead of time according to the number of elements in each category.Thus an interviewer would need to contact a specified number of men and specifiednumber of women, from different age categories from different religious or socialgroups etc.The basic purpose of quota sampling is the selection of a sample that no true replace ofthe population about which one wants to generalize.Advantage:If properly planned and executed, a quota sample is most likely to give maximumrepresentative sample of the population.In purposive sampling one picks up the cases that are considered to be typical of thepopulation in which to one is interested.The cases are judged to be typical on the basis of the need of the researcher.Since the selection of elements is based upon the judgement of the researcher, thepurposive sampling as called judgement sample.The researcher trees in his sample to match the universe in some of the importantknown characteristics. 59
  60. 60. The defect with this method is that the researcher can easily make esser in judging as towhich cases are typical.Purposive Sampling:"Deliberate Sampling" or "Judgment Sampling". When the researcher deliberately selects certain units from the universe, it is known as purposive sampling. However, it must be kept in mind that the units selected must be representative of the universe. That, the names may be selected from a Telephone Directory, Automobile Registration Records (RTOs) etc.Merits Quote sampling is a stratified cum purposive sampling and thus enjoys the benefits of both samplings. It proper controls or checks are imposed, it is likely to give accurate results. It is only useful method when no sample frame is available.Convenience Sampling It is known as unsystematic, careless, accidental or opportunistic sampling. Under this a sample is selected according to the convenience of the investigator. May be use when (a) Universe is not clearly defined (b) Sampling units are not clear (c) Complete source list is not available 60
  61. 61. Chapter :3 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Q1.What is the age group of the users who play golfAge ( In year) No. of respondents Percentage (%)11-20 4 1021-30 6 1531-40 12 3041 & above 18 45 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 11 to 20 21-30 31-40 41 & above Comments: - above graph shows that the 10% of respondent is of age group of 11-20, 15% of respondent is of age group of 21-30, 30% of the respondent is of age group 31- 40 and 45% of the respondent is of age group 41 and above. 61
  62. 62. Q2.What is the Occupation of the golf usersOccupation No. of respondent Percentage (%)student 4 10serviceman 3 7.5Businessman 13 32.5Working professional 6 15Ex-army 14 35 35 30 25 20 15 no. of respondent 10 percentage (%) 5 0Comments:- above chart shows that out of 40 respondent, 14 are ex-army, 13 arebusinessman, 6 are working professional. 3 are from service class and 4 are student. 62
  63. 63. Q3.What are the Income level of the usersIncome level per month No. of respondent Percentage (%)Below 50,000 4 1050,001 to 2,00,000 17 42.52,00,001 to 5,00,00 6 155,00,001 & above 13 32.5 45 40 35 30 25 no. of respondent 20 percentage (%) 15 10 5 0 below 50,000 50,001 to 2,00,001 to 5,00,001 & 2,00,000 5,00,000 aboveComment:- above graph display the different income level of the people who play golfin golf courses and are my respondent in this research work. The major percentage is ofthe people who have income level between 50,0001 to 2,00,000 and of those who haveabove 5,00,001. 63