A Developmental View of Listening Skills


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Teaching ESL students through developing their listening skills

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A Developmental View of Listening Skills

  1. 1. By: Pat Wilcox Peterson(Reported by: Dinah Jill Galleros)
  2. 2. GLOBAL listening SELECTIVE listeningGetting the main point Waiting of for awhat we are listening to. specific item
  3. 3. Listening
  4. 4.  Bottom-up Grammar • Text-based Body SoundsLanguage Meaningful  The listener relies on the Information language in the message Phrases Words
  5. 5. Top-down: Prior knowledge Prediction•Listener-based Grammar•The use of Body Soundsbackground Language Meaningfulknowledge in Informationunderstanding themeaning of the Phrases Wordsmessage Experience Context
  6. 6. Top-Down listening Bottom-up listening Over lunch, your friend  That evening, another tells you a story about a friend calls to invite you recent holiday, which to a party at her house was a disaster. You listen the following Saturday. with interest and As you’ve never been to interject at appropriate her house before, she moments, maybe to gives you directions. You express surprise or listen carefully and take sympathy. notes.
  7. 7.  Interactive: Prediction Experience Grammar  Combination of the two previous models Body Sounds Language Meaningful Information  Using of both prior knowledge and linguistic knowledge in Phrases Words understanding messages.Context Prior knowledge
  8. 8. Processing Goals and Exercise Types
  9. 9.  Also known as the novice stage Undeveloped linguistic categories Development of positive attitudes towards is critical Can be found in EFL classes for immigrants to English- speaking countries
  10. 10.  Discriminate between intonation contours in sentences Discriminate between phonemes Listen for morphological endings Recognize syllable patterns, number of syllables and word phrases Be aware of sentence fillers in informal speech Select details from the text
  11. 11.  Discriminate between emotional reactions Get the gist or main idea of the passage Recognize the topic
  12. 12.  Use speech features to decide if a statement is formal or informal Recognize a familiar word and relate it to a category Compare information in memory with incoming information Compare information that you hear with your own experience
  13. 13.  Listening: to increase their vocabulary Can retain longer phrases and sentences Are ready to practice more discourse level skills
  14. 14.  Differentiate between content and function words by stress pattern Find the stress syllable Recognize words with reduced vowels or dropped syllables Recognize words as they are linked in the speech stream Recognize pertinent details in the speech stream
  15. 15.  Discriminate between registers of speech and tones of voice Listen to identify the speaker of a topic Find main ideas or supporting details Make inferences
  16. 16.  Use word stress to understand the speaker’s intent Recognize missing grammar markers in colloquial speech and reconstruct the message Use context and knowledge of the world to build listening expectations; listen to confirm expectations
  17. 17.  Listening: to learn about the content of other language areas Can listen to materials with longer contents Vast vocabulary More skilled in reading than in listening
  18. 18.  Use features of sentence stress and intonation to identify important intonation for note-taking Recognize contractions, reduced forms, and other characteristics of spoken English that differ from the written form Become aware of common performance slips that must be reinterpreted or ignored Become aware of organizational cues in lecture test Become aware of lexical and suprasegmental markers for definitions Identify specific forms of information
  19. 19.  Use knowledge of the topic to predict the content of the text Use introduction to the lecture to predict its focus and direction Use the lecture transcript to predict the content of the next section Find the main idea of the lecture segment Recognize point of view
  20. 20.  Use knowledge of phrases and discourse markers to predict the content in the next segment of lecture Make inferences about the text
  21. 21.  Vandergrift, L. (2002). Listening: theory and practice in modern foreign language competence. Center for Languages, Linguistics & Area Studies. Retrieved from http://www.llas.ac.uk/resources/gpg/67 http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/listening/stratlisten.htm http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/listening-top-down-bottom http://www.helsinki.fi/kksc/alms/listen.html