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Flour and flour mixtures

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flour mixtures and it's ingredients

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Flour and flour mixtures

  1. 1. Flours and Flour Mixtures
  2. 2. What is Flour? It is a fine powder obtained by grinding and sifting cereal grains, root crops, starchy vegetable, and other carbohydrates-rich foods. Most flour is made from wheat but may also prepare from rye, rice corn and other grains.
  3. 3. Gluten Is a gray, almost tasteless substance which has obtained from grains, especially wheat and rye. It is sticky, tough and somewhat elastic. It gives cohesiveness to dough. The protein portion of wheat flour with the elastic characteristics necessary for the structure of most baked products.
  4. 4. How do gluten is formed?
  5. 5. Starch is one of the compounds in flour that strengthens the baked item through gelatinization, and is one of the factors that contributes to crumb. – Crumb: The texture of a baked product’s interior.
  6. 6. Types of Wheat Flour/ Market Forms of Wheat Flour – Bread Flour – All-Purpose Flour – Cake Flour – Self-rising Flour – Whole Wheat Flour – Pastry Flour – Enriched Flour – High Gluten Flour – Bran Flour – Instant or Quick Flour
  7. 7. Bread Flour Used for baking breads, rolls and other yeast bread. Contains more gluten and less starch. Makes loaves have good volume, textures and grain.
  8. 8. All-purpose Flour Also known as family ficur, general purpose flour or pastry flour. Good substitute for cake flour and bread flour. Contains a moderate amount of gluten
  9. 9. Cake Flour Also known as the weak flour and known as the whitest among the flour family. Comes from soft wheat and has a lower gluten content than bread flour.
  10. 10. Self-rising Flour Has leavening agents as sodium bicarbonate or baking soda and salt that were added to it in proportion desirable for home baking
  11. 11. Whole-wheat Flour Contains the whole grain or graham. It does not keep as well because of its fat content which tends to get rancid during storage
  12. 12. Pastry Flour Made from soft wheat flour. Has a lower percentage of protein and its used in pastries and cookies
  13. 13. Enriched Flour White flour with nutrients added to it.
  14. 14. High-gluten Flour Flour with high protein content. Used to baked hard crust breads and special products such as pizza dough.
  15. 15. Bran Flour Consists of bran flakes added to flour. It has either fine or course texture.
  16. 16. Instant or Quick Flour Processed by moistening and red ripping the flour. Needs no sifting before use because it blends with liquid easily.
  17. 17. Types of Non-Wheat Flour – Rice Flour – Rye Flour – Cornmeal Flour – Soy Flour – Buckwheat Flour – Triticale Flour – Potato Flour – Gluten-free Grains and Flours for baking and bread. Treated Flours – Aged Flour – Bleached Flour – Enriched Flour
  18. 18. Major Functions of Wheat Flour Provides structure and frame work for baked products because of its protein and starch contents. When mixed with water in correct proportion the protein will form an elastic dough that is capable of holding gas and which will set to spongy structure, when heated in the oven. Responsible in providing structure by the gelatinization process which takes place in the oven Contributes to the characteristics of the finished product, crust color, texture, volume, crumb color, grain and taste
  19. 19. Flour Mixture Ingredients Flour mixture ingredients may include: – Liquid – Sugar – Eggs – Shortening – Leavening agents – Minor Ingredients *salt *spices and seeds *flavoring *cocoa and chocolates
  20. 20. Liquid Basic ingredient and most indispensable for baking. It may be in a form of water, milk or fruit juices. Plays important role in baking. Hydrate the flour Gelatinize the starch. Gluten formation Solvent for the dry ingredients, Activates the yeast, Provides steam for leavening, and allows baking powder or soda to react and produce carbon dioxide gas.
  21. 21. Water Transforms the proteins in the flour into gluten. Controls the consistency and temperature (warming or cooling) of the dough. Makes the starch swell to make it digestible. Dissolves salt and suspends and distributes non- flour ingredients evenly which facilitates the baking process Promotes yeast growth Enhanced the keeping quality of some baking products.
  22. 22. Types of water Soft water Relatively free from minerals and does not produce gas. Softens the gluten in flour which results in sticky dough that tends to flatten out. Hard Water Contains minerals, classified as follows based on its mineral content. Medium hard water – contains average amounts of minerals and salts. Produces and retains well makes it ideal for bread making. Very hard water – has too much carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Hard water makes the gluten in the flour tough. Alkaline Water – contains sodium carbonate. It dissolves and weakens the gluten in the flour.
  23. 23. Milk Greatly affect the quality of the baked goods because of its following uses. Increases the absorptive quality of the dough, acts as a strengthening agent to flour proteins and promotes dough strength Improves mixing tolerance of the dough Contributes to the golden brown crust color of the baked products because of its lactose, caseinogen, and wheat protein contents. Promotes larger fermentation which reduces dough acidity. Improves grain texture of baked products. Improves nutrition flavor and eating quality of the product. Milk has a large amount of lysine and is also a good source of riboflavin, calcium, and phosphorous.
  24. 24. Sugars It is any of the large group of chemical compounds that belongs to the carbohydrates family. Sugar is chemically known as sucrose which is basically used to sweeten foods. Comes largely from sugarcane, a tall grassy plant that grows in warm most regions in the world. Another source of sugar is sugar beet, a root crop cultivated in cool dry climates.
  25. 25. Sugar Functions of sugar in flour mixtures include the following: – Sweetening – Protective coating – Increases the volume – Contributes to volume – Raises the temperature at which gelatinization and coagulation occur – Increases moistness and tenderness and also helps delay staling – Helps to brown the outer crust of baked products
  26. 26. Eggs One of the most expensive ingredients in baked ingredients in baked products. However, they are very important and baking cannot be successful w/o eggs because eggs represents 50% of the total cost of the ingredients used in cake production. Provide complete protein and is capable of supplying all the essential amino acids needed to maintain growth and good health. Good source of calcium, phosphorous, iron and some amounts of vitamin A, D, thiamin and riboflavin.
  27. 27. Functions of egg in baking Used as leavening agent, egg whites when beaten produce many small air bubbles surrounded by a film of egg protein. This thus partly coagulates and makes a stable foam as the egg white is beaten and the thin protein film consistently come in contact with the air. In the process of baking, the air bubbles expand with the heat and the protein film stretches. As temperature increases, the protein coagulates completely and sets to be firm structure. Egg yolk provides a desirable yellow color which enhances the appearance of many baked products. They add richness, the fat and the other solids of eggs make the end product richer and better tasting. They enhance flavor, provides sweet aroma that makes the baked product appetizing and desirable. They increase freshness and nutritive value. The high moisture content of eggs allows the baked products to stay fresh longer.
  28. 28. Refers to any fat used to increase the tenderness of the baked products. Shortening may be a single fat or oil or a combination of several fats and oils. Shortening
  29. 29. Hog fat or lard A unique kind of unsaturated fat; liquid at room temperature but definitely solid at room temperature because of the hydrogenation process. This is best for breads, biscuits, pie crusts, and few types of cakes.
  30. 30. Butter Mainly used for cakes and cookies. Its shortening values inferior to that of lard. Butter does not cream well and lacks uniformity.
  31. 31. Vegetable Shortening This comes from purified deodorized oils such as coconut, corn grains, soybeans, or cottonseeds. Vegetable shortening does not contain moisture. It also known as hydrogenated vegetable oil.
  32. 32. Vegetable Oil Used in baking breads, it is not very efficient as a shortening and is difficult to handle. As a result is not popular as a shortening.
  33. 33. Butter Oil Butter oil promotes better taste and flavor. However, it is more expensive than vegetable oil.
  34. 34. Edible Tallow This is derived mainly from cattle fats and is used only in certain types of dry bread and thick-bodied crackers. When unrefined, tallow is used for manufacturing soaps.
  35. 35. Uses of Shortening For breads - Increases tenderness and improves flavor - Helps retains gas by making gluten more air- tight, thus producing better volume crust - Lubricates gluten strands which in turn results in better volume. For cookies and pastries - the plasticity of fat or its ability to resist being squeezed out of place enhances the quality of cookies For cakes - Fats especially hydrogenated vegetable shortening, cream well and are very useful to the sugar-butter method of mixing. The use of shortening results in a better leavened product. - The ability of butter to spread throughput the mixture and form a water in fat emulsion enhances the tenderness of the baked products.
  36. 36. Leavening Agents Leavening agent is a gas purposely added during mixing or produced when heating batter or though. It makes the mixture rise and turn into a light porous product.
  37. 37. Types of Leavening Agents Physical Leavening agents Air is incorporated through sifting, beating, mixing folding and in creaming butter and sugar together as in pound cakes or in cutting and folding ingredients as in angel food and sponge cake. WATER VAPOR or STEAM has some leavening effect, though minimal. However is also contributes to the improvement of the texture and volume of the dough. Biological Leavening Agent Includes YEAST which produces CARBON DIOXIDE, this makes the dough rise. A single plant that reproduces by budding. Converts sugar to alcohol and carbon dioxide in a process called fermentation. Essential in baking bread because it makes the product light and porous.
  38. 38. Types of Yeast Dry or granulated yeast. – Yeast is alive, rendered in active or dormant through the process of dehydration. – Should be kept in tightly sealed container and in a dry, cool place when not in use to prevent humidity which can active the dry yeast. Compressed or Fresh Yeast - Is in active state when mixed with water and starch. The presence of moisture makes the yeast fresh yeast perishable and thus, it should be refrigerated.
  39. 39. The ability of yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which are naturally found in air, water, and living organisms, to produce carbon dioxide through fermentation.
  40. 40. Baking soda: A white chemical leavening powder consisting of sodium bicarbonate. Baking powder: A chemical leavener consisting of a mixture of baking soda, acid(s), and an inert filler such as cornstarch. - Fast acting or tartrate type consist of tartaric acid and cream of tartar or potassium acid tartrate. It releases much of the gas during the mixing of the dough or batter. - Inter mediate acting or Phosphate type consist of calcium acid and phosphate or sodium acid pyrophosphate. With this type gas is released partly during mixing and the rest during baking - Double Acting or SAS phosphate reacts during mixing while the sulfate releases carbon dioxide only upon heating. Chemical Leavening Agent
  41. 41. The two main types of baking powder are: – Fast, or single-acting, powder – Slow, or double-acting, powder
  42. 42. Cream of tartar or baking cream - is a slow acting powder produce by diluting baking powder with cornstarch to lessen its action by 50 % - this type is best to use when the batter or dough is not baked immediately and left to stay for some time instead. . Ammonium carbonate and ammonium bicarbonate - usually for used as leavening agents for certain types of cookies and cream puffs. - this type of leavening agent decomposes into gases and does not leave a solid residue. Excessive use may lead into disagreeable taste and odor.
  43. 43. Leavening agent Source Flour mixture air Beating egg white, beating mixture, rolling dough, enclosing fat, creaming fat, sifting flour Sponge cake, butter cakes, cream puffs, puff pastries, butter cookies, and all flour mixtures. steam Heating liquid as flour mixture cooks Cream puffs, all batter and soft dough Carbon dioxide Fermentation due to yeast activity. Fermentation due to bacterial action Chemical reaction from soda, sour milk with or from baking powder Yeast breads, rolls, raised doughnuts, muffins, and other flour mixtures in which yeast is used. Soft raisin breads, griddie cakes, waffles and other quick breads.
  44. 44. Minor Ingredients Salt/Flavoring Small amounts of salt are added to flour mixtures for: – Flavoring – Removes the flatness of flavor in other ingredients – Strengthens the gluten of the dough – Controls the actions of yeast and or the fermentation. – Evenness of cell structure – Shelf-life – Modifies the color of yeast-raised products.
  45. 45. Too much salt inhibits yeast activity, reducing the amount of carbon dioxide gas produced and decreasing the volume of the loaf.
  46. 46. Spices and seeds - are finely ground aromatic vegetable products used to improve the quality of cooked food. - usually come from the bark of trees, vegetables or fruit seeds. - common spices and seeds includes cinnamon, nutmeg, amise, ginger, cloves, and mace Flavoring - flavor extracts are solutions of the flavors in ethyl alcohol or some other solvent. - base of these flavors comes from the fruits or beans. - Some are extracted from the pulps, but some are further supplemented by artificial flavor and coloring Cocoa and Chocolate - two flavors which is widely used for the finishing of cakes and pastries, pies, and cookies. They provide variety to the products as well as body and bulk to the mix or icing.
  47. 47. Preparation of Baked Goods
  48. 48. Substitution of Ingredients Substitute 1 tbsp flour (used as thickening agent) ½ tsp cornstarch, potato starch, rice starch, or arrowroot starch, or 1 tbsp quick cooking tapioca. 1 c sifted all-purpose flour 1 cup unsifted all- purpose flour minus 2 tbsp. 1 cup sifted cake flour 7/8 c unsifted all-purpose flour or 1 c minus 2 tbsp sifted all purpose flour 1 cup corn syrup 1 cup sugar plus ¼ c liquid 1 c honey 1 ¼ c of sugar plus ¼ c honey 1 ounce chocolate 3 tbsp cocoa powder plus 1 tbsp fat 1 c butter 1 cup margarine or 7/8 to 1 c hydrogenated fat plus ½ tsp salt or 7/8 c lard plus ½ tsp salt. 1 c coffee cream (20%) 3 tbsp butter plus about 7/8 c of milk 1 cup heavy cream (40%) 1/3 c butter plus ¾ c milk
  49. 49. Kneading is used extensively in bread-making and briefly for biscuits and pastries.

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