The simplest flour mixture is one made from flour and water. Other ingredients that may be added include milk, fat, eggs, sugar, salt, flavoring, and leavening agents. Yeast bread: Bread made with yeast, which produces carbon dioxide gas through the process of fermentation, causing the bread to rise. Quick bread: Bread leavened with air, steam, and/or carbon dioxide from baking soda or baking powder.
Rice is gluten free Soy is higher in protein because it is made for soy beans (high in protein) More lysine than grains. Triticale is hybrid of wheat and rye. Potato cooked and dried potatoes. Aged- fresh milled is not white, and the baked products are of poor quality. Historically flour was stored so it could age and become naturally bleached by oxygen in air. $ Bleached – to bypass natural aging, all purpose flour is exposed to chlorine gas. It lightens the flour(bleaches out the carotenoids) and improvesB the condition of the gluten. Bleaching agents evaporate and do not alter the nutrient value of flour. Enriched – B vitamins and iron.
Sugar- sweetness, volume, moistness, tenderness, color , appearance and calories food for yeast, increases volume of baked product as it increase temperature of coagulation –rises longer, finer texture Water retaining thus delays staling, add moisture Competes with starch for water and necessary hydration for gluten formation Browning thru carmelization. Salt Salt -Flavor, firmer dough, Liquid – hydrates flour for gelatinization, allows gluten to form, solvent for other ingredients Fat – improves volume, melts during baking adding to moisture and batter expands better. Improves crumb, strength, and flakiness. Lower fat has velvety crumb. Flavor and color. Delays staling. Eggs – flavor, color, leavening, nutrients and structural enhancement. Coagulation of egg proteins make a fine and delicate crumb.
Liquid in some form is required in flour mixtures to hydrate the flour and to gelatinize the starch. The water in the liquid also allows gluten to be formed, acts as a solvent for the dry ingredients, activates the yeast, provides steam for leavening, and allows baking powder or soda to react and produce carbon dioxide gas Milk is usually recommended over water, because it improves the overall quality of the baked product. In addition to contributing water, milk adds flavor and nutrients and contains certain compounds that help produce a velvety texture, a creamy white crumb, and a browner crust. The lactose in milk participates in the Maillard reaction.
Functions of sugar in flour mixtures include the following: Sweetening Protective coating Increases the volume by the incorporation of air into the fat Contributes to volume by providing food for the yeast Raises the temperature at which gelatinization and coagulation occur Increases moistness and tenderness and also helps delay staling Helps to brown the outer crust of baked products through caramelization and the Maillard reaction
Eggs are added to some flour mixtures: To enhance their structural integrity For their contributions to leavening Color Flavor And/or nutrient content
Coats flour and prevents gluten formation. Fat – improves volume, melts during baking adding to moisture and batter expands better. Improves crumb, strength, and flakiness. Lower fat has velvety crumb. Flavor and color. Delays staling.
Baking soda needs an acid to work. Examples include: tartaric acid, molasiss, lemon, brouwn sugar, cocoa. Works immediately. Do not leave on counter, put in oven
Baking powder has an acid. Double acting the most common. No rush here.
Dough: A flour mixture that is dry enough to be handled and kneaded. Batter: A flour mixture that contains more water than a dough and whose consistency ranges from pourable to sticky.
Flour and flour mixtures
Flours and Flour Mixtures
What is Flour?
It is a fine powder obtained by
grinding and sifting cereal grains,
root crops, starchy vegetable, and
other carbohydrates-rich foods.
Most flour is made from wheat but
may also prepare from rye, rice corn
and other grains.
Is a gray, almost tasteless substance which has obtained from grains,
especially wheat and rye. It is sticky, tough and somewhat elastic. It gives
cohesiveness to dough.
The protein portion of wheat flour with the elastic characteristics
necessary for the structure of most baked products.
Starch is one of the
compounds in flour that
strengthens the baked
gelatinization, and is one
of the factors that
contributes to crumb.
– Crumb: The texture
of a baked product’s
Types of Wheat Flour/
Market Forms of Wheat
– Bread Flour
– All-Purpose Flour
– Cake Flour
– Self-rising Flour
– Whole Wheat Flour
– Pastry Flour
– Enriched Flour
– High Gluten Flour
– Bran Flour
– Instant or Quick Flour
Used for baking breads, rolls and other yeast
Contains more gluten and less starch.
Makes loaves have good volume, textures and grain.
Also known as family ficur, general purpose flour or
Good substitute for cake flour and bread flour.
Contains a moderate amount of gluten
Also known as the weak flour and known as
the whitest among the flour family.
Comes from soft wheat and has a lower
gluten content than bread flour.
Has leavening agents as sodium bicarbonate or
baking soda and salt that were added to it in
proportion desirable for home baking
Contains the whole grain or graham.
It does not keep as well because of its fat
content which tends to get rancid during
Made from soft wheat flour.
Has a lower percentage of protein and its
used in pastries and cookies
White flour with nutrients added to it.
Flour with high protein content.
Used to baked hard crust breads and special products such as
Consists of bran flakes added to flour.
It has either fine or course texture.
Instant or Quick Flour
Processed by moistening and red ripping the flour.
Needs no sifting before use because it blends with liquid easily.
Major Functions of Wheat Flour
Provides structure and frame work for baked
products because of its protein and starch
When mixed with water in correct proportion the
protein will form an elastic dough that is capable of
holding gas and which will set to spongy structure,
when heated in the oven.
Responsible in providing structure by the
gelatinization process which takes place in the oven
Contributes to the characteristics of the finished
product, crust color, texture, volume, crumb color,
grain and taste
Flour Mixture Ingredients
Flour mixture ingredients may include:
– Leavening agents
– Minor Ingredients
*spices and seeds
*cocoa and chocolates
Basic ingredient and most indispensable for
baking. It may be in a form of water, milk or fruit
Plays important role in baking.
Hydrate the flour
Gelatinize the starch.
Solvent for the dry ingredients,
Activates the yeast,
Provides steam for leavening, and allows baking
powder or soda to react and produce carbon
Transforms the proteins in the flour into gluten.
Controls the consistency and temperature
(warming or cooling) of the dough.
Makes the starch swell to make it digestible.
Dissolves salt and suspends and distributes non-
flour ingredients evenly which facilitates the
Promotes yeast growth
Enhanced the keeping quality of some baking
Types of water
Relatively free from
minerals and does not
produce gas. Softens
the gluten in flour which
results in sticky dough
that tends to flatten
Contains minerals, classified as
follows based on its mineral
Medium hard water – contains
average amounts of minerals and
salts. Produces and retains well
makes it ideal for bread making.
Very hard water – has too much
carbonates of calcium and
magnesium. Hard water makes
the gluten in the flour tough.
Alkaline Water – contains
sodium carbonate. It dissolves
and weakens the gluten in the
Greatly affect the quality of the baked goods
because of its following uses.
Increases the absorptive quality of the dough, acts as a
strengthening agent to flour proteins and promotes dough strength
Improves mixing tolerance of the dough
Contributes to the golden brown crust color of the baked products
because of its lactose, caseinogen, and wheat protein contents.
Promotes larger fermentation which reduces dough acidity.
Improves grain texture of baked products.
Improves nutrition flavor and eating quality of the product.
Milk has a large amount of lysine and is also a good source of
riboflavin, calcium, and phosphorous.
It is any of the large group of chemical compounds
that belongs to the carbohydrates family. Sugar is
chemically known as sucrose which is basically used
to sweeten foods.
Comes largely from sugarcane, a tall grassy plant
that grows in warm most regions in the world.
Another source of sugar is sugar beet, a root crop
cultivated in cool dry climates.
Functions of sugar in
flour mixtures include
– Protective coating
– Increases the volume
– Contributes to volume
– Raises the temperature
at which gelatinization
and coagulation occur
– Increases moistness
and tenderness and also
helps delay staling
– Helps to brown the
outer crust of baked
One of the most expensive ingredients in baked
ingredients in baked products. However, they are
very important and baking cannot be successful w/o
eggs because eggs represents 50% of the total cost
of the ingredients used in cake production.
Provide complete protein and is capable of supplying
all the essential amino acids needed to maintain
growth and good health.
Good source of calcium, phosphorous, iron and some
amounts of vitamin A, D, thiamin and riboflavin.
Functions of egg in baking
Used as leavening agent, egg whites when beaten produce many small
air bubbles surrounded by a film of egg protein. This thus partly
coagulates and makes a stable foam as the egg white is beaten and the
thin protein film consistently come in contact with the air.
In the process of baking, the air bubbles expand with the heat and
the protein film stretches. As temperature increases, the protein
coagulates completely and sets to be firm structure.
Egg yolk provides a desirable yellow color which enhances the
appearance of many baked products.
They add richness, the fat and the other solids of eggs make the end
product richer and better tasting.
They enhance flavor, provides sweet aroma that makes the baked
product appetizing and desirable.
They increase freshness and nutritive value. The high moisture
content of eggs allows the baked products to stay fresh longer.
Refers to any fat used to increase
the tenderness of the baked
products. Shortening may be a
single fat or oil or a combination
of several fats and oils.
Hog fat or lard
A unique kind of unsaturated fat; liquid at room temperature but
definitely solid at room temperature because of the
This is best for breads, biscuits, pie crusts, and few types of
Mainly used for cakes and cookies. Its shortening values inferior
to that of lard. Butter does not cream well and lacks uniformity.
This comes from purified deodorized oils such as coconut,
corn grains, soybeans, or cottonseeds. Vegetable
shortening does not contain moisture. It also known as
hydrogenated vegetable oil.
Used in baking breads, it is not very efficient as a
shortening and is difficult to handle. As a result is not
popular as a shortening.
Butter oil promotes better taste and flavor. However,
it is more expensive than vegetable oil.
This is derived mainly from cattle fats and is used only in
certain types of dry bread and thick-bodied crackers.
When unrefined, tallow is used for manufacturing soaps.
Uses of Shortening
- Increases tenderness and
- Helps retains gas by
making gluten more air-
tight, thus producing better
- Lubricates gluten strands
which in turn results in
For cookies and pastries
- the plasticity of fat or
its ability to resist being
squeezed out of place
enhances the quality of
- Fats especially
shortening, cream well and
are very useful to the
sugar-butter method of
mixing. The use of
shortening results in a
better leavened product.
- The ability of butter to
spread throughput the
mixture and form a water
in fat emulsion enhances
the tenderness of the
Leavening agent is a gas purposely
added during mixing or produced
when heating batter or though. It
makes the mixture rise and turn into
a light porous product.
Types of Leavening Agents
Physical Leavening agents
Air is incorporated through
sifting, beating, mixing
folding and in creaming
butter and sugar together as
in pound cakes or in cutting
and folding ingredients as in
angel food and sponge cake.
WATER VAPOR or STEAM
has some leavening effect,
though minimal. However is
also contributes to the
improvement of the texture
and volume of the dough.
Biological Leavening Agent
Includes YEAST which
DIOXIDE, this makes the
A single plant that
reproduces by budding.
Converts sugar to alcohol and
carbon dioxide in a process
Essential in baking bread
because it makes the product
light and porous.
Types of Yeast
Dry or granulated yeast.
– Yeast is alive, rendered in active
or dormant through the process
– Should be kept in tightly sealed
container and in a dry, cool place
when not in use to prevent
humidity which can active the dry
Compressed or Fresh Yeast
- Is in active state when mixed with
water and starch. The presence of
moisture makes the yeast fresh
yeast perishable and thus, it
should be refrigerated.
The ability of yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which are
naturally found in air, water, and living organisms, to produce
carbon dioxide through fermentation.
Baking soda: A white chemical leavening powder consisting of
Baking powder: A chemical leavener consisting of a mixture of
baking soda, acid(s), and an inert filler such as cornstarch.
- Fast acting or tartrate type
consist of tartaric acid and cream of tartar or potassium acid tartrate.
It releases much of the gas during the mixing of the dough or batter.
- Inter mediate acting or Phosphate type
consist of calcium acid and phosphate or sodium acid pyrophosphate.
With this type gas is released partly during mixing and the rest during baking
- Double Acting or SAS
phosphate reacts during mixing while the sulfate releases carbon dioxide
only upon heating.
Chemical Leavening Agent
The two main types of baking powder are:
– Fast, or single-acting, powder
– Slow, or double-acting, powder
Cream of tartar or baking cream
- is a slow acting powder produce by diluting baking powder
with cornstarch to lessen its action by 50 %
- this type is best to use when the batter or dough is not
baked immediately and left to stay for some time instead.
Ammonium carbonate and ammonium bicarbonate
- usually for used as leavening agents for certain types of cookies and cream
- this type of leavening agent decomposes into gases and does not leave a
solid residue. Excessive use may lead into disagreeable taste and odor.
Leavening agent Source Flour mixture
air Beating egg white, beating
mixture, rolling dough, enclosing
fat, creaming fat, sifting flour
Sponge cake, butter cakes,
cream puffs, puff pastries, butter
cookies, and all flour mixtures.
steam Heating liquid as flour mixture
Cream puffs, all batter and soft
Carbon dioxide Fermentation due to yeast
Fermentation due to bacterial
Chemical reaction from soda,
sour milk with or from baking
Yeast breads, rolls, raised
doughnuts, muffins, and other
flour mixtures in which yeast is
Soft raisin breads, griddie cakes,
waffles and other quick breads.
Small amounts of salt are
added to flour mixtures for:
– Removes the flatness of
flavor in other ingredients
– Strengthens the gluten of
– Controls the actions of
yeast and or the
– Evenness of cell structure
– Modifies the color of
Too much salt inhibits yeast activity, reducing the amount of
carbon dioxide gas produced and decreasing the volume of the loaf.
Spices and seeds
- are finely ground aromatic vegetable products used to improve the
quality of cooked food.
- usually come from the bark of trees, vegetables or fruit seeds.
- common spices and seeds includes cinnamon, nutmeg, amise, ginger,
cloves, and mace
- flavor extracts are solutions of the flavors in ethyl alcohol or
some other solvent.
- base of these flavors comes from the fruits or beans.
- Some are extracted from the pulps, but some are further
supplemented by artificial flavor and coloring
Cocoa and Chocolate
- two flavors which is widely used for the finishing of cakes and
pastries, pies, and cookies. They provide variety to the products
as well as body and bulk to the mix or icing.
Substitution of Ingredients
1 tbsp flour (used as thickening
½ tsp cornstarch, potato starch, rice
starch, or arrowroot starch, or 1
tbsp quick cooking tapioca.
1 c sifted all-purpose flour 1 cup unsifted all- purpose flour
minus 2 tbsp.
1 cup sifted cake flour 7/8 c unsifted all-purpose flour or 1
c minus 2 tbsp sifted all purpose
1 cup corn syrup 1 cup sugar plus ¼ c liquid
1 c honey 1 ¼ c of sugar plus ¼ c honey
1 ounce chocolate 3 tbsp cocoa powder plus 1 tbsp fat
1 c butter 1 cup margarine or 7/8 to 1 c
hydrogenated fat plus ½ tsp salt or
7/8 c lard plus ½ tsp salt.
1 c coffee cream (20%) 3 tbsp butter plus about 7/8 c of
1 cup heavy cream (40%) 1/3 c butter plus ¾ c milk
Kneading is used extensively in bread-making and
briefly for biscuits and pastries.