Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Use of Technology in Toll Collection & Management

94 views

Published on

Introduction to toll collection and management technologies such as Electronic Toll Collection (ETC), MLFF, RFID, ANR, and ANRT

Published in: Engineering
  • Be the first to comment

Use of Technology in Toll Collection & Management

  1. 1. Dilum Bandara, PhD Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering, University of Moratuwa Dilum.Bandara@uom.lk Some slides adopted from Dr. Chathura De Silva TRF 2018, Aug 3, 2018
  2. 2. 2 Source: PAG Electronics Source: http://www.ft.lk Source: http://www.etc.vn
  3. 3. Today 2025 MTC Stop-and-go ETC Single-lane limited flow MLFF E01, OCH, CKE Only on CKE at present May on E01, OCH when connected Toll gates on entry/exit ramps Front office staff Facilitates vehicle entry control Limited throughput On-expressway gantries Back-office monitoring Violation detection instead of entry control High-throughput A complete transformation in toll administration 3 Source: Dr. Chathura De Silva
  4. 4.  Public or private road for which a fee (or toll) is charged for passage  Toll based on  Distance traveled  Time of day  Vehicle type or no of axels  Congestion level  Types  Closed systems – entry & exist gates  Open systems  Electronic Toll Collection (ETC)  Enhanced convenience for drivers by enabling cashless toll collection  Relatively fast 4
  5. 5. 5 Vehicle Detection Fare Calculation Payment Automation through ETC
  6. 6. Manned Tollbooth Systems Self-Service Automated Tollbooth Systems Unmanned Wireless Automated Tollbooth Systems Open Toll Roads • Manual Toll Collection (MTC) • Stop & Go • Easy to setup • Cash based • Slow • Costly to operate • Self service by driver • Stop & Go • Cash or card based • More difficult to setup • Language & technology barriers • Slow • Costly to operate • Use preinstalled wireless transponders • Or Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANR) • Card based payments • Costly to setup • Single Lane • Limited flow (physical constrains) • Multi-lane • Free flow 6
  7. 7. 7Source: http://daridawg.blogspot.com Source: www.abelard.org
  8. 8. 8 Pros Cons • Works better with single entry & single exist • No need of pre-registration • Better privacy for drivers • Language & technology barriers • Slow & arbitrary delays • Need exact amount or card-based payment • Sock management of pass cards or tokens • Pass card or token doesn’t have information to bill in case of system failure • Human support is still need to address issues & violators
  9. 9.  Based on RFID (Radio Frequency ID)  User identified through unique ID  Can read & write data  Difficult to counterfeit  Modest cost 9 Source: root labs Source: Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) System by Rohan S. Kale
  10. 10.  Omnidirectional antenna  Use active RFID tags  Battery could last for months  Interaction time with 10m range  @ 100 kmph – 720 ms  @ 15 kmph – 4.8s  Multi-tag reading with collision detection  CKE (E03) recommends 20m inter-vehicle gap 10
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. • World largest multi-lane free flow & distance-based system • Operational efficiencies • Toll collection rate 99.8% • System availability 99.992% • Environmental benefits • Petrol Saving > 120 million liters • CO2 reduction > 290,000 tons • Time Saving > 375,000 hrs/ Day 12 Source: FETC, Taiwan
  13. 13. 13Source: FETC, Taiwan
  14. 14. 14 Source: FETC, Taiwan
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. 16 Pros Cons • Supports limited or free flow • Supports Multi-Lane Free Flow (MLFW) • Use on multiple vehicles • Discounts for using ETC • Electronic payment settlement • Full activity logging • Less chance of corruption • Can use to estimate vehicle flow rate • Manual is still need to support vehicles without transponders • Cost of transponder to driver • Need pre-registration • Borrowed & rented vehicles • Vehicles on carriers • Battery issues • Same transponder should be useable across all toll roads • Privacy issues due to tracking • Transponder could be hacked
  17. 17. 17 Source: wikipedia.org Source: Plate.Vision Source: roadtraffic-technology.com
  18. 18. 18  Triggered by a laser that detect vehicle  Capture front & rear number plates  Number detected based on optical character recognition (OCR)  Typically coupled with number plat database  Validation  Vehicle type detection Source: sensorlink.com.my
  19. 19.  Single & 2-lane detection  25 - 35m detection range  Detection up to 250 kmph  Day & night time operation  98%+ recognition rate  Confidence level of ANR  Speed, travel direction, vehicle class/brand detection  Traffic flow estimation  Images as evidence  Video streaming  Waterproof IP68 19 Source: siemens.com/mobility
  20. 20. 20 Pros Cons • Supports Multi-Lane Free Flow (MLFW) • Works with any vehicle • Number attached to vehicle not owner • No prior registration needed • No physical installation • Electronic payment settlement • Less chance of corruption • Full activity logging • Speed detection • Can use to estimate vehicle flow rate • Vehicles on carriers skipped • Manual is still need to support undetectable number plates • Non-standard number plates • Vehicles with trailers • Not having a check digit for number validation • Privacy issues due to tracking • Transponder could be hacked
  21. 21.  Wireless transponders are more wide-spread  Recent developments of ANR technologies make them toll road ready  Typically wireless transponder & ANR used together  Number plate with RFID tag  Taiwan RFID-based ETC  GNSS: Truck Toll Germany  Sri Lanka needs entry control due to three-wheelers & motor cycles  Better public acceptance when more transparent & non-invasive  Some manual intervention is still needed  Faculty RFID tags  Need to handle unregistered vehicles  Undetectable number plates  Be ready to work incase of system failure  Interoperability across vehicles & road segments  Use of existing networking (e.g., CCTV) & IT infrastructure 21
  22. 22. 22 Vehicle Detection Fare Calculation Payment Automation through ETC
  23. 23.  Toll based on  Distance traveled  Time of day  Vehicle type or axels  Congestion level 23 Source: Electronic Toll Collection - Approaches, technologies, experiences by Fritz Busch & Andreas Rau
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. 25 Vehicle Detection Fare Calculation Payment Automation through ETC
  26. 26. 26 Source: FETC, Taiwan
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. 28 Source: https://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com
  29. 29.  Integrated system enables real-time revenue data & statistics  Prepaid  CKK connects BoC accounts  Cards  Attach credit cards  Should support contemporary potions such as  Online pre-paid  Mobile Apps  Mobile cash  NFC-base touch cards 29 Source: http://www.midlink.ie
  30. 30. Key Design Considerations  Suitability in short-term deployment (MTC/ETC as in E01, OCH, & CKE) while having scalability towards MLFF  Compatibility among 4-sections in E01 extension & existing network  Facilitate migration of existing systems, compatible with present setup  Facilitating vehicle entry control  Objective vehicle identification & classification through centralized management 30 Vehicle Detection, Classification, & Identification Toll Accounting, Collection, & Violation Detection Toll Administration & Revenue Monitoring Manua l Passiv e RFID LR RFID ANR Infrastructure compatibility with MLFF SystemscalabilitytowardsMLFF Scalable toll system: A layered approach FrontendcomponentsCentralizedback-officefunctions Source: Dr. Chathura De Silva
  31. 31. Camera recognize vehicle no at entry Registration number is sent to central server and classification is obtained For ETC registered vehicles, account balance is displayed Barrier opens & the leaves Classification is obtained from RMV database Vehicle can be also checked for other parameters like PR/Watch list, payment of license fees, insurance, etc. Camera recognize vehicle no at exit Based on registration no and entry record toll is computed ETC vehicles: Toll is deducted & balance is displayed MTC vehicles: Toll is collected by operator Barrier opens if the vehicle is permitted to enter Central monitoring room provides integrated dashboard for all aspects 1 2 4 3 5 6 7 9 8 Entry Exit Source: Dr. Chathura De Silva 5 31
  32. 32.  ETC & ANR technologies are quite mature  ANR still needed & essential with MLFF  However, solution should match particular countries context  Non-standard vehicles  Three-wheelers & motor cycles  Should be compatible with existing & proposed infrastructure  Support phased migration  Public acceptance though transparency, non-invasive, & flexibility  Manual operation to classify unclassified or undented vehicles 32

×