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Other Types of Networks:
Bluetooth, Zigbee, & NFC
CS303
Dilum Bandara
Dilum.Bandara@uom.lk
Slides adapted from Prof. Dr. Ing. Jochen Schiller
Why?
 Up to now, we have concentrated on TCP/IP
 Because TCP/IP is the most popular type of network
 However, it’s not always the best option
 Not all networks need IP
 Overkill due to high footprint
 Specific/custom protocols are suitable for other
applications
 SNA, DECNet, Novell Netware, NetBEUI, WAP – old
 Bluetooth, ZigBee, Fiber channel, NFC – recent
2
Protocols Considered
 Bluetooth
 ZigBee
 Near Field Communication (NFC)
3
Source: http://mwrf.com/active-components/nfc-prepares-wide-adoption
Bluetooth – IEEE 802.15.1
 Introduced to
 Replace cables
 Multiparty data exchange
 Personal trusted device
 Developed by Ericsson
 Now managed by Bluetooth Special Interest Group
4
Bluetooth (Cont.)
 2.4 – 2.48 GHz ISM band
 Range – 10m
 Bandwidth – 2.1 Mbps (shared) (version 2.0)
 Version 4.0
 Includes Classic Bluetooth, Bluetooth high speed & Bluetooth low
energy protocols
 Bluetooth high speed based on Wi-Fi
 Classic Bluetooth based on legacy Bluetooth protocols
 Low power consumption
 Found in mobile phones, laptops, computer peripherals,
printers, etc.
5
Bluetooth Applications
6
Source: www.anwsoft.com.tw/Products_Bluetooth_Solutions.html
• Stick N Find
Bluetooth Protocol Stack
7
Source: http://withfriendship.com/user/sathvi/bluetooth-stack.php
Protocols & Usage Models
8
PPP
RFCOMM
TCP/IP
Baseband
L2CAP
OBEX
IrMC
TCS-BIN
Audio
Sync Dial-up
net.
Usage Models
File
Transfer
AT-commands
Fax Headset LAN
Access
Cordless
Phone
SDP
LMP
Bluetooth Protocol Stack (Cont.)
9
Other Key Layers
 Link Management Protocol (LMP)
 Set-up & control of radio link between 2 devices
 Logical Link Control & Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP)
 Multiplex multiple logical connections between 2 devices using
different higher-level protocols
 Provides segmentation & reassembly of on-air packets
 Service Discovery Protocol (SDP)
 Allows a device to discover services offered by other devices, &
their associated parameters
 Baseband layer
 Physical layer
 Manages physical channels & links
 Error correction, data whitening, hop selection, & security
10
Bluetooth Applications/Profiles
 Set of application protocols
 Definitions of possible applications & general behaviors
 Resides on top of Bluetooth core specification &
(optionally) additional protocols
 Example profiles
 Hands-Free Profile (HFP)
 Basic Printing Profile (BPP)
 Audio/Video Remote Control Profile (AVRCP)
 File Transfer Profile (FTP)
 Human Interface Device Profile (HID)
 Personal Area Networking Profile (PAN)
 Generic Object Exchange Profile (GOEP)
 OBEX
11
Baseband Layer – Bluetooth Piconet
 Through master
 No slave-to-slave communication
 Up to 7 active slaves 255 parked slaves 12
Source: www.techrepublic.com/article/secure-
your-bluetooth-wireless-networks-and-protect-
your-data/6139987
Baseband Layer – Bluetooth Scatternet
 By connecting 2+
piconets
13
Source: www.techrepublic.com/article/secure-
your-bluetooth-wireless-networks-and-protect-
your-data/6139987
ZigBee
 IEEE 802.15.4 covers physical layer & MAC layer of low-
rate WPAN
 WPAN – Wireless Personal Area Network
 Adds network construction, application services, & more
on top of IEEE 802.15.4
 Star networks, peer-to-peer/mesh networks, & cluster-tree
networks
 By ZıgBee Alliance
 Very low power consumption  long battery life
 Low data rate
 Low complexity circuits & small size  low cost
14
ZigBee Applications
TELECOM
SERVICES
m-commerce
info services
object interaction
(Internet of Things)
ZigBee
Wireless Control that
Simply Works
TV
VCR
DVD/CD
remote
security
HVAC
lighting control
access control
irrigation
PC &
PERIPHERALS
asset mgt
process
control
environmental
energy mgt
PERSONAL
HEALTH CARE
security
HVAC
AMR
lighting control
access control
patient
monitoring
fitness
monitoring
15Source: ZıgBee Alliance
ZigBee Protocol Stack
16
Source: www.sena.com/products/industrial_zigbee/zigbee_summary.php
IEEE 802.15.4 Devıce Types
 Defined by IEEE 802.15.4 (LR-WPAN)
1. Full Functional Device (FFD)
2. Reduced Functional Device (RFD)
 FFD can work as a PAN coordinator, as a coordinator, or
as a simple device
 RFD for applications that don’t need to transmit large
volumes of data & have to communicate only with a
specific FFD
 FFD can communicate with either another FFD or a RFD
17
ZigBee Topologies
18
Source: http://wireless.arcada.fi/MOBWI/material/PAN_5_2.html
ZigBee Topologies (Cont.)
1. Star Topology
 Pros
 Easy to synchronize
 Low latency
 Cons
 Small scale
2. Mesh/P2P Topology
 Pros
 Robust multi-hop
communication
 Multi-path communication
 Flexible network
 Lower latency
 Cons
 Route discovery is costly
 Needs to store routing
table
19
ZigBee Topologies (Cont.)
3. Cluster Tree Topology
 Pros
 Low routing cost
 Multi-hop communication
 Scalable
 Cons
 Route reconstruction is costly
 Latency may be quite long
 Root not becomes a single point of failure
20
Physical & MAC Layers
 2 different services are defined in 802.15.4
 Data service
 Controls radio – Tx/Rx of PPDUs & MPDUs
 Management service
 Energy detection in the channel
 Clear channel assesment before sending the messages
 Link Quality Indication (LQI) for the received packets
 If coordinator – Manages network beacons, PAN association &
disassociation, frame validation, & acknowledgment
 Support device security
21
Traffic-Modes – Device to PAN
Coordinator
 Beacon mode
 Beacon send periodically
 Coordinator & end device
can go to sleep
 Lowest energy
consumption
 Precise timing needed
 Beacon period (ms-min)
22
Source: IEEE 802.15.4 Standard
(2006)
Traffic-Modes – Device to PAN
Coordinator (Cont.)
 Non-Beacon mode
 Coordinator/routers have
to stay awake
 Heterogeneous network
 Asymmetric power
23
Source: IEEE 802.15.4 Standard
(2006)
Data Transfer From PAN Coordınator
24
Source: IEEE 802.15.4 Standard
(2006)
Network Layer
 Distributed address assignment
 Tree structure or self managed by higher layer
 16-bit network space divided among child routers
 Child routers divide there space again for their
children
 Depends on
 Maximum child count per parent
 Maximum child-routers per parent
 Maximum network depth
25
Network Layer (Cont.)
 Route discovery
 Find or update route between specific source &
destination
 Started if no active route present in routing table
 Broadcast routing request (RREQ) packets
 Generates routing table entries for hops to source
 Endpoint router responds with Routing response
(RREP) packet
 Routes generated for hops to destination
 Routing table entry generated in source device
26
Route Discovery
A
B
RREQ
RREP
1 2 3
4
2
1
5
27
Network Layer (Cont.)
 Routing
 Check if routing table entry exists
 Initiate route discovery if possible
 Hierarchical routing as fallback
 Route maintenance
 Track failed deliveries to neighbors
 Initiate route repair when threshold reached
 Careful with network load!
 In case of total connectivity loss
 Orphaning procedure
 Re-association with network
28
ZigBee Profiles
 Describes a common language for exchanging data
 Defines offered services
 Device interoperability across different manufacturers
 Standard profiles available from the ZigBee Alliance
 Profiles contain device descriptions
 Unique identifier (licensed by the ZigBee Alliance)
29
Near Field Communication (NFC)
 Range <= 10 cm
 13.56 MHz
 106 – 424 Kbps
 Based on magnetic field induction between
readers & tags in a Radio Frequency
IDentification (RFID)
 Started in 2004
 Nokia, Philips, & Sony
 2006 – 1st Nokia phone
 2010 – 1st Android
30
NFC Applications
31
Source: http://corp.qliktag.com/nfc-for-business/
• Visa Paywave
Technology
32
Source: http://fppt.com
Modes of Operations
 Active Mode
 Both devices generate electromagnetic field &
exchange data
 2 phones
 Passive Mode
 One active device & other uses that electromagnetic
field & exchange data
 A phone & RFID tagged poster
33
NFC Protocol Stack
34
Source: http://mwrf.com
NFC Protocol Stack (Cont.)
35
Pros & Cons
 Pros
 Convenience
 Low cost
 Low energy consumption
 Better security
 No search & pair procedure
 Less configuration
 Cons
 Low range
 Low data range
36
Low Energy
Bluetooth
ZigBee NFC Low Power
WiFi
Frequency
(MHz)
2402 – 2482 868 - 868.8,
902 - 928,
2402 – 2482
13.56 2400 - 2500
Channels 3 16 1 3
Modulation GFSK BPSK &
QPSK
ASK 64QAM
Max potential
data rate
1 Mbps 250 Kbps 424 Kbps 54 Mbps
Range 10m 100+m 10cm 30m
Power Profile Days Months/Years Months/Years Hours
Complexity Complex Simple Simple Complex
Nodes/Master 7 65,000 1+1
Extendibility No Yes No Yes
ZigBee, Bluetooth, NFC, vs., WiFi
37
Conclusion
 Many other networking technologies exist
 Have different features & protocols stacks
 They inter-operate with IP in various ways
38

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Other types of networks: Bluetooth, Zigbee, & NFC

  • 1. Other Types of Networks: Bluetooth, Zigbee, & NFC CS303 Dilum Bandara Dilum.Bandara@uom.lk Slides adapted from Prof. Dr. Ing. Jochen Schiller
  • 2. Why?  Up to now, we have concentrated on TCP/IP  Because TCP/IP is the most popular type of network  However, it’s not always the best option  Not all networks need IP  Overkill due to high footprint  Specific/custom protocols are suitable for other applications  SNA, DECNet, Novell Netware, NetBEUI, WAP – old  Bluetooth, ZigBee, Fiber channel, NFC – recent 2
  • 3. Protocols Considered  Bluetooth  ZigBee  Near Field Communication (NFC) 3 Source: http://mwrf.com/active-components/nfc-prepares-wide-adoption
  • 4. Bluetooth – IEEE 802.15.1  Introduced to  Replace cables  Multiparty data exchange  Personal trusted device  Developed by Ericsson  Now managed by Bluetooth Special Interest Group 4
  • 5. Bluetooth (Cont.)  2.4 – 2.48 GHz ISM band  Range – 10m  Bandwidth – 2.1 Mbps (shared) (version 2.0)  Version 4.0  Includes Classic Bluetooth, Bluetooth high speed & Bluetooth low energy protocols  Bluetooth high speed based on Wi-Fi  Classic Bluetooth based on legacy Bluetooth protocols  Low power consumption  Found in mobile phones, laptops, computer peripherals, printers, etc. 5
  • 7. Bluetooth Protocol Stack 7 Source: http://withfriendship.com/user/sathvi/bluetooth-stack.php
  • 8. Protocols & Usage Models 8 PPP RFCOMM TCP/IP Baseband L2CAP OBEX IrMC TCS-BIN Audio Sync Dial-up net. Usage Models File Transfer AT-commands Fax Headset LAN Access Cordless Phone SDP LMP
  • 10. Other Key Layers  Link Management Protocol (LMP)  Set-up & control of radio link between 2 devices  Logical Link Control & Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP)  Multiplex multiple logical connections between 2 devices using different higher-level protocols  Provides segmentation & reassembly of on-air packets  Service Discovery Protocol (SDP)  Allows a device to discover services offered by other devices, & their associated parameters  Baseband layer  Physical layer  Manages physical channels & links  Error correction, data whitening, hop selection, & security 10
  • 11. Bluetooth Applications/Profiles  Set of application protocols  Definitions of possible applications & general behaviors  Resides on top of Bluetooth core specification & (optionally) additional protocols  Example profiles  Hands-Free Profile (HFP)  Basic Printing Profile (BPP)  Audio/Video Remote Control Profile (AVRCP)  File Transfer Profile (FTP)  Human Interface Device Profile (HID)  Personal Area Networking Profile (PAN)  Generic Object Exchange Profile (GOEP)  OBEX 11
  • 12. Baseband Layer – Bluetooth Piconet  Through master  No slave-to-slave communication  Up to 7 active slaves 255 parked slaves 12 Source: www.techrepublic.com/article/secure- your-bluetooth-wireless-networks-and-protect- your-data/6139987
  • 13. Baseband Layer – Bluetooth Scatternet  By connecting 2+ piconets 13 Source: www.techrepublic.com/article/secure- your-bluetooth-wireless-networks-and-protect- your-data/6139987
  • 14. ZigBee  IEEE 802.15.4 covers physical layer & MAC layer of low- rate WPAN  WPAN – Wireless Personal Area Network  Adds network construction, application services, & more on top of IEEE 802.15.4  Star networks, peer-to-peer/mesh networks, & cluster-tree networks  By ZıgBee Alliance  Very low power consumption  long battery life  Low data rate  Low complexity circuits & small size  low cost 14
  • 15. ZigBee Applications TELECOM SERVICES m-commerce info services object interaction (Internet of Things) ZigBee Wireless Control that Simply Works TV VCR DVD/CD remote security HVAC lighting control access control irrigation PC & PERIPHERALS asset mgt process control environmental energy mgt PERSONAL HEALTH CARE security HVAC AMR lighting control access control patient monitoring fitness monitoring 15Source: ZıgBee Alliance
  • 16. ZigBee Protocol Stack 16 Source: www.sena.com/products/industrial_zigbee/zigbee_summary.php
  • 17. IEEE 802.15.4 Devıce Types  Defined by IEEE 802.15.4 (LR-WPAN) 1. Full Functional Device (FFD) 2. Reduced Functional Device (RFD)  FFD can work as a PAN coordinator, as a coordinator, or as a simple device  RFD for applications that don’t need to transmit large volumes of data & have to communicate only with a specific FFD  FFD can communicate with either another FFD or a RFD 17
  • 19. ZigBee Topologies (Cont.) 1. Star Topology  Pros  Easy to synchronize  Low latency  Cons  Small scale 2. Mesh/P2P Topology  Pros  Robust multi-hop communication  Multi-path communication  Flexible network  Lower latency  Cons  Route discovery is costly  Needs to store routing table 19
  • 20. ZigBee Topologies (Cont.) 3. Cluster Tree Topology  Pros  Low routing cost  Multi-hop communication  Scalable  Cons  Route reconstruction is costly  Latency may be quite long  Root not becomes a single point of failure 20
  • 21. Physical & MAC Layers  2 different services are defined in 802.15.4  Data service  Controls radio – Tx/Rx of PPDUs & MPDUs  Management service  Energy detection in the channel  Clear channel assesment before sending the messages  Link Quality Indication (LQI) for the received packets  If coordinator – Manages network beacons, PAN association & disassociation, frame validation, & acknowledgment  Support device security 21
  • 22. Traffic-Modes – Device to PAN Coordinator  Beacon mode  Beacon send periodically  Coordinator & end device can go to sleep  Lowest energy consumption  Precise timing needed  Beacon period (ms-min) 22 Source: IEEE 802.15.4 Standard (2006)
  • 23. Traffic-Modes – Device to PAN Coordinator (Cont.)  Non-Beacon mode  Coordinator/routers have to stay awake  Heterogeneous network  Asymmetric power 23 Source: IEEE 802.15.4 Standard (2006)
  • 24. Data Transfer From PAN Coordınator 24 Source: IEEE 802.15.4 Standard (2006)
  • 25. Network Layer  Distributed address assignment  Tree structure or self managed by higher layer  16-bit network space divided among child routers  Child routers divide there space again for their children  Depends on  Maximum child count per parent  Maximum child-routers per parent  Maximum network depth 25
  • 26. Network Layer (Cont.)  Route discovery  Find or update route between specific source & destination  Started if no active route present in routing table  Broadcast routing request (RREQ) packets  Generates routing table entries for hops to source  Endpoint router responds with Routing response (RREP) packet  Routes generated for hops to destination  Routing table entry generated in source device 26
  • 28. Network Layer (Cont.)  Routing  Check if routing table entry exists  Initiate route discovery if possible  Hierarchical routing as fallback  Route maintenance  Track failed deliveries to neighbors  Initiate route repair when threshold reached  Careful with network load!  In case of total connectivity loss  Orphaning procedure  Re-association with network 28
  • 29. ZigBee Profiles  Describes a common language for exchanging data  Defines offered services  Device interoperability across different manufacturers  Standard profiles available from the ZigBee Alliance  Profiles contain device descriptions  Unique identifier (licensed by the ZigBee Alliance) 29
  • 30. Near Field Communication (NFC)  Range <= 10 cm  13.56 MHz  106 – 424 Kbps  Based on magnetic field induction between readers & tags in a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID)  Started in 2004  Nokia, Philips, & Sony  2006 – 1st Nokia phone  2010 – 1st Android 30
  • 33. Modes of Operations  Active Mode  Both devices generate electromagnetic field & exchange data  2 phones  Passive Mode  One active device & other uses that electromagnetic field & exchange data  A phone & RFID tagged poster 33
  • 34. NFC Protocol Stack 34 Source: http://mwrf.com
  • 35. NFC Protocol Stack (Cont.) 35
  • 36. Pros & Cons  Pros  Convenience  Low cost  Low energy consumption  Better security  No search & pair procedure  Less configuration  Cons  Low range  Low data range 36
  • 37. Low Energy Bluetooth ZigBee NFC Low Power WiFi Frequency (MHz) 2402 – 2482 868 - 868.8, 902 - 928, 2402 – 2482 13.56 2400 - 2500 Channels 3 16 1 3 Modulation GFSK BPSK & QPSK ASK 64QAM Max potential data rate 1 Mbps 250 Kbps 424 Kbps 54 Mbps Range 10m 100+m 10cm 30m Power Profile Days Months/Years Months/Years Hours Complexity Complex Simple Simple Complex Nodes/Master 7 65,000 1+1 Extendibility No Yes No Yes ZigBee, Bluetooth, NFC, vs., WiFi 37
  • 38. Conclusion  Many other networking technologies exist  Have different features & protocols stacks  They inter-operate with IP in various ways 38

Editor's Notes

  1. Mobilkommunikation SS 1998
  2. Systems Network Architecture (SNA) is IBM's proprietary networking architecture created in 1974. It is a complete protocol stack for interconnecting computers and their resources DECnet is a suite of network protocols created by Digital Equipment Corporation, originally released in 1975 in order to connect two PDP-11 minicomputers NetWare is a computer network operating system developed by Novell, Inc. It initially used cooperative multitasking to run various services on a personal computer, with network protocols based on the archetypal Xerox Network Systems stack. The original NetWare product in 1983 supported clients running both CP/M and MS-DOS, ran over a proprietary star network topology and was based on a Novell-built file server In 1985, IBM went forward with the token ring network scheme and a NetBIOS emulator was produced to allow NetBIOS-aware applications from the PC-Network era to work over this new design. This emulator, named NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI), expanded the base NetBIOS API with, among other things, the ability to deal with the greater node capacity of token ring. None of the solutions we are going to discuss uses TCP/IP
  3. Sdp – service discovery protocol TCS (Telephone Control protocol Specification
  4. Mobilkommunikation SS 1998
  5. HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning Automatic Meter Reading (AMR)
  6. 868/868.6 MHz for Europe 902/928 MHz for North America 2400/2483.5 MHz worldwide
  7. Transmission from a Coordinator to a Device The coordinator has data to be transmitted to the device. It indicates this in the pending address fields of its beacon. Devices tracking the beacons, decode the pending address fields. If a device finds its address listed among the pending address fields, it realizes it has data to be received from the coordinator. It issues a Data-Request Command to the coordinator. The coordinator replies with an acknowledgement. If there is data to be sent to the device, it would transmit the data. If acknowledgements are not optional, the device would respond with an acknowledgement.