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Other types of networks: Bluetooth, Zigbee, & NFC

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Bluetooth, Zigbee, and NFC as alternatives for TCP/IP based communication in specific applications

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Other types of networks: Bluetooth, Zigbee, & NFC

  1. 1. Other Types of Networks: Bluetooth, Zigbee, & NFC CS303 Dilum Bandara Dilum.Bandara@uom.lk Slides adapted from Prof. Dr. Ing. Jochen Schiller
  2. 2. Why?  Up to now, we have concentrated on TCP/IP  Because TCP/IP is the most popular type of network  However, it’s not always the best option  Not all networks need IP  Overkill due to high footprint  Specific/custom protocols are suitable for other applications  SNA, DECNet, Novell Netware, NetBEUI, WAP – old  Bluetooth, ZigBee, Fiber channel, NFC – recent 2
  3. 3. Protocols Considered  Bluetooth  ZigBee  Near Field Communication (NFC) 3 Source: http://mwrf.com/active-components/nfc-prepares-wide-adoption
  4. 4. Bluetooth – IEEE 802.15.1  Introduced to  Replace cables  Multiparty data exchange  Personal trusted device  Developed by Ericsson  Now managed by Bluetooth Special Interest Group 4
  5. 5. Bluetooth (Cont.)  2.4 – 2.48 GHz ISM band  Range – 10m  Bandwidth – 2.1 Mbps (shared) (version 2.0)  Version 4.0  Includes Classic Bluetooth, Bluetooth high speed & Bluetooth low energy protocols  Bluetooth high speed based on Wi-Fi  Classic Bluetooth based on legacy Bluetooth protocols  Low power consumption  Found in mobile phones, laptops, computer peripherals, printers, etc. 5
  6. 6. Bluetooth Applications 6 Source: www.anwsoft.com.tw/Products_Bluetooth_Solutions.html • Stick N Find
  7. 7. Bluetooth Protocol Stack 7 Source: http://withfriendship.com/user/sathvi/bluetooth-stack.php
  8. 8. Protocols & Usage Models 8 PPP RFCOMM TCP/IP Baseband L2CAP OBEX IrMC TCS-BIN Audio Sync Dial-up net. Usage Models File Transfer AT-commands Fax Headset LAN Access Cordless Phone SDP LMP
  9. 9. Bluetooth Protocol Stack (Cont.) 9
  10. 10. Other Key Layers  Link Management Protocol (LMP)  Set-up & control of radio link between 2 devices  Logical Link Control & Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP)  Multiplex multiple logical connections between 2 devices using different higher-level protocols  Provides segmentation & reassembly of on-air packets  Service Discovery Protocol (SDP)  Allows a device to discover services offered by other devices, & their associated parameters  Baseband layer  Physical layer  Manages physical channels & links  Error correction, data whitening, hop selection, & security 10
  11. 11. Bluetooth Applications/Profiles  Set of application protocols  Definitions of possible applications & general behaviors  Resides on top of Bluetooth core specification & (optionally) additional protocols  Example profiles  Hands-Free Profile (HFP)  Basic Printing Profile (BPP)  Audio/Video Remote Control Profile (AVRCP)  File Transfer Profile (FTP)  Human Interface Device Profile (HID)  Personal Area Networking Profile (PAN)  Generic Object Exchange Profile (GOEP)  OBEX 11
  12. 12. Baseband Layer – Bluetooth Piconet  Through master  No slave-to-slave communication  Up to 7 active slaves 255 parked slaves 12 Source: www.techrepublic.com/article/secure- your-bluetooth-wireless-networks-and-protect- your-data/6139987
  13. 13. Baseband Layer – Bluetooth Scatternet  By connecting 2+ piconets 13 Source: www.techrepublic.com/article/secure- your-bluetooth-wireless-networks-and-protect- your-data/6139987
  14. 14. ZigBee  IEEE 802.15.4 covers physical layer & MAC layer of low- rate WPAN  WPAN – Wireless Personal Area Network  Adds network construction, application services, & more on top of IEEE 802.15.4  Star networks, peer-to-peer/mesh networks, & cluster-tree networks  By ZıgBee Alliance  Very low power consumption  long battery life  Low data rate  Low complexity circuits & small size  low cost 14
  15. 15. ZigBee Applications TELECOM SERVICES m-commerce info services object interaction (Internet of Things) ZigBee Wireless Control that Simply Works TV VCR DVD/CD remote security HVAC lighting control access control irrigation PC & PERIPHERALS asset mgt process control environmental energy mgt PERSONAL HEALTH CARE security HVAC AMR lighting control access control patient monitoring fitness monitoring 15Source: ZıgBee Alliance
  16. 16. ZigBee Protocol Stack 16 Source: www.sena.com/products/industrial_zigbee/zigbee_summary.php
  17. 17. IEEE 802.15.4 Devıce Types  Defined by IEEE 802.15.4 (LR-WPAN) 1. Full Functional Device (FFD) 2. Reduced Functional Device (RFD)  FFD can work as a PAN coordinator, as a coordinator, or as a simple device  RFD for applications that don’t need to transmit large volumes of data & have to communicate only with a specific FFD  FFD can communicate with either another FFD or a RFD 17
  18. 18. ZigBee Topologies 18 Source: http://wireless.arcada.fi/MOBWI/material/PAN_5_2.html
  19. 19. ZigBee Topologies (Cont.) 1. Star Topology  Pros  Easy to synchronize  Low latency  Cons  Small scale 2. Mesh/P2P Topology  Pros  Robust multi-hop communication  Multi-path communication  Flexible network  Lower latency  Cons  Route discovery is costly  Needs to store routing table 19
  20. 20. ZigBee Topologies (Cont.) 3. Cluster Tree Topology  Pros  Low routing cost  Multi-hop communication  Scalable  Cons  Route reconstruction is costly  Latency may be quite long  Root not becomes a single point of failure 20
  21. 21. Physical & MAC Layers  2 different services are defined in 802.15.4  Data service  Controls radio – Tx/Rx of PPDUs & MPDUs  Management service  Energy detection in the channel  Clear channel assesment before sending the messages  Link Quality Indication (LQI) for the received packets  If coordinator – Manages network beacons, PAN association & disassociation, frame validation, & acknowledgment  Support device security 21
  22. 22. Traffic-Modes – Device to PAN Coordinator  Beacon mode  Beacon send periodically  Coordinator & end device can go to sleep  Lowest energy consumption  Precise timing needed  Beacon period (ms-min) 22 Source: IEEE 802.15.4 Standard (2006)
  23. 23. Traffic-Modes – Device to PAN Coordinator (Cont.)  Non-Beacon mode  Coordinator/routers have to stay awake  Heterogeneous network  Asymmetric power 23 Source: IEEE 802.15.4 Standard (2006)
  24. 24. Data Transfer From PAN Coordınator 24 Source: IEEE 802.15.4 Standard (2006)
  25. 25. Network Layer  Distributed address assignment  Tree structure or self managed by higher layer  16-bit network space divided among child routers  Child routers divide there space again for their children  Depends on  Maximum child count per parent  Maximum child-routers per parent  Maximum network depth 25
  26. 26. Network Layer (Cont.)  Route discovery  Find or update route between specific source & destination  Started if no active route present in routing table  Broadcast routing request (RREQ) packets  Generates routing table entries for hops to source  Endpoint router responds with Routing response (RREP) packet  Routes generated for hops to destination  Routing table entry generated in source device 26
  27. 27. Route Discovery A B RREQ RREP 1 2 3 4 2 1 5 27
  28. 28. Network Layer (Cont.)  Routing  Check if routing table entry exists  Initiate route discovery if possible  Hierarchical routing as fallback  Route maintenance  Track failed deliveries to neighbors  Initiate route repair when threshold reached  Careful with network load!  In case of total connectivity loss  Orphaning procedure  Re-association with network 28
  29. 29. ZigBee Profiles  Describes a common language for exchanging data  Defines offered services  Device interoperability across different manufacturers  Standard profiles available from the ZigBee Alliance  Profiles contain device descriptions  Unique identifier (licensed by the ZigBee Alliance) 29
  30. 30. Near Field Communication (NFC)  Range <= 10 cm  13.56 MHz  106 – 424 Kbps  Based on magnetic field induction between readers & tags in a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID)  Started in 2004  Nokia, Philips, & Sony  2006 – 1st Nokia phone  2010 – 1st Android 30
  31. 31. NFC Applications 31 Source: http://corp.qliktag.com/nfc-for-business/ • Visa Paywave
  32. 32. Technology 32 Source: http://fppt.com
  33. 33. Modes of Operations  Active Mode  Both devices generate electromagnetic field & exchange data  2 phones  Passive Mode  One active device & other uses that electromagnetic field & exchange data  A phone & RFID tagged poster 33
  34. 34. NFC Protocol Stack 34 Source: http://mwrf.com
  35. 35. NFC Protocol Stack (Cont.) 35
  36. 36. Pros & Cons  Pros  Convenience  Low cost  Low energy consumption  Better security  No search & pair procedure  Less configuration  Cons  Low range  Low data range 36
  37. 37. Low Energy Bluetooth ZigBee NFC Low Power WiFi Frequency (MHz) 2402 – 2482 868 - 868.8, 902 - 928, 2402 – 2482 13.56 2400 - 2500 Channels 3 16 1 3 Modulation GFSK BPSK & QPSK ASK 64QAM Max potential data rate 1 Mbps 250 Kbps 424 Kbps 54 Mbps Range 10m 100+m 10cm 30m Power Profile Days Months/Years Months/Years Hours Complexity Complex Simple Simple Complex Nodes/Master 7 65,000 1+1 Extendibility No Yes No Yes ZigBee, Bluetooth, NFC, vs., WiFi 37
  38. 38. Conclusion  Many other networking technologies exist  Have different features & protocols stacks  They inter-operate with IP in various ways 38

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