Rabies Virus


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Rabies Virus

  1. 1. Rabies Virus MAD DOG
  2. 2. History Rabies was first described over 4000 years ago. A reference from the pre-Mosaic Eshnunna Code  of Babylon stated that “if a dog is mad and the authorities have brought the fact to the knowledge of its owner; if he does not keep it in and it bites a man and causes his death, then the owner shall pay 40 shekels of silver. If it bites a slave and causes his death, he shall pay 15 shekels of silver. Shortly after the discovery of Americas, Bishop Petrus Martyr-Anglerius recorded this summary of  a bizarre incident. Bats came in from the marshes on the river and attack our men with deadly bites. This may have been one of the first descriptions of transmission of rabies by vampire bats. The first incidence of rabies in North America was the Virginia foxes in 1753. Spread to northward  to New England in the 1780s throughout the 19th century.
  3. 3. Headache  Numbness  Fever  Confusion  bite site  Spasm when exposed to water (hydrophobia)  Coma that leads to death 
  4. 4. Taking personal precautions to avoid close contact with animals is the best means of  preventing exposure to the rabies virus. As well, rabies is a vaccine-preventable disease. avoiding direct contact with unfamiliar wild or domestic animals, especially dogs in developing  countries; not handling, feeding, or unintentionally attracting wild animals with open garbage cans or  litter; instructing children to avoid unfamiliar wild or domestic animals, even if they appear friendly;  preventing bats from entering living quarters.  If exposed to a potentially rabid animal:  wash the area or wound thoroughly with soap and water, and  seek medical attention immediately.  Domestic pets may be a risk for rabies exposure. If travelling with a pet:  keep pets' rabies vaccinations up-to-date;  keep pets under tight control to avoid contact with wild and/or other animals. 
  5. 5. TREATMENTS In 1885, Louis Pasteur created the first rabies vaccine by using  desiccated spinal cords from rabies-infected rabbits. He first tested the vaccine on a nine year old boy, who had been bitten multiple times by a rabid dog. The child received a total of 13 inoculations and survived. Pre-exposure vaccination includes three doses given over 1 month.  If an individual is subsequently exposed to rabies, two further doses will be needed. For pet owners rabies vaccinations should be up-to-date. 
  6. 6. Other resources Rabies Outbreak in Angola, Caused by Girl Is First to Survive Rabies Without a Shot Roaming Dogs, Kills 93 Children Wisconsin teenager is the first human ever to survive rabies without vaccination, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said yesterday, after she received a A severe rabies outbreak in Luanda, the capital of desperate and novel type of therapy. Angola, has killed at least 93 children in three Last month, doctors at the Children's Hospital of months, according to the United Nations. Because of a shortage Wisconsin in Wauwatosa, a suburb of Milwaukee, put the of vaccines, doctors were unable to save any of the children critically ill girl into a drug-induced coma and gave her antiviral taken to the city’s main pediatric hospital, the hospital’s drugs, although it is not clear which, if any, of the four medicines contributed to her surprising recovery. chief, Dr. Luis Bernardino, told the United Nations’ Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. In any case, many of For more info the children were brought in too late to save, he added. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/25/national/25rabies.html?_r Rabies deaths in Luanda, where more than four million =3&scp=4&sq=rabies&st=cse people are jammed into vast slums, may actually be much higher; the count was based on one hospital. For more info http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/17/health/17glob.html?scp=2 &sq=rabies&st=cse Books Title: Rabies Author: Thomas E. Kienzle, Ph.D. Published: 2007 Articles taken